Loading...

Biblical Greek - Lesson 4

Punctuation and Syllabification

In this lesson, we will discuss the importance of punctuation in Greek and the rules for punctuation. Punctuation helps to convey the meaning of the text and is especially important in Greek because it is an inflected language. We will also cover the rules of syllabification in Greek, which helps with the pronunciation of words. Understanding the rules of syllabification can help students read Greek texts more accurately.

Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
Lesson 4
Watching Now
Punctuation and Syllabification

I. Punctuation in Greek

A. Importance of Punctuation

B. Punctuation in Manuscripts

C. Rules of Punctuation

1. Rules for Periods and Commas

2. Rules for Question Marks and Exclamation Points

3. Rules for Colon and Semicolon

4. Rules for Parentheses and Dashes

II. Syllabification

A. Syllables in Greek

B. Rules of Syllabification

1. Rules for Single Consonants

2. Rules for Double Consonants

3. Rules for Vowels and Diphthongs


Lessons
About
Class Resources
Lesson Resources
Transcript
  • Bill Mounce invites you to join this course on Biblical Greek and learn the language that he believes is not as hard as people make it out to be, and assures that his lectures will hit just the high points of Greek and that there are resources available on his website for deeper understanding.
  • You will gain knowledge and insight into the fundamentals of biblical Greek, including the alphabet and pronunciation, nouns and adjectives, pronouns and verbs, and the importance of further study. You will learn about the declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs in different tenses, such as the present, imperfect, future, and aorist. This lesson provides a comprehensive overview of the basics of biblical Greek, making it accessible to beginners who are just starting to learn.
  • In the Learning Greek lesson, you will tackle memorization, learn about tools to assist you, understand the importance of exercises, and discover the significance of time, consistency, and discipline to enhance your Greek language skills and develop a closer connection with Jesus.
  • In this lesson, you learn the Greek alphabet and its pronunciation, discovering similarities to the English alphabet and mastering special pronunciation rules like gamma nasal, vowels, diphthongs, iota subscript, diuresis, and breathing marks, crucial for Greek language study.
  • You will gain insight into the importance of punctuation and syllabification in Greek, which will help you better understand the meaning and pronunciation of Greek texts.
  • Through this lesson, you will develop a solid foundation in English nouns, their types, functions in sentences, and practical tips for mastery.
  • In this lesson, you grasp the significance of nominative and accusative definite articles in Biblical Greek, exploring their roles in identifying subjects and direct objects, and applying the definite article in context.
  • This lesson equips you with the knowledge to identify and translate the genitive and dative cases in biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding and interpretation of biblical texts.
  • Gain insight into the importance of prepositions in Biblical Greek, explore their different categories and meanings, and learn how they modify verbs, nouns, and adjectives to enhance your understanding of the New Testament's original language.
  • In this lesson, you will learn about adjectives in Biblical Greek, their declension, comparison, and their crucial role in syntax, semantics, interpretation, and translation of Biblical texts.
  • By studying the third declension in Biblical Greek, you gain insight into noun and adjective formations, enhancing your ability to analyze and interpret New Testament texts.
  • You gain knowledge of first and second person personal pronouns in Biblical Greek, learning their forms, usage, and application in translating and interpreting New Testament texts.
  • You will gain a comprehensive understanding of Greek pronouns, focusing on forms and genders, and learn to apply this knowledge to accurately interpret biblical texts.
  • By studying this lesson, you acquire a thorough understanding of demonstrative pronouns and adjectives in Biblical Greek, their forms, syntax, and proper application in New Testament passages.
  • This lesson equips you to comprehend relative pronouns in Biblical Greek and their role in connecting ideas and forming dependent clauses.
