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Biblical Greek - Lesson 11

First and Second Person Personal Pronouns

In this lesson, you delve into the world of first and second person personal pronouns in Biblical Greek, gaining a thorough understanding of their definitions, functions, and categories. You learn the singular and plural forms of both first and second person personal pronouns, accompanied by usage examples to enhance your comprehension. As you progress, you explore the application of these pronouns in translating and interpreting Biblical Greek texts, allowing you to grasp grammatical insights that enrich your understanding of the New Testament.

Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
Lesson 11
Watching Now
First and Second Person Personal Pronouns

I. Introduction to Personal Pronouns

A. Definition and Function

B. Pronoun Categories

II. First Person Personal Pronouns

A. Singular and Plural Forms

B. Usage and Examples

III. Second Person Personal Pronouns

A. Singular and Plural Forms

B. Usage and Examples

IV. Application in Biblical Greek

A. Translation and Interpretation

B. Grammatical Insights


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  • Bill Mounce invites you to join this course on Biblical Greek and learn the language that he believes is not as hard as people make it out to be, and assures that his lectures will hit just the high points of Greek and that there are resources available on his website for deeper understanding.
  • You will gain knowledge and insight into the fundamentals of biblical Greek, including the alphabet and pronunciation, nouns and adjectives, pronouns and verbs, and the importance of further study. You will learn about the declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs in different tenses, such as the present, imperfect, future, and aorist. This lesson provides a comprehensive overview of the basics of biblical Greek, making it accessible to beginners who are just starting to learn.
  • In the Learning Greek lesson, you will tackle memorization, learn about tools to assist you, understand the importance of exercises, and discover the significance of time, consistency, and discipline to enhance your Greek language skills and develop a closer connection with Jesus.
  • In this lesson, you learn the Greek alphabet and its pronunciation, discovering similarities to the English alphabet and mastering special pronunciation rules like gamma nasal, vowels, diphthongs, iota subscript, diuresis, and breathing marks, crucial for Greek language study.
  • You will gain insight into the importance of punctuation and syllabification in Greek, which will help you better understand the meaning and pronunciation of Greek texts.
  • Through this lesson, you will develop a solid foundation in English nouns, their types, functions in sentences, and practical tips for mastery.
  • In this lesson, you grasp the significance of nominative and accusative definite articles in Biblical Greek, exploring their roles in identifying subjects and direct objects, and applying the definite article in context.
  • This lesson equips you with the knowledge to identify and translate the genitive and dative cases in biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding and interpretation of biblical texts.
  • Gain insight into the importance of prepositions in Biblical Greek, explore their different categories and meanings, and learn how they modify verbs, nouns, and adjectives to enhance your understanding of the New Testament's original language.
  • In this lesson, you will learn about adjectives in Biblical Greek, their declension, comparison, and their crucial role in syntax, semantics, interpretation, and translation of Biblical texts.
  • By studying the third declension in Biblical Greek, you gain insight into noun and adjective formations, enhancing your ability to analyze and interpret New Testament texts.
  • You gain knowledge of first and second person personal pronouns in Biblical Greek, learning their forms, usage, and application in translating and interpreting New Testament texts.
  • You will gain a comprehensive understanding of Greek pronouns, focusing on forms and genders, and learn to apply this knowledge to accurately interpret biblical texts.
  • By studying this lesson, you acquire a thorough understanding of demonstrative pronouns and adjectives in Biblical Greek, their forms, syntax, and proper application in New Testament passages.
  • This lesson equips you to comprehend relative pronouns in Biblical Greek and their role in connecting ideas and forming dependent clauses.
  • In this lesson, you gain an in-depth understanding of verbs in Biblical Greek, learning about tenses, voices, and moods, and how to apply this knowledge in biblical exegesis.
  • Master the present active indicative in Biblical Greek to understand the language's structure, form regular and irregular verbs, and accurately translate and interpret the text.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into contract verbs in Biblical Greek, learning to identify and parse them, enabling accurate translation and interpretation of the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson provides a deep understanding of the present middle-passive indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, including their formation, usage, and tips for accurate translation.
  • This lesson provides you with a comprehensive understanding of the future active and middle indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, equipping you with translation techniques and practice exercises to enhance your skillset.
  • Through this lesson, you acquire knowledge of verbal roots and future forms in Biblical Greek, enabling better interpretation of the New Testament by recognizing regular and irregular patterns.
  • This lesson teaches you how to understand and use the imperfect indicative in biblical Greek, offering insights into verb conjugations, context, and translation accuracy.
  • You will gain expertise in Second Aorist Active and Middle Indicative forms in Biblical Greek, their formation, usage, and importance in biblical interpretation.
  • This lesson equips you with knowledge of the First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative in Biblical Greek, covering formation, parsing, and translation techniques while providing examples from the New Testament.
  • By studying this lesson, you learn to identify and translate Aorist and Future Passive Indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, enabling accurate exegesis and interpretation of the New Testament.
  • In this lesson, you acquire knowledge on forming, conjugating, and translating perfect indicative verbs in biblical Greek, with a focus on understanding context and handling irregular verb forms.
  • Through this lesson, you learn about Greek participles, their types, and translation techniques, enhancing your ability to analyze and understand the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson teaches you to identify, translate, and interpret present continuous adverbial participles in Biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding of New Testament exegesis.
  • Gain insights into aorist undefined adverbial participles, their types, and translation techniques to improve your understanding of the Greek text and biblical exegesis.
  • Through this lesson, you master the intricacies of adjectival participles in biblical Greek, including their forms, translation, and syntax, ultimately enhancing your ability to analyze and translate biblical texts.
  • This lesson teaches you the intricacies of perfect participles and genitive absolutes in biblical Greek, enabling you to accurately translate and understand complex grammatical structures.
  • Gain insight into the subjunctive mood in Biblical Greek, understanding its formation, functions, and importance for interpreting the New Testament's nuanced meanings.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to recognize and understand the various roles and functions of infinitives in Biblical Greek, ultimately enhancing your ability to study the biblical text.
  • In this lesson, you learn about the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, its forms and uses, negation, and the subjunctive as an alternative for expressing commands and requests.
  • In this lesson, you learn to understand and apply the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, including its formation, nuances, and its use in exegesis.
  • In this lesson, you gain a deeper understanding of non-indicative forms and conditional sentences, learning to differentiate between subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, and participle forms, as well as first, second, and third class conditional sentences, while expanding your vocabulary.
  • Gain insights into Biblical Greek constructs, conditional sentences, Greek particles, and techniques for parsing and translating complex passages, enhancing your ability to interpret the New Testament.

