Biblical Greek - Lesson 23

First Aorist Active/Middle Indicative

In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of the First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative in Biblical Greek. You will learn about the definition, function, and importance of these verb forms in the context of the New Testament. The lesson covers the formation of the First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative, providing examples from the New Testament and explaining the differences between regular and irregular forms. Additionally, you will learn how to parse these verb forms by identifying stems and understanding conjugation patterns. Finally, the lesson explores techniques for accurately translating the First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative, and demonstrates their application in Biblical interpretation.

Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
Lesson 23
Watching Now
First Aorist Active/Middle Indicative

I. Introduction to First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative

A. Definition and Function

B. Importance in Biblical Greek

II. Formation of First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative

A. Regular and Irregular Forms

B. Examples from the New Testament

III. Parsing First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative

A. Identifying Stems

B. Conjugation Patterns

IV. Translating First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative

A. Techniques for Accurate Translation

B. Application in Biblical Interpretation

  • Bill Mounce invites you to join this course on Biblical Greek and learn the language that he believes is not as hard as people make it out to be, and assures that his lectures will hit just the high points of Greek and that there are resources available on his website for deeper understanding.
  • You will gain knowledge and insight into the fundamentals of biblical Greek, including the alphabet and pronunciation, nouns and adjectives, pronouns and verbs, and the importance of further study. You will learn about the declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs in different tenses, such as the present, imperfect, future, and aorist. This lesson provides a comprehensive overview of the basics of biblical Greek, making it accessible to beginners who are just starting to learn.
  • In the Learning Greek lesson, you will tackle memorization, learn about tools to assist you, understand the importance of exercises, and discover the significance of time, consistency, and discipline to enhance your Greek language skills and develop a closer connection with Jesus.
  • In this lesson, you learn the Greek alphabet and its pronunciation, discovering similarities to the English alphabet and mastering special pronunciation rules like gamma nasal, vowels, diphthongs, iota subscript, diuresis, and breathing marks, crucial for Greek language study.
  • You will gain insight into the importance of punctuation and syllabification in Greek, which will help you better understand the meaning and pronunciation of Greek texts.
  • Through this lesson, you will develop a solid foundation in English nouns, their types, functions in sentences, and practical tips for mastery.
  • In this lesson, you grasp the significance of nominative and accusative definite articles in Biblical Greek, exploring their roles in identifying subjects and direct objects, and applying the definite article in context.
  • This lesson equips you with the knowledge to identify and translate the genitive and dative cases in biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding and interpretation of biblical texts.
  • Gain insight into the importance of prepositions in Biblical Greek, explore their different categories and meanings, and learn how they modify verbs, nouns, and adjectives to enhance your understanding of the New Testament's original language.
  • In this lesson, you will learn about adjectives in Biblical Greek, their declension, comparison, and their crucial role in syntax, semantics, interpretation, and translation of Biblical texts.
  • By studying the third declension in Biblical Greek, you gain insight into noun and adjective formations, enhancing your ability to analyze and interpret New Testament texts.
  • You gain knowledge of first and second person personal pronouns in Biblical Greek, learning their forms, usage, and application in translating and interpreting New Testament texts.
  • You will gain a comprehensive understanding of Greek pronouns, focusing on forms and genders, and learn to apply this knowledge to accurately interpret biblical texts.
  • By studying this lesson, you acquire a thorough understanding of demonstrative pronouns and adjectives in Biblical Greek, their forms, syntax, and proper application in New Testament passages.
  • This lesson equips you to comprehend relative pronouns in Biblical Greek and their role in connecting ideas and forming dependent clauses.
  • In this lesson, you gain an in-depth understanding of verbs in Biblical Greek, learning about tenses, voices, and moods, and how to apply this knowledge in biblical exegesis.
  • Master the present active indicative in Biblical Greek to understand the language's structure, form regular and irregular verbs, and accurately translate and interpret the text.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into contract verbs in Biblical Greek, learning to identify and parse them, enabling accurate translation and interpretation of the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson provides a deep understanding of the present middle-passive indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, including their formation, usage, and tips for accurate translation.
  • This lesson provides you with a comprehensive understanding of the future active and middle indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, equipping you with translation techniques and practice exercises to enhance your skillset.
  • Through this lesson, you acquire knowledge of verbal roots and future forms in Biblical Greek, enabling better interpretation of the New Testament by recognizing regular and irregular patterns.
  • This lesson teaches you how to understand and use the imperfect indicative in biblical Greek, offering insights into verb conjugations, context, and translation accuracy.
  • You will gain expertise in Second Aorist Active and Middle Indicative forms in Biblical Greek, their formation, usage, and importance in biblical interpretation.
  • This lesson equips you with knowledge of the First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative in Biblical Greek, covering formation, parsing, and translation techniques while providing examples from the New Testament.
  • By studying this lesson, you learn to identify and translate Aorist and Future Passive Indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, enabling accurate exegesis and interpretation of the New Testament.
  • In this lesson, you acquire knowledge on forming, conjugating, and translating perfect indicative verbs in biblical Greek, with a focus on understanding context and handling irregular verb forms.
  • Through this lesson, you learn about Greek participles, their types, and translation techniques, enhancing your ability to analyze and understand the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson teaches you to identify, translate, and interpret present continuous adverbial participles in Biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding of New Testament exegesis.
  • Gain insights into aorist undefined adverbial participles, their types, and translation techniques to improve your understanding of the Greek text and biblical exegesis.
  • Through this lesson, you master the intricacies of adjectival participles in biblical Greek, including their forms, translation, and syntax, ultimately enhancing your ability to analyze and translate biblical texts.
  • This lesson teaches you the intricacies of perfect participles and genitive absolutes in biblical Greek, enabling you to accurately translate and understand complex grammatical structures.
  • Gain insight into the subjunctive mood in Biblical Greek, understanding its formation, functions, and importance for interpreting the New Testament's nuanced meanings.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to recognize and understand the various roles and functions of infinitives in Biblical Greek, ultimately enhancing your ability to study the biblical text.
  • In this lesson, you learn about the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, its forms and uses, negation, and the subjunctive as an alternative for expressing commands and requests.
  • In this lesson, you learn to understand and apply the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, including its formation, nuances, and its use in exegesis.
  • In this lesson, you gain a deeper understanding of non-indicative forms and conditional sentences, learning to differentiate between subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, and participle forms, as well as first, second, and third class conditional sentences, while expanding your vocabulary.
  • Gain insights into Biblical Greek constructs, conditional sentences, Greek particles, and techniques for parsing and translating complex passages, enhancing your ability to interpret the New Testament.

