Biblical Greek - Lesson 36

ἵστημι, τίθημι, δείκνυμι and Odds 'n Ends

In this lesson, you will gain a deeper understanding of the nuances of Biblical Greek, focusing on specific constructs and their importance in interpreting the text. You will explore different types of conditional sentences, the role of Greek particles, and techniques for parsing and translating difficult passages. By learning these advanced concepts, you will be better equipped to study and interpret the New Testament in its original language.
Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
Lesson 36
Watching Now
ἵστημι, τίθημι, δείκνυμι and Odds 'n Ends

I. Introduction to Odds and Ends in Biblical Greek

A. Purpose and Goals

II. Specific Greek Constructs and Their Importance

A. Conditional Sentences

1. First Class Condition

2. Second Class Condition

3. Third Class Condition

4. Fourth Class Condition

B. Greek Particles

1. Function and Usage

2. Common Particles and Their Meanings

III. Parsing and Translating Difficult Passages

A. Techniques and Approaches

B. Examples and Practice

IV. Review and Conclusion

A. Key Points to Remember

B. Continued Study and Application

Class Resources
Lesson Resources
  • Bill Mounce invites you to join this course on Biblical Greek and learn the language that he believes is not as hard as people make it out to be, and assures that his lectures will hit just the high points of Greek and that there are resources available on his website for deeper understanding.
  • You will gain knowledge and insight into the fundamentals of biblical Greek, including the alphabet and pronunciation, nouns and adjectives, pronouns and verbs, and the importance of further study. You will learn about the declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs in different tenses, such as the present, imperfect, future, and aorist. This lesson provides a comprehensive overview of the basics of biblical Greek, making it accessible to beginners who are just starting to learn.
  • In the Learning Greek lesson, you will tackle memorization, learn about tools to assist you, understand the importance of exercises, and discover the significance of time, consistency, and discipline to enhance your Greek language skills and develop a closer connection with Jesus.
  • In this lesson, you learn the Greek alphabet and its pronunciation, discovering similarities to the English alphabet and mastering special pronunciation rules like gamma nasal, vowels, diphthongs, iota subscript, diuresis, and breathing marks, crucial for Greek language study.
  • You will gain insight into the importance of punctuation and syllabification in Greek, which will help you better understand the meaning and pronunciation of Greek texts.
  • Through this lesson, you will develop a solid foundation in English nouns, their types, functions in sentences, and practical tips for mastery.
  • In this lesson, you grasp the significance of nominative and accusative definite articles in Biblical Greek, exploring their roles in identifying subjects and direct objects, and applying the definite article in context.
  • This lesson equips you with the knowledge to identify and translate the genitive and dative cases in biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding and interpretation of biblical texts.
  • Gain insight into the importance of prepositions in Biblical Greek, explore their different categories and meanings, and learn how they modify verbs, nouns, and adjectives to enhance your understanding of the New Testament's original language.
  • In this lesson, you will learn about adjectives in Biblical Greek, their declension, comparison, and their crucial role in syntax, semantics, interpretation, and translation of Biblical texts.
  • By studying the third declension in Biblical Greek, you gain insight into noun and adjective formations, enhancing your ability to analyze and interpret New Testament texts.
  • You gain knowledge of first and second person personal pronouns in Biblical Greek, learning their forms, usage, and application in translating and interpreting New Testament texts.
  • You will gain a comprehensive understanding of Greek pronouns, focusing on forms and genders, and learn to apply this knowledge to accurately interpret biblical texts.
  • By studying this lesson, you acquire a thorough understanding of demonstrative pronouns and adjectives in Biblical Greek, their forms, syntax, and proper application in New Testament passages.