These lectures will take you through the main points of each chapter in Bill Mounce's Basics of Biblical Greek (3rd edition). These Summary Lectures are also available at billmounce.com, along with other free resources for learning biblical Greek. [The first lecture was originally given in the course Dr. Mounce was teaching at Gordon-Conwell seminary. The syllabus he mentions was for that group of students and is not available.]

 

BillMounce.com also sells video lectures by Bill Mounce that cover every point in the grammar.

Recommended Books

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

William D. Mounce's "Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar" and its companion tool "Basics of Biblical Greek Workbook" are the best-selling and most widely accepted textbooks for learning New Testament Greek.

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Recommended Books

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

William D. Mounce's "Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar" and its companion tool "Basics of Biblical Greek Workbook" are the best-selling and most widely accepted textbooks for learning New Testament Greek.

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Dr. Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
NT201-11
First and Second Person Personal Pronouns
Lesson Transcript

[00:00:01] In Chapter 11. We're going to look at first and second person personal pronouns, and then I've got a few things I need to add about third declension nouns. Actually, you're going to find that the next four chapters are a little easier than the previous four That was done on purpose, that you've been over the hump. You've gotten through most of the really difficult stuff in the noun system. And so we're going to have a little time for this stuff to sink in and enjoy it. You laugh, but I say enjoy. First and second person. Personal Pronouns. A pronoun is a word that stands for another noun. In the sentence. It is red. It is a pronoun. But in this chapter we're also learning personal pronouns. In other words, we're learning pronouns that stand for personal objects. So if you say I am Bill, I stands for Bill, and so is a personal pronoun. And the word that the pronoun stands for is called its antecedent. Actually a lot of this stuff we've already had, right? You already know it. Go and sue it. Go is the nominative singular form of the first person singular pronoun. I sue is the nominative singular second person meaning you. And we've actually learned the genitive of ego. Haven't we? Move and move. I scattered those throughout earlier chapters to help get you better verses to translate, but it also kind of prepares you for this chapter. So this is mostly old house stuff. Personal pronouns have person and again, we've seen that with Amy already. There are three persons first, second and third. And in this chapter, we're going to learn the pronouns for first and second I. And in its inflected forms, my me, you, second person. And then in the plural as well.

