Biblical Greek - Lesson 13

Demonstrative Pronouns/Adjectives

In this lesson, you will gain a comprehensive understanding of demonstrative pronouns and adjectives in Biblical Greek, including their forms, syntax, and usage. You'll learn the different forms for "this," "these," "that," and "those" in the nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative cases, as well as how they agree with nouns and their position in a sentence. Additionally, you will practice parsing and translating demonstrative pronouns and adjectives in New Testament passages, deepening your grasp of their function and significance in Biblical Greek.

Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
Lesson 13
Watching Now
Demonstrative Pronouns/Adjectives

I. Introduction to Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives

A. Definition and Usage

B. Importance in Biblical Greek

II. Forms of Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives

A. "This" and "These"

1. Nominative Case

2. Genitive Case

3. Dative Case

4. Accusative Case

B. "That" and "Those"

1. Nominative Case

2. Genitive Case

3. Dative Case

4. Accusative Case

III. Syntax of Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives

A. Agreement with Nouns

B. Position in a Sentence

IV. Examples and Practice Exercises

A. New Testament Passages

B. Parsing and Translating

  • Bill Mounce invites you to join this course on Biblical Greek and learn the language that he believes is not as hard as people make it out to be, and assures that his lectures will hit just the high points of Greek and that there are resources available on his website for deeper understanding.
  • You will gain knowledge and insight into the fundamentals of biblical Greek, including the alphabet and pronunciation, nouns and adjectives, pronouns and verbs, and the importance of further study. You will learn about the declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs in different tenses, such as the present, imperfect, future, and aorist. This lesson provides a comprehensive overview of the basics of biblical Greek, making it accessible to beginners who are just starting to learn.
  • In the Learning Greek lesson, you will tackle memorization, learn about tools to assist you, understand the importance of exercises, and discover the significance of time, consistency, and discipline to enhance your Greek language skills and develop a closer connection with Jesus.
  • In this lesson, you learn the Greek alphabet and its pronunciation, discovering similarities to the English alphabet and mastering special pronunciation rules like gamma nasal, vowels, diphthongs, iota subscript, diuresis, and breathing marks, crucial for Greek language study.
  • You will gain insight into the importance of punctuation and syllabification in Greek, which will help you better understand the meaning and pronunciation of Greek texts.
  • Through this lesson, you will develop a solid foundation in English nouns, their types, functions in sentences, and practical tips for mastery.
  • In this lesson, you grasp the significance of nominative and accusative definite articles in Biblical Greek, exploring their roles in identifying subjects and direct objects, and applying the definite article in context.
  • This lesson equips you with the knowledge to identify and translate the genitive and dative cases in biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding and interpretation of biblical texts.
  • Gain insight into the importance of prepositions in Biblical Greek, explore their different categories and meanings, and learn how they modify verbs, nouns, and adjectives to enhance your understanding of the New Testament's original language.
  • In this lesson, you will learn about adjectives in Biblical Greek, their declension, comparison, and their crucial role in syntax, semantics, interpretation, and translation of Biblical texts.
  • By studying the third declension in Biblical Greek, you gain insight into noun and adjective formations, enhancing your ability to analyze and interpret New Testament texts.
  • You gain knowledge of first and second person personal pronouns in Biblical Greek, learning their forms, usage, and application in translating and interpreting New Testament texts.
  • You will gain a comprehensive understanding of Greek pronouns, focusing on forms and genders, and learn to apply this knowledge to accurately interpret biblical texts.
  • By studying this lesson, you acquire a thorough understanding of demonstrative pronouns and adjectives in Biblical Greek, their forms, syntax, and proper application in New Testament passages.
  • This lesson equips you to comprehend relative pronouns in Biblical Greek and their role in connecting ideas and forming dependent clauses.
  • In this lesson, you gain an in-depth understanding of verbs in Biblical Greek, learning about tenses, voices, and moods, and how to apply this knowledge in biblical exegesis.
  • Master the present active indicative in Biblical Greek to understand the language's structure, form regular and irregular verbs, and accurately translate and interpret the text.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into contract verbs in Biblical Greek, learning to identify and parse them, enabling accurate translation and interpretation of the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson provides a deep understanding of the present middle-passive indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, including their formation, usage, and tips for accurate translation.
  • This lesson provides you with a comprehensive understanding of the future active and middle indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, equipping you with translation techniques and practice exercises to enhance your skillset.
  • Through this lesson, you acquire knowledge of verbal roots and future forms in Biblical Greek, enabling better interpretation of the New Testament by recognizing regular and irregular patterns.
  • This lesson teaches you how to understand and use the imperfect indicative in biblical Greek, offering insights into verb conjugations, context, and translation accuracy.
  • You will gain expertise in Second Aorist Active and Middle Indicative forms in Biblical Greek, their formation, usage, and importance in biblical interpretation.
  • This lesson equips you with knowledge of the First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative in Biblical Greek, covering formation, parsing, and translation techniques while providing examples from the New Testament.
  • By studying this lesson, you learn to identify and translate Aorist and Future Passive Indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, enabling accurate exegesis and interpretation of the New Testament.
  • In this lesson, you acquire knowledge on forming, conjugating, and translating perfect indicative verbs in biblical Greek, with a focus on understanding context and handling irregular verb forms.
  • Through this lesson, you learn about Greek participles, their types, and translation techniques, enhancing your ability to analyze and understand the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson teaches you to identify, translate, and interpret present continuous adverbial participles in Biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding of New Testament exegesis.
  • Gain insights into aorist undefined adverbial participles, their types, and translation techniques to improve your understanding of the Greek text and biblical exegesis.
  • Through this lesson, you master the intricacies of adjectival participles in biblical Greek, including their forms, translation, and syntax, ultimately enhancing your ability to analyze and translate biblical texts.
  • This lesson teaches you the intricacies of perfect participles and genitive absolutes in biblical Greek, enabling you to accurately translate and understand complex grammatical structures.
  • Gain insight into the subjunctive mood in Biblical Greek, understanding its formation, functions, and importance for interpreting the New Testament's nuanced meanings.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to recognize and understand the various roles and functions of infinitives in Biblical Greek, ultimately enhancing your ability to study the biblical text.
  • In this lesson, you learn about the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, its forms and uses, negation, and the subjunctive as an alternative for expressing commands and requests.
  • In this lesson, you learn to understand and apply the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, including its formation, nuances, and its use in exegesis.
  • In this lesson, you gain a deeper understanding of non-indicative forms and conditional sentences, learning to differentiate between subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, and participle forms, as well as first, second, and third class conditional sentences, while expanding your vocabulary.
  • Gain insights into Biblical Greek constructs, conditional sentences, Greek particles, and techniques for parsing and translating complex passages, enhancing your ability to interpret the New Testament.

