Biblical Greek - Lesson 34

μι Verbs (Active Indicative of δίδωμι)

In this lesson, you gain a thorough understanding of the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, its formation, and its nuances. You learn how to form present and aorist imperatives in both active and middle/passive voices. Furthermore, you explore the various ways imperatives are used to convey commands, prohibitions, intensification, and softening. Finally, you learn to apply this knowledge in exegesis, considering the context and identifying imperatives in the biblical text.


Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
Lesson 34
Watching Now
μι Verbs (Active Indicative of δίδωμι)

I. Introduction to the Imperative Mood

A. Definition and Use

B. Importance in Biblical Greek

II. Formation of Imperatives

A. Present Imperative

1. Active Voice

2. Middle/Passive Voice

B. Aorist Imperative

1. Active Voice

2. Middle/Passive Voice

III. Nuances of the Imperative Mood

A. Commands and Prohibitions

B. Intensification and Softening

IV. Applying Imperatives in Exegesis

A. Contextual Considerations

B. Identifying Imperatives in Text

  • Bill Mounce invites you to join this course on Biblical Greek and learn the language that he believes is not as hard as people make it out to be, and assures that his lectures will hit just the high points of Greek and that there are resources available on his website for deeper understanding.
  • You will gain knowledge and insight into the fundamentals of biblical Greek, including the alphabet and pronunciation, nouns and adjectives, pronouns and verbs, and the importance of further study. You will learn about the declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs in different tenses, such as the present, imperfect, future, and aorist. This lesson provides a comprehensive overview of the basics of biblical Greek, making it accessible to beginners who are just starting to learn.
  • In the Learning Greek lesson, you will tackle memorization, learn about tools to assist you, understand the importance of exercises, and discover the significance of time, consistency, and discipline to enhance your Greek language skills and develop a closer connection with Jesus.
  • In this lesson, you learn the Greek alphabet and its pronunciation, discovering similarities to the English alphabet and mastering special pronunciation rules like gamma nasal, vowels, diphthongs, iota subscript, diuresis, and breathing marks, crucial for Greek language study.
  • You will gain insight into the importance of punctuation and syllabification in Greek, which will help you better understand the meaning and pronunciation of Greek texts.
  • Through this lesson, you will develop a solid foundation in English nouns, their types, functions in sentences, and practical tips for mastery.
  • In this lesson, you grasp the significance of nominative and accusative definite articles in Biblical Greek, exploring their roles in identifying subjects and direct objects, and applying the definite article in context.
  • This lesson equips you with the knowledge to identify and translate the genitive and dative cases in biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding and interpretation of biblical texts.
  • Gain insight into the importance of prepositions in Biblical Greek, explore their different categories and meanings, and learn how they modify verbs, nouns, and adjectives to enhance your understanding of the New Testament's original language.
  • In this lesson, you will learn about adjectives in Biblical Greek, their declension, comparison, and their crucial role in syntax, semantics, interpretation, and translation of Biblical texts.
  • By studying the third declension in Biblical Greek, you gain insight into noun and adjective formations, enhancing your ability to analyze and interpret New Testament texts.
  • You gain knowledge of first and second person personal pronouns in Biblical Greek, learning their forms, usage, and application in translating and interpreting New Testament texts.
  • You will gain a comprehensive understanding of Greek pronouns, focusing on forms and genders, and learn to apply this knowledge to accurately interpret biblical texts.
  • By studying this lesson, you acquire a thorough understanding of demonstrative pronouns and adjectives in Biblical Greek, their forms, syntax, and proper application in New Testament passages.
  • This lesson equips you to comprehend relative pronouns in Biblical Greek and their role in connecting ideas and forming dependent clauses.
  • In this lesson, you gain an in-depth understanding of verbs in Biblical Greek, learning about tenses, voices, and moods, and how to apply this knowledge in biblical exegesis.