[00:02:14] But we've already seen person when it comes to verbs. There's actually very little grammar that you need to learn on the personal pronouns, and it's pretty much just common sense. How do you think a personal pronoun is going to determine its case? In other words, when are you going to have a go? When are you going to have move here? Right. In the case of a personal pronoun, is determined by its function. In other words, the personal pronoun is functioning as a subject to be in the nominative. If a personal pronoun is functioning as a direct object, it'll be an accusative. So that's pretty straightforward. How does a personal pronoun determine its number? Yeah. Yeah. Whether there's one or more. Right. So if there's one, you say ago, I. If there's more than one there, you use the first person plural. Okay, That's pretty straightforward. Now, how does a personal pronoun determine its gender? Now, think before you answer. Yeah, right. Yeah. Just like in English in the first and second person. Personal pronouns. There is no gender. I is I A goal is a goal. Whether it's a man or a woman speaking, there's no difference. Now, in the next chapter, when we learn third person pronouns, I'll toss. Then we will see gender. But for the first and second, for a girl and for Sue, there is no gender. So the forms of the first and second person personal pronouns are very straightforward. Case determined by function number determined by what it stands for. In terms of the forums of the first and second person personal pronouns. These are paradigms you just have to memorize. There are going to be some similarities with the key settings you already know, but for the most part you just need to commit these to memory.

[00:04:03] There are common, there are all over the place and so the first person is a go when it's in the genitive, it's move, which we already know in the dative it's moy, there's your Yoda and in the accused of its myth. You notice in the second person how similar it is. Sue. Sue. So I set. When you get into the plural, it's. Hey, Mace. And who? Mace? The difference is only the first letter. And he makes him on he mean he mass and then exactly the same in the second person except that it starts with an epsilon and not an ETA. So you can see the similarities, but you still need to memorize these paradigms. In chapter ten, we learned the basics of the third declension. There are a few of the things we need to learn about Third declension stems though, but by way of review, what are the case endings that we've learned for the third declension they go. Sigma, I'm Akron, Sigma, Iota and Alpha. And then in the plural we learned Epsilon Sigma orn and in the dead of plural, we just swap the yadda sigma and we get sigma yadda. Then the accusative plural. The case ending is a four sigma. Okay, good. So those are the endings that we've learned. We also learn the square stops rate. And the significance of that is, for example, it doesn't matter whether a stem ends in a TAL or a delta because they're both gentles. Both stems are going to behave the same way. Right. Okay. But what you're going to see in this chapter are the benefits of learning those rules. And, of course, there were a few other rules that we learned as well. But let's go ahead and take stems that end in a dental and let's see what happens to them in the third declension.

[00:06:09] There's a root. Correct. Ends in a tower. Dental means grace. And in the nominative singular. You take your normal case, sending you stick a sigma onto the stem. But what happens when a tower is followed by a sigma? Right. The title drops out and so far it goes to Chris. So it's the same case ending as in Lagos. The same case ending as in Sparks. It's just that the Tao and the Sigma have interacted differently. And so the title drops off. But it's the same case ending. That's what I want you to see. So as you go through the paradigm is Chris and then in the genitive, as you would expect, Caritas. In the dative clarity. No surprises in the accusative singular character. Okay. Absolutely. Regular. Right. Let's go on to the plural characters with an upsilon sigma, genitive as written, and then in the data, plural. What's happened here? Yeah. Whatever happens in the nominative, singular is going to happen in the dead of plural because both case endings begin with a sigma. The tail drops off and you get currency with a new movable. Very good. And finally, in the accusative, plural characters. Okay, As you look at the paradigm, here's what's important. There's nothing new here. Yes, Corris is a little different from SA X, which is a little different from Lagos, but not really. It's the same case sending the signals, just interacting with the preceding consonant. Okay, let's take another stem that ends in a dental will be a tau again. But look at the paradigm of force and tell me what's different about this. Yeah, the nominative and the accusative are identical. How come? Right. False is a neuter word. And so the nominative and the accusative are going to be the same.