These lectures will take you through the main points of each chapter in Bill Mounce's Basics of Biblical Greek (3rd edition). These Summary Lectures are also available at billmounce.com, along with other free resources for learning biblical Greek. [The first lecture was originally given in the course Dr. Mounce was teaching at Gordon-Conwell seminary. The syllabus he mentions was for that group of students and is not available.]


BillMounce.com also sells video lectures by Bill Mounce that cover every point in the grammar.

Recommended Books

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

William D. Mounce's "Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar" and its companion tool "Basics of Biblical Greek Workbook" are the best-selling and most widely accepted textbooks for learning New Testament Greek.
Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Dr. Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
First Aorist Active/Middle Indicative
Lesson Transcript

[00:00:00] Well, good morning and welcome to chapter 23, Chapter 23. We're going to look at the other side of the coin from chapter 22. In other words, last chapter, we looked at second areas, and in this chapter we're going to look at first eras. So there's nothing new in terms of meaning. There's nothing new in terms of how you translate. The first, first and second errors are translated exactly the same. The only difference is that a form. Okay, so we just have some form differences to learn. How do you form the first error active? Well, that's very simple. You have an augment, you have your iris active tense STEM and you have a tense formative. Now, the tense formative in the future is sigma. The tense formative in the arrest is Sigma Alpha. And then you add, because it's an augmented tense, you have the secondary active personal endings. Now you notice what's not there, right? There's no connecting file. You don't need one because the tense formative ends in a vowel. So you have sigma Alpha. And so, for example, if you have the form lool, you have the epsilon for the augment the arrows, active tense stem, the tense, formative saw. And in this case, the first person plural ending men. And you get a loose some men. And what you'll find is that when you see a first Eris that Sigma Alpha is just going to start blinking at you. At least it should. That's the biggest indicator that you're in an Eris tense. Now, let me say something about the Eris active tense stem. When it's a first Eris we saw in second Eris that the verbal root comes unchanged into the arrest and yet the verbal root is changed when it goes into the present.

[00:01:56] In other words, if you have a second arrest, the second Eris ten STEM will always be different from the present tense stem, right in first arrests. You have what is generally called the regular. Although I don't like the word regular, you can see that by now in the textbook. But you have in what is generally called the regular formation. In other words, these are the Greek words that are formed regularly. In other words, the present tense stem will almost always be identical to the Eris stem. In other words, you have the verbal root, Lou. And so you go on to the present as lull and you go into the Eris as loose. And what you have is the same stem, Lou, in both the present and in the ears. So in that sense, the first Eris is the regular formation augment Eris active ten STEM, which is almost always the same thing as the present tense stem. Your nice Sigma Alpha stands out there and indicates arrest and then your endings. And so in the paradigm, you have elusive, elusive, elusive, elusive men, elusive to elude sun. Now, there's a couple of things worth noting here. What personal lending is used in the first singular? None. That's right. And so you have just the tense, formative. So you can see how in the first areas you're different from the imperfect, Right. If you have Lou on, it's either first singular or third plural. Right. Given that ambiguity doesn't exist in the first error system, because there is no ending used in the first singular. And so we have Eleazar, but in the third plural, you have Ellison. So those forms are distinct, and that's nice. But the other thing worth noting is in the third person singular, do you see what's happened? There's no personal ending used, which is what you're used to.