  • Master the present active indicative in Biblical Greek to understand the language's structure, form regular and irregular verbs, and accurately translate and interpret the text.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into contract verbs in Biblical Greek, learning to identify and parse them, enabling accurate translation and interpretation of the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson provides a deep understanding of the present middle-passive indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, including their formation, usage, and tips for accurate translation.
  • This lesson provides you with a comprehensive understanding of the future active and middle indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, equipping you with translation techniques and practice exercises to enhance your skillset.
  • Through this lesson, you acquire knowledge of verbal roots and future forms in Biblical Greek, enabling better interpretation of the New Testament by recognizing regular and irregular patterns.
  • This lesson teaches you how to understand and use the imperfect indicative in biblical Greek, offering insights into verb conjugations, context, and translation accuracy.
  • You will gain expertise in Second Aorist Active and Middle Indicative forms in Biblical Greek, their formation, usage, and importance in biblical interpretation.
  • This lesson equips you with knowledge of the First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative in Biblical Greek, covering formation, parsing, and translation techniques while providing examples from the New Testament.
  • By studying this lesson, you learn to identify and translate Aorist and Future Passive Indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, enabling accurate exegesis and interpretation of the New Testament.
  • In this lesson, you acquire knowledge on forming, conjugating, and translating perfect indicative verbs in biblical Greek, with a focus on understanding context and handling irregular verb forms.
  • Through this lesson, you learn about Greek participles, their types, and translation techniques, enhancing your ability to analyze and understand the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson teaches you to identify, translate, and interpret present continuous adverbial participles in Biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding of New Testament exegesis.
  • Gain insights into aorist undefined adverbial participles, their types, and translation techniques to improve your understanding of the Greek text and biblical exegesis.
  • Through this lesson, you master the intricacies of adjectival participles in biblical Greek, including their forms, translation, and syntax, ultimately enhancing your ability to analyze and translate biblical texts.
  • This lesson teaches you the intricacies of perfect participles and genitive absolutes in biblical Greek, enabling you to accurately translate and understand complex grammatical structures.
  • Gain insight into the subjunctive mood in Biblical Greek, understanding its formation, functions, and importance for interpreting the New Testament's nuanced meanings.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to recognize and understand the various roles and functions of infinitives in Biblical Greek, ultimately enhancing your ability to study the biblical text.
  • In this lesson, you learn about the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, its forms and uses, negation, and the subjunctive as an alternative for expressing commands and requests.
  • In this lesson, you learn to understand and apply the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, including its formation, nuances, and its use in exegesis.
  • In this lesson, you gain a deeper understanding of non-indicative forms and conditional sentences, learning to differentiate between subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, and participle forms, as well as first, second, and third class conditional sentences, while expanding your vocabulary.
  • Gain insights into Biblical Greek constructs, conditional sentences, Greek particles, and techniques for parsing and translating complex passages, enhancing your ability to interpret the New Testament.

These lectures will take you through the main points of each chapter in Bill Mounce's Basics of Biblical Greek (3rd edition). These Summary Lectures are also available at billmounce.com, along with other free resources for learning biblical Greek. [The first lecture was originally given in the course Dr. Mounce was teaching at Gordon-Conwell seminary. The syllabus he mentions was for that group of students and is not available.]


BillMounce.com also sells video lectures by Bill Mounce that cover every point in the grammar.