  • In this lesson, you gain an in-depth understanding of verbs in Biblical Greek, learning about tenses, voices, and moods, and how to apply this knowledge in biblical exegesis.
  • Master the present active indicative in Biblical Greek to understand the language's structure, form regular and irregular verbs, and accurately translate and interpret the text.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into contract verbs in Biblical Greek, learning to identify and parse them, enabling accurate translation and interpretation of the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson provides a deep understanding of the present middle-passive indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, including their formation, usage, and tips for accurate translation.
  • This lesson provides you with a comprehensive understanding of the future active and middle indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, equipping you with translation techniques and practice exercises to enhance your skillset.
  • Through this lesson, you acquire knowledge of verbal roots and future forms in Biblical Greek, enabling better interpretation of the New Testament by recognizing regular and irregular patterns.
  • This lesson teaches you how to understand and use the imperfect indicative in biblical Greek, offering insights into verb conjugations, context, and translation accuracy.
  • You will gain expertise in Second Aorist Active and Middle Indicative forms in Biblical Greek, their formation, usage, and importance in biblical interpretation.
  • This lesson equips you with knowledge of the First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative in Biblical Greek, covering formation, parsing, and translation techniques while providing examples from the New Testament.
  • By studying this lesson, you learn to identify and translate Aorist and Future Passive Indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, enabling accurate exegesis and interpretation of the New Testament.
  • In this lesson, you acquire knowledge on forming, conjugating, and translating perfect indicative verbs in biblical Greek, with a focus on understanding context and handling irregular verb forms.
  • Through this lesson, you learn about Greek participles, their types, and translation techniques, enhancing your ability to analyze and understand the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson teaches you to identify, translate, and interpret present continuous adverbial participles in Biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding of New Testament exegesis.
  • Gain insights into aorist undefined adverbial participles, their types, and translation techniques to improve your understanding of the Greek text and biblical exegesis.
  • Through this lesson, you master the intricacies of adjectival participles in biblical Greek, including their forms, translation, and syntax, ultimately enhancing your ability to analyze and translate biblical texts.
  • This lesson teaches you the intricacies of perfect participles and genitive absolutes in biblical Greek, enabling you to accurately translate and understand complex grammatical structures.
  • Gain insight into the subjunctive mood in Biblical Greek, understanding its formation, functions, and importance for interpreting the New Testament's nuanced meanings.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to recognize and understand the various roles and functions of infinitives in Biblical Greek, ultimately enhancing your ability to study the biblical text.
  • In this lesson, you learn about the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, its forms and uses, negation, and the subjunctive as an alternative for expressing commands and requests.
  • In this lesson, you learn to understand and apply the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, including its formation, nuances, and its use in exegesis.
  • In this lesson, you gain a deeper understanding of non-indicative forms and conditional sentences, learning to differentiate between subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, and participle forms, as well as first, second, and third class conditional sentences, while expanding your vocabulary.
  • Gain insights into Biblical Greek constructs, conditional sentences, Greek particles, and techniques for parsing and translating complex passages, enhancing your ability to interpret the New Testament.