[00:08:14] Very good. Okay, let's switch over from Taos to Delta's. We're still in dental stems, but that just means they're going to act the same way. It's not that a towel drops out before a sigma. It's that a dental drops out before a sigma. So you have the root lipid. The dental drops off before the sigma you get l piss. Elpida us Elpida elpida elpida s elpida on dental drops out again. LPC and Elpida us. Okay. Absolutely regular. That's what I want you to see. This is not scary. This is not something all so different. It's just a couple of more rules and a couple of new endings. All right, Very good. There's just three other patterns I want to look at. The first has to do with what's called a continental era. Now, constantly, Yoda is a character that used to be in the Greek alphabet. It's dropped out many years before the time of Koine Greek. But the fact that it used to be there explains many changes in Greek. And words like pistons are great examples of constantly Yoda. When that constantly Yoda dropped out, it turned into either an Yoda or an epsilon. So in an hour of singular pastis, Betty Yoda is the old constantly Yoda. Okay, no big deal. Go to the genitive singular pistachios. He has seen other constantly. Yoda is an epsilon. How come? Because it turned to an epsilon when the case ending began with a vowel. It turned into a Yoda. When the case ending begins with a consonant. Now the only exception to that is in the data of plural, where it's pista C and perhaps the rule is it's an epsilon, always in the plural. But when you see Pista and you go to pistachio, the fact that one has an Yoda and one has an epsilon shouldn't cause you any trouble.

[00:10:15] In fact, I just tend to think of that as a constantly Yoda and I go Yoda, Epsilon, whatever. I'm pretty laid back on that. What about the ending pistachios? Are the omegas just a length? And I'm a cron, so I see also an ass pretty much does the same thing. I mean, that's just the way I think about it. So you have pissed pistachios and then the date of singular pissed day. Here's your epsilon, the ol constantly Yoda and the Yoda, the date of singular. And then you have piston. Now a new is one of the alternate accusative singular case endings. Either alpha or new in the case of stems that ended in a console in the Yoda. It's a new. So there's a new ending you may want to mark. What about the nominative? Plural. Something difference going on here? Actually, what you have is the epsilon of the stem, and you have the normal Epsilon sigma num two plural case sending. But the two epsilon have joined together and have formed enough similar Yoda. We're going to learn more about this skull contraction later on. But it is still actually the same ending. Just think of the epsilon, the Yoda as the contracted epsilon, the Yoda. And then that shouldn't cost too much trouble. But then in the genitive, it's on. Piss to see. And then look what's going on in the accusative, plural. Why do you think it goes to Pastis? You know, that's a very good guess. It does look like a neuter, doesn't it? Except in the singular, the nominative and accusative aren't the same. I call these stems neuter one of these. This word isn't neuter, but the nominative and the accusative plurals of constantly odors are identical. You know, just another little quirk you have to remember about constantly your stems.

[00:12:06] So those are constantly your stems. Real quickly, there's just two other patterns of words that I want you to be aware of. There's whatever kind of words matter on there are all declined the same way. These are the words for father, mother and man. You see in the nominative, singular is part terror with an ETA. And then in the genitive and dative singular, there's no vowel. Then in the accusative singular, you get an epsilon back, a shortened eta, in other words. And then in the plural you have epsilon Epsilon and the date of plural you have nothing, but you have an alpha after the role and the accused it of plural. The epsilon is back. What's going on? Well, this is what's called about vowels can change their length too long, like an ETA or short, like an epsilon or drop out altogether. Now, it may be easy, as if you just want to memorize this. But really, if you remember that there can be different vowels or no vowel at all between the tone, the row, the rest of the pattern is pretty straightforward, and the data of plural in alpha was added for the sake of pronunciation, you can't really say C. So they go to Petrus. And finally, who? D'oh! The root actually ends in a row, but others are in the nominative, in the accusative singular. It behaves as if the root ends in a tile, doesn't it? And in that case, it's perfectly regular. So if you memorize who dor who to toss. So if you drop the macro and sigma, you have, for all practical purposes, the root of the word huddart and everything else is regular, but it's a neutral word. So the non-material accusative are going to be the same and you have a row instead of a tile may just want to memorize that.

[00:13:56] What I would recommend you doing is going through all these paradigms and initially making sure you understand why they're doing what they're doing. Now in a couple of these, if you want to commit them to memory, okay, just remember you're adding to the amount of review you're going to have to do on a regular basis.