  • This lesson equips you to comprehend relative pronouns in Biblical Greek and their role in connecting ideas and forming dependent clauses.
  • In this lesson, you gain an in-depth understanding of verbs in Biblical Greek, learning about tenses, voices, and moods, and how to apply this knowledge in biblical exegesis.
  • Master the present active indicative in Biblical Greek to understand the language's structure, form regular and irregular verbs, and accurately translate and interpret the text.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into contract verbs in Biblical Greek, learning to identify and parse them, enabling accurate translation and interpretation of the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson provides a deep understanding of the present middle-passive indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, including their formation, usage, and tips for accurate translation.
  • This lesson provides you with a comprehensive understanding of the future active and middle indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, equipping you with translation techniques and practice exercises to enhance your skillset.
  • Through this lesson, you acquire knowledge of verbal roots and future forms in Biblical Greek, enabling better interpretation of the New Testament by recognizing regular and irregular patterns.
  • This lesson teaches you how to understand and use the imperfect indicative in biblical Greek, offering insights into verb conjugations, context, and translation accuracy.
  • You will gain expertise in Second Aorist Active and Middle Indicative forms in Biblical Greek, their formation, usage, and importance in biblical interpretation.
  • This lesson equips you with knowledge of the First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative in Biblical Greek, covering formation, parsing, and translation techniques while providing examples from the New Testament.
  • By studying this lesson, you learn to identify and translate Aorist and Future Passive Indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, enabling accurate exegesis and interpretation of the New Testament.
  • In this lesson, you acquire knowledge on forming, conjugating, and translating perfect indicative verbs in biblical Greek, with a focus on understanding context and handling irregular verb forms.
  • Through this lesson, you learn about Greek participles, their types, and translation techniques, enhancing your ability to analyze and understand the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson teaches you to identify, translate, and interpret present continuous adverbial participles in Biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding of New Testament exegesis.
  • Gain insights into aorist undefined adverbial participles, their types, and translation techniques to improve your understanding of the Greek text and biblical exegesis.
  • Through this lesson, you master the intricacies of adjectival participles in biblical Greek, including their forms, translation, and syntax, ultimately enhancing your ability to analyze and translate biblical texts.
  • This lesson teaches you the intricacies of perfect participles and genitive absolutes in biblical Greek, enabling you to accurately translate and understand complex grammatical structures.
  • Gain insight into the subjunctive mood in Biblical Greek, understanding its formation, functions, and importance for interpreting the New Testament's nuanced meanings.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to recognize and understand the various roles and functions of infinitives in Biblical Greek, ultimately enhancing your ability to study the biblical text.
  • In this lesson, you learn about the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, its forms and uses, negation, and the subjunctive as an alternative for expressing commands and requests.
  • In this lesson, you learn to understand and apply the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, including its formation, nuances, and its use in exegesis.
  • In this lesson, you gain a deeper understanding of non-indicative forms and conditional sentences, learning to differentiate between subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, and participle forms, as well as first, second, and third class conditional sentences, while expanding your vocabulary.
  • Gain insights into Biblical Greek constructs, conditional sentences, Greek particles, and techniques for parsing and translating complex passages, enhancing your ability to interpret the New Testament.