These lectures will take you through the main points of each chapter in Bill Mounce's Basics of Biblical Greek (3rd edition). These Summary Lectures are also available at billmounce.com, along with other free resources for learning biblical Greek. [The first lecture was originally given in the course Dr. Mounce was teaching at Gordon-Conwell seminary. The syllabus he mentions was for that group of students and is not available.]

 

BillMounce.com also sells video lectures by Bill Mounce that cover every point in the grammar.

Recommended Books

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

William D. Mounce's "Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar" and its companion tool "Basics of Biblical Greek Workbook" are the best-selling and most widely accepted textbooks for learning New Testament Greek.

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Recommended Books

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

William D. Mounce's "Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar" and its companion tool "Basics of Biblical Greek Workbook" are the best-selling and most widely accepted textbooks for learning New Testament Greek.

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Dr. Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
nt201-04
Punctuation and Syllabification
Lesson Transcript

[00:00:00] In chapter four, we're going to look at issues of punctuation and slab ification. In terms of punctuation. The period and the comma are the same in Greek as they are in English, but in Greek the raised dot is the semicolon. And what looks to be an English semicolon is the Greek question mark. So there's period. Comma. Semicolon. Question mark. You already know about the diagnosis, but there's two other critical marks you need to know. The first one is the apostrophe or what is probably more properly called an elision mark is that sometimes words lose a final short vowel. So there are times in which a par goes to up the al-Muqrin is dropped out and is replaced with the illusion mark. In the vocabulary sections. When I give you the words that tend to drop out that final vowel, I will give both forms. The other day. I critical. You need to know our accents. Now there's some debate in among Greek teachers about how much you need to know about accents and when they're going to be there and so forth and so on. I take a bit of a minimal approach. Basically, all you really need to do is to place a stress on the syllable that has the accent. The acute is a mark that goes up over the epsilon. It originally indicated a rise in pitch, I tell, but we just say I tell now the graph is the downward mark over the alma cron and it used to indicate a drop in pitch. But we just say they are snow and a circumflex, as you might guess originally indicated a rise and then a drop in pitch. Hogg knows, but we just say Hogg knows. Now there are quite a few rules for celeb ification if you're the kind of person that likes rules.

[00:02:03] But my advice is simply, if you're an English speaker, just go with your instinct and you'll probably get it right. Greek saliva flies very much like English does, but the first two rules are the most important that there's one vowel or different per syllable. So if you say, okay, Carmen, you can count, there's an alpha ETA, Macron Alpha Epsilon. So, you know, there are five syllables. That's the most important rule. Okay. Common. The second most important rule is that when you have a single concern, in other words, not two concerns that are real, but a single consonant is going to go with the following vowel so the role does not go with the omega. It goes with the alpha. The kappa goes with the following alpha. The mute goes with the following epsilon or rockman hat or rock in. Probably the most important thing you can do is to practice reading. And there are several of these exercises that you get to through chapter four in the online class. And just listen to me read and you'll pick it up pretty quickly. In chapter four, we're going to start learning vocabulary. And I know some people have some fear about vocabulary, but let me just say a couple of things about it. First of all, the definitions I give you are what are technically called glosses. In other words, they're just approximations. I get really annoyed when I look at an English Bible and the translation is of the Greek word other fast and they'll say literally, brother. Well, no brother is one of the glosses. It's one of the meetings of other faiths. And sometimes it does mean brother. I have two brothers, David and Mike. So, you know, that may be what it is.

[00:04:01] But other of us also mean someone that you're very close to. My best friend is Ed, and I'll call him my brother because he is very, very close to me. Or sometimes other father simply refers to members of your faith community. And then you have to decide whether you understand those members of your faith community as brothers or perhaps as brothers and sisters. What I'm saying is that the meanings I'm giving you, the glosses that I'm giving you, are just very approximations of what the Greek word means. Please don't look at a word like other face and say, Well, literally means brother or cosmos literally means world. No, that's not true at all. All Greek words, in fact, all words in any language will have a range of meaning or what is called a semantic range. And you need the context to give you the specific meaning in a specific context. If you haven't already downloaded flash works, please do so. Flash Works is a really good piece of software that will really help you through vocabulary and you can actually go under to your preferences and you can find two and you say, I only want to work with words from chapter four. I only want to work with words from a certain frequency or there's other all kinds of ways to dissect the database. So please make use of that now by way of encouragement. In this chapter you're going to learn 26 words, but that means, you know, 11% of all word occurrences in the New Testament. In other words, with just these 26 words, you know, one out of every ten words that you're going to come across in the Bible, when we're done with the textbook, then you will have learned 319 words, which is 80%, which means eight out of every ten words you see in the New Testament, in the Greek New Testament, you will know.

[00:05:59] So most for sure, language textbooks. Have you learned a lot more than 319 words? So I'm not asking that much of you. So be sure you know your vocabulary really, really well.