These lectures will take you through the main points of each chapter in Bill Mounce's Basics of Biblical Greek (3rd edition). These Summary Lectures are also available at billmounce.com, along with other free resources for learning biblical Greek. [The first lecture was originally given in the course Dr. Mounce was teaching at Gordon-Conwell seminary. The syllabus he mentions was for that group of students and is not available.]


BillMounce.com also sells video lectures by Bill Mounce that cover every point in the grammar.

Recommended Books

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

William D. Mounce's "Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar" and its companion tool "Basics of Biblical Greek Workbook" are the best-selling and most widely accepted textbooks for learning New Testament Greek.
Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Dr. Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
Demonstrative Pronouns/Adjectives
Lesson Transcript

[00:00:00] Today, we're going to look at chapter 13, which is a chapter on the demonstrative. Now, in English, you have to demonstrative and the singular and plural of each one looks considerably different, but they're not. One of the demonstrative and the singular is this and it's plural form as these. And the other demonstrative in the singular is that which in the plural goes to those. This these that those those are the demonstrators. And that's what we're learning today in English. And we'll find out. The same is true in Greek. Demonstrative can function both as pronouns or as adjectives. If you say this is mine. This is functioning as a demonstrative pronoun. Stands on its own. It has an A.S. functions as a pronoun. If you say that car is yours. The word that a demonstrative is functioning as a demonstrative adjective. The demonstrative in Greek are who toss and that's a rough breathing with a circumflex. And who tossed means this and aquino's with a smooth breathing means that. So the two day masters in Greek are who toss and aquino's. And just like in English they can both function either as a pronoun or as an adjective. So for example, if you saw who toss SD. Hooters. Just look at it. Is it functioning as an adjective or as a pronoun? Well, it has to be a pronoun because it's all by itself, right? And who to us is nominative, singular, masculine in this example. So it's the subject of the sentence, and so you're going to translate it. This. Is one because it's a pronoun is referring to someone or something. Right. And so what you can do in order to make it clear that it's referring to someone or something, you can supply a helping word.

[00:02:15] When would you supply the word man? Right. If it's masculine, singular. When would you say men? Masculine plural. In other words, you have to look at natural gender and look whether the pronoun is referring back to a person or not. And then you follow the normal rules we had for Altus. This is nothing new to learn, but just take what you've learned, in other words, and applied here. When a demonstrative is functioning as a pronoun, what determines its case? How it functions in the sentence. The demonstrative is a subject. It's a nominative. If it's a direct object accusative, it's the if it's the object of soon, it's dative. What will determine the gender and number of a demonstrative when it's functioning as a pronoun. What it's referring to back to its antecedent. Some of the words nothing new to learn. If those slots open in your brain. But a demonstrative can also function as an adjective. So if you have octopus hoots, you're going to end up translating that, this man. Now I want to demonstrative is functioning as an adjective. What determines its case number and gender? The word is modifying chisel a game we play. You got to take what you have learned in other chapters and see that you're reapplying the principles here. This is nothing new. And so I suppose Hooters is going to be translated this man. Now, there's one thing that's a little unusual about Hooters, isn't there? I thought I made a typo in the overhead denture. What's different about the position of Hooters? It's in the predicate position, isn't it? There's an article with the noun, but there's not an article with the demonstrative. And if this were an adjective, you would have to supply. The verb is the man.

[00:04:06] Is this. Okay, here's the rule. Demonstrative. When they are functioning as adjectives are in the predicate position. Sometimes after the noun, sometimes before the