Recommended Books

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

William D. Mounce's "Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar" and its companion tool "Basics of Biblical Greek Workbook" are the best-selling and most widely accepted textbooks for learning New Testament Greek.
Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Dr. Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
μι Verbs (Active Indicative of δίδωμι)
Lesson Transcript

[00:00:00] Well, welcome to chapter 34. There's two more to go. Got to have a countdown on these things. You know, as I said last time, we're all done with tenses. We're all done with moods. We're all done with cases. Virtually don't vocabulary only about, I don't know, ten, 15 more words to learn. So in a sense, your Greek is set except for one little thing. A little thing called me verbs, and I've split me verbs into two chapters. So we're going to be introduced to them and we're going to look at one of them in the indicative in this chapter and the rest of them in the last chapter in the textbook. Basically, the verbal system that you've learned so far has a name. It's called the somatic conjugation. In other words, we've learned how Greek uses words with connecting vowels, thematic vowels, connecting vowels to different words for the same thing. I know the way to say it is that the verbs that we've learned so far have lexical forms in Omega or in omega, if they're deponent. Right. There actually is a second conjugation. Called the me conjugation. Now, don't panic. It's not like you've only learned half the verbs. And now you have to learn the same amount of verbal forms all over again. The ME conjugation is not that different. There are a few differences, and unfortunately, you meet those differences in the present active. So when you first start seeing these forms, they look so radically different. You go, Oh, I got another 300 some odd forms to memorize. No, you don't. There are going to be some differences, and most of those differences are in the present active. But since you've been learning how verbs get put together, then what you're going to see is that me? Verbs in the present active for the most part, just get put together a little differently, but it's still pretty much the same bits and pieces.

[00:02:04] So all that to say is there are two conjugations in Greek. There's the somatic conjugation that uses a theme vowel or connecting vowel, and there's the mathematic, the conjugation that doesn't use a connecting vowel and the lexical forms in mew era. So let's look at a couple of forms and you'll see that it's not that big of a deal. There's a verb called Diddle Me. You see it in the header on the slide. Ditto me. It means I give. And although you may not see it immediately, the stem is dark delta with an old class vowel, either an American or an omega. Okay, so the root dor means I give and let's look at these forms. It's obviously a me verb is lexical form is ditto mean. But just to show you that it's not that different, especially outside the present active dosage to What's that? Right now I'm hearing a whisper whispered. It has to be a future, right? You have the stem. You have the sigma, a connecting vowel in a test. So that's a second person plural future active, indicative. You will give perfectly regular, isn't it? That doctor? Right. Second person, plural. Perfect. No big deal. Re duplication with an epsilon your car transformative normal endings. No big deals. Don't come in. Hmm. Something's a little different there. But what can you tell me for sure that you know about a document? Okay. It's a first person, plural. Same ending. It's got an argument I heard someone say. So it's an arrest list. Assumption is that it's an arrest. What's odd about the form? As a Kappa Kappa were a sigma, you would know it's a nervous. Okay, this is one of the five rules on me verbs. Most mi verbs have what are called kappa errors.

[00:04:11] In other words, instead of using saw, they use car in the arrest. But that's not a big deal. Why? Why are you not going to confuse that with the perfect good document? It looks like an arrest. It is an arrest. Me. Verbs use Kappa Eris. Not going to be confused with the perfect because there's no duplication. Did a mean. Yeah, this will be a little harder. Except that, you know, the lexical form is due to me. Guess what happens to me? Verbs in the present? Only in the present. They re duplicate their initial letter as if it's a perfect. But that re duplicated letter is separated with an iota, not an epsilon. So when you see the lexical form, in other words, with the re duplication with the new Yoda, you know, you're in the present tense system. Notice something else happened. Near the vowels shortened, didn't it? It's been dull elsewhere, even in the present. Active. Singular did dull me, but in the present. Active. Plural. It shortens. Now, some people have you memorized when these vowels are going to be long and when they're going to be short? I really don't care. I just know that the route for I give ends in either al-Muqrin or Omega. And there's always enough clues elsewhere in the world to tell me what it is. So I don't really care. Whether it's an omega or an arm across an old class valve determine has to be present. It did, Deuce. It's a little trickier, but you have to indications what tenses up. And it's imperfect, isn't it? You have the did you have the duplication with the new Yoda? So, you know, you're in the present tense system, but you have an augment. So it has to be imperfect.