These lectures will take you through the main points of each chapter in Bill Mounce's Basics of Biblical Greek (3rd edition). These Summary Lectures are also available at billmounce.com, along with other free resources for learning biblical Greek. [The first lecture was originally given in the course Dr. Mounce was teaching at Gordon-Conwell seminary. The syllabus he mentions was for that group of students and is not available.]


BillMounce.com also sells video lectures by Bill Mounce that cover every point in the grammar.

Recommended Books

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

William D. Mounce's "Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar" and its companion tool "Basics of Biblical Greek Workbook" are the best-selling and most widely accepted textbooks for learning New Testament Greek.

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Recommended Books

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

William D. Mounce's "Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar" and its companion tool "Basics of Biblical Greek Workbook" are the best-selling and most widely accepted textbooks for learning New Testament Greek.

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Dr. Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
ἵστημι, τίθημι, δείκνυμι and Odds 'n Ends
Lesson Transcript

[00:00:00] Well, welcome to chapter 35. You made it. Now, in chapter 34. We concentrated on dinner, me, and we concentrated on just the indicative of dinner. Me What we're going to look at in chapter 35. Are the other categories of me. Verbs. You'll see there's very little to learn. And then we're going to look at some of the other forms, some of the other not indicative forms of ditto me. So we're going to kind of piecemeal pick up the rest of the somatic conjugation. Me Verbs are categorized on the basis of the final stem vowel, just like contract verbs. And so what we've looked at are ama cron class me verbs, diddle me diddle diddle si, that kind of stuff. What you're going to find is that the me verbs in the other classes behave just like ditto me does, except for the differences of the vowel. Go one column to the left and look at to say me. To say me is a representative me verb of me. Verbs whose roots end in an epsilon da goes to diddle goes to did or me in in the same way there goes to tit the goes to to say me. I glossed over one little difference. Instead of it being sit there and you can hear the necessary pause to say this. Which is what the Greeks don't like to do. They take the duplicated theta and turn it into a tal. They d'esprit. It is a technical term. So this goes to Tisei. Now that's just a characteristic of stems, beginning with the theta. But you can see, first of all, that teeth Amy is formed from its root pretty much the same way that did Amy is formed from its root. Can you see that you have the added difference that instead of being there with two ish, the first theta goes to a Tao.

[00:02:10] But you just learn that and go on. All right. So where you have did those you get to face? Can you see that's the same thing. You have the lengthened root vowel. Where. And to me it's an armor crown going to an Omega. On Thursday, the Epsilon is going to an ADA, but it's the same thing that's happening to North Face. So if he were to see that, you would see the theta long vowel, you would see the re duplicated with the Tao in the iota. That tells you it's the present tense system and you have the sigma which tells you it's second person singular to say C. Same thing that you have would did or C, right. It's really important that you see it's the same thing that's happening. Otherwise you have to just memorize these things and they're a pain in the neck. Okay. Go all the way over to the left hand column. This again, It's the same thing with a twist. Maybe that's what I should call this chapter. Same thing with the twist. You have the root star. Now the twist is that when the sigma gets re duplicated system, the Greeks don't like to be duplicated sigma and so they swap it with a rough breathing. And so Star goes to his stay. So in a sense, think of that rough breathing as we duplicated Sygma guess what? The rough breathing isn't there. In the other tenses, at least in some of the other tenses, because the rough breathing represents to be duplicated sigma. But again, that's just a peculiarity of the of the root star. But alpha me verbs in and of themselves are pretty straightforward. You have stay me stays Stacey but the re duplication and the rough breathing and all that you get his stay me his days.

[00:04:05] His Stacey. So what you can do on these words is you can go through the rows and see the same thing happening with a little extra twist. The re duplicated sigma goes to a rough reading. The re duplicated theta goes to a tile. Other than that, it's the same thing. And then you can go vertically down the columns and see the same things happening. The economy is the only me verb that you're going to learn. That's a me verb with an epsilon, but it's a it's in the process of wanting to become a somatic verb. In fact, all the me verbs are in the process of shifting over to the regular somatic conjugation, which has some interesting results in the New Testament date. NUMMI is a long way there. In other words, there's no duplication. It has though the same endings. Make new me date, new A's date new C, but there's no re duplication just peculiarity of this particular word. So let me summarize. In his day. Me you had to be duplicated segment becoming a rough breathing in to say Me you have to be duplicated theta becoming a towel and intake new Me You have a verb trying to change his conjugation. Other than that, they're perfectly regular. All right. But it really is. That's how you have to look at these things and what happens and digital me is happening in all the other verbs. The only difference being there's a different stem vowel. Let's look at the plurals. Just so you can see the same thing going on. We've learned. Did women did it. Da da. See, with a new movable. Okay. Swap the door for a thicker. Diaspora to be duplicated. SATA and you get TSM in ticket to AC.