[00:03:58] But in order to differentiate first singular from third singular, these. I assume that's the reason Star Sigma Alpha goes to Sarah Sigma Epsilon. Now, this is a very common kind of change. We're going to see it in the other tense and in some other places. So in your list, you're keeping of the odd little things, your two page list, the fact that in the third singular SA goes to SA needs to be marked on that list. So your form is lusa elusive. Elusive, elusive and elusive to a loose son. Well, we have a little twist in the first Everest, and that, again, has to do with liquid verbs. Now, we've had liquid verbs in the future. And what's the peculiarity of a liquid verb in the future? Master verb chart. You need to know this. I've seen the quizzes. You need to know this, right? It's. You have what is, in essence, a tense formative of Epsilon Sigma. The sigma is dropping out. You're going to get contractions. Okay. When a liquid verb gets into the Eris, you also have another peculiarity, and that is the tense. Formative for a liquid verb is just alpha. In other words, the sigma drops out. Now, one of the things that liquid verbs often do to help is that they can change something in the stem. So for example, you had the verb Menno, that when you get into the arrest, there's verbal stem is going to be Mu Epsilon iota new. Now this doesn't always happen, but it often happens. But what you're going to get is something like this where you have your augment your sometimes altered stem for the arrest, mean your alpha and your endings and you get a main name. So when you seen an inflected liquid form, there's going to be a couple of clues as to what you have.

[00:06:00] The first clue is that the final consonant of a stem is going to be a liquid and the four liquids are. You knew Lambda Zero. That's. That's one of your clues. Another one of your clues is that other than the third person singular, you're not going to have an American or epsilon connecting value. You're going to have an alpha. So when you see the ending and you see the alpha in front of it, you go, Whoa, wait a minute, this isn't present. And another clue you might have is that if the verb has changed to form its errors, act of ten stem, there'll be some difference there. And so, once again, you can look at a form like a main I'm in, and you go, Is this the form I memorized? In other words, is this stem that I'm looking at the present act of ten stem in my inside the present tense system. And the answer is no. And, you know, it's no as long as you've memorized your vocabulary. Exactly. Because you will have memorize as Mu Epsilon nu not mu epsilon Yoda nu. Okay. So we have liquid verbs that are a little bit of a bother in the future in the errors. That's it, by the way. We have one more tends to learn, but the liquids aren't an issue in that tense. And so you see the paradigm of a liquid verb and liquids are all first theorists. It may now, it may not us a may now with a new movable and may in a minute. It may non absolutely regular for a. There's just no sigma. Now, just to show you why, knowing the rules really helps instead of giving you nine more paradigms. I can show you these forms.

[00:07:52] And you know what they are. What's happened with Ebola, sir? Right. You have a stop, you have a stimming and a stop, and you already know that it's stop plus the sigma forms of C, Right. So epilepsy means I saw. Right. The verbs. Bleb bow. So you have a blip. So you see the C alpha. Do you know any verbs whose stems and an ABC or a C? No, you don't. And so when you see C or C, you click off. Ah, there's got to be a sigma wrapped up in here. What forms with a sigma to form ac0 labial. And you can work backwards from there. So in other words, stems ending and stops will go through the same kind of changes that you're used to with some third declension nouns. And in the future. Okay. Does anybody know what's going on with the third form? A Baptist's? Right. The dental is dropping out. Well, wait a minute. I thought the verb was adopted, so. That's right. But you memorized the root, as Bob did with a delta. Here's an example of why knowing the roots is so important. If you try to go from Bob Tinsel to a Baptist, you just have to memorize it as an irregular form. But if you know that the root is adopted, the word is absolutely regular through all the different tenses. If you know that the stems actually end in a dental. Cool, huh? Look at all those nine paradigms you don't have to memorize now. You're welcome. How do you form a first serious middle? Well, like in the future, in the Arabs, the active in the middle are distinctly different forms. They're built on the same tense stem. But the only difference is they're going to use middle passive endings.

[00:10:01] And so, for example, you're going to end up with a form and lose some main. And so you have the paradigm a lose something, a lose. So a loser to lose. Somoza allows us to lose Santa. You have to watch the second person since, you know, there's been some contractions that have occurred. It's all irregular. Can you see how that just Sigma Alpha just should just bounce out at you? Just say, look at me, look at me, look at me on the first errors. First errors, first errors. And by the way, people often ask on passing, do you have to designate whether it's a first or second nearest? No, at least as far as I'm concerned. I don't care whether you so much recognizes as the first or second arrows because it doesn't affect meaning. I want you just to say it's an artist in the word of a great theologian of the century. It's back. He keeps growing. You want to learn it, right? Every chapter you want to learn, the one or two lines that you get to sing just keeps growing. But it's nothing compared to all 900 and some odd forms in the big chart. I just want to keep saying that to keep things in perspective. So what we have here are several more lines. If a first errors, active augment errors, active saw, secondary active, you get looser, a liquid errors active, then you get first errors middle. And for some reason I'm not really sure I don't include first errors middle liquids. After a while you just it's so obvious what these things are. I didn't want to include everything in this chart. So things that are easily figured out I didn't include. So there's your three new lines to learn for the master verb chart.