[00:06:17] And sigma's your second person singular ending. And there's been a contraction. So there's your imperfect. Okay. So there are a few things that are different here, aren't there? In the Eris, you have Kappa Eris in the present, you have re duplication within the Yoda, you have fluctuating vowels in terms of their length. But those are all things you can handle and recognize that most of the oddities occur in the present active. Outside of that part of the system. These things are very easy to recognize if you know the route. And that's the key. If you saw the dock at. If you don't know the route is you're not going to figure out what that is. So as you've been doing this, all the other verbs, it's really important in me verbs to learn not only the lexical form but its root. If you do that, these things are pretty straightforward. You know, that's a lot for one slide, but that's almost everything that's in the chapter. All right. Let me just run through quickly the five rules. There's only really one more thing you have to learn. Let me run through the five rules just so you can see how these things work. Rule one on me verbs is that they re duplicate in the present with New Yorker. The root is de. It read duplicates with the new Yoda. Only in the present system did dah and you end up with did or me. What that means outside. Like in the future. Outside the present system, everything is regular. As long as you've learned that all the different tenses are formed from the root, not from the present tense stem. And again, the really important thing here is to learn the roots. Rule two verbs in the mathematic conjugation or me.

[00:08:06] Verbs don't have a connecting vowel. They don't have a connecting vowel because the roots all end in a vowel. So you may not notice right up front that there's no connecting vowel because the final stem vowel for that's where the name of the conjugation comes from. You know, Greek puts an alpha in front of a word to negate it. Call now for. So thematic mathematics. No big deal, though. Okay. Here's the only other additional thing that you will need to memorize. Rule three is that me? Verbs used some alternate personal endings in the present active. Outside of the present active system. It's all blissfully regular, and you can see and read the three new endings. Now, they're not that hard to learn because in the first person singular, you'll memorize the lexical forms, as did me. So if you see the mute Yoda, you know it's first person singular. That's no big deal. Then you have Dido's second singular dead, or C with the new movable. That's the one you have to be careful of because you may think that this is a third plural or some sort of dative or something, but the sigma e older with the new movable is the one ending. Third thing that you'll have to learn. And if you notice Greek verbs really like third singular, a lot of them and you get to the plural did them in, you see the vowels shortens but big deal did it to the does with a new movable. That's your other new ending. But you've already seen that in the perfect system, haven't you, Cassie? So the Alpha sigma Yoda is not brand new for you. So there are three new endings. It's the third single that you have to really be careful to learn.

[00:09:45] Me verbs are unbelievably regular. Problem is that if you get exposed to the present active where most of the changes are, and if you're used to thinking of the other tenses as being formed from the present tense and not from the root, these things are miserable to learn. But if you go from the root, the regular that vowels are going to be there. And the root is always, almost always clearly visible in the present tense system. Rule number four is the stem vowel changes. The length, as far as I'm concerned, is not a big deal, long or short. I don't care what it is, but that vowel will fluctuate. And rule number five most MI verbs used kappa eris, but again, there's not going to be a re duplication. And so these things shouldn't be a problem in terms of the endings. They're all blissfully regular. What that means now, though, is that when you see the Kappa. You can't automatically assume it's a perfect. You've got to look at the root, look for duplication. Okay. Now that you've seen the rules, just real quickly, again, let's look at a couple of forms just to get it into your head. Those some in tense future. Right there, the delta, all class vowel sigma. No problems. You had a regular future. It did. A to what? Tense but imperfect. You have an augment and a re duplication within the yadda. It can't be anything else. Ed Duncan Eris augment Kappa arrest did those present re duplication within the yadda and dead or can. Perfect. We duplicate and perfect. We duplication with an epsilon. And there's the kappa in the perfect. You can do it. Five rules. But see, this is why we took the little harder route at the beginning of the book instead of just so I'll just memorize the paradigm. It's why I've been pushing you so hard to know how these things go together. If you weren't used to doing that and we move verbs, you have 330 more forms to memorize. All right. You're welcome.