[00:05:59] Same things happening. If you go to the Alpha column, his stem in his start, his star see? Same thing. And then Drake knew me as Drake Newman take knew to take new. I see. See what's going on in these words. If you get did a me firmly in your head if you know the roots of the other me verbs and if you know the peculiarities of a few of those me verbs, then the me verb system falls into place. If you can't see what's happening, you're going to be consigned to simply memorizing these things, which means you'll probably never really learn them unless you teach Greek. Now, let me say one of the things you really need to do with Chapter 35 is read it, start to process it, and then go to the back of the textbook where all the verb paradigms are and just start browsing through the paradigms. Because I'm not exposing you to everything in the paradigms, but if you understand what we've covered, then as you see what these verbs look like in their different forms, they're going to make sense to you. And I can't take the time and class to browse through the paradigms, but you really need to do that. You need to spend the time and asking yourself, If I saw that form, would I recognize it? Okay. We're not asking you. At least I'm not asking you to be able to duplicate these paradigms. But you do need to be able to recognize them. And if you know how many verbs are put together, that's not a big deal. If you came across Dedeaux, what do you know about it? Even if you don't know anything else. But what do you know about that? Well, it has to be a present, doesn't it? Because you have the duplication with the new Yoda and then you have your root.

[00:07:53] And the root is this It ends in this long omega, but you know that it's not a first person singular, present, active, indicative, because that's the lexical form and this is the me verb. So this is a subjunctive. So I think a can be. Now, these are just just to kind of give you a feel for the kind of paradigms you're going to see. Diddle, diddle, diddle, diddle, diddle, diddle. See? Those have to be subjunctive. They can't be anything else. We duplication with in Yoda you're in the present tense system and you have the long vowels swallowing up everything. So the endings look a little different. You're used to an ADA, aren't you? In the second person singular in the subjunctive. Right. Oh, Ace with the nearest subscript. A with the nearer subscript. Right. Well, here, the Omega just swallowed up everything. But if you saw double dose, though, what is it? See why you have to know the roots. You're not much there to hang on to. Well, if you can see that it's a delta and an old class vowel, you know that you have the root of vitamin. You see this? No re duplication. So you're out of the present tense system, and then you see that there's no augment. So, you know, you're out of the indicative system. That has to be an arrest. Subjunctive. This is the kind of thing that you have to go through on these paradigms. And there's no substitute at this point for time. You just have to spend the time going through them. Okay. Let's play a little bit of a guessing game. See how these things fit together to sit. Tell me what you know. It has to be a present tense system. Duplication within Yoda.

[00:09:42] Second person, plural. That's right. So present. Active, indicative. Second person. Plural. From to say me. You put or you place. His stock tie has to be a present because you're the Yoda with the rough breathing. That's the duplicated form of the root star. Third singular. See why you have to know your basic paradigm so well. So what is it? Mental. Passive. It did do. These are getting a little complicated. So if you're struggling, that's okay. Because you have a present stem, don't you? Because you have the re duplication, but you also have you have an augment. So when do you have an argument with the present tense stem? Imperfect, Right. Then all you have to do is figure out what crazy kind of combination. How do you get an arm, a crown? Oops. One when the first vowel is an arm across? Well, there's two ways to contract to get on the crown hoops. One right. It's on Macron arm. Macron or on Macron Epsilon. So the question is, when do you have you never have that. You never have the Macron by itself, but you do have Epsilon as an ending. So the question is, when do you have epsilon as an ending go through your imperfect paradigm? L1 l2 s L2. Yeah, right. So the epsilon is what is used for the third singular in the imperfect. When you get way down into the heart of things, there's some real mystery in the morphology in Greek and what happens in some of the formations, like with contract verbs and evidently with me is that the some of these other things are formed as if the true endings were all A's A In the present on S Yeah, in the imperfect. Now we know that that epsilon is in fact a connecting vowel.

[00:11:42] There's no question about it. But when it comes to me, verb is behaving as if it's the personal ending. See, y you have to be able to put these things together. If you're feeling tentative, that's okay. I mean, this is about as hard as it gets, all right? I mean, I chose hard forms on purpose. Hey, congratulations. I know it's been a long, hard class. That's just the nature of languages. And you all have done really well. So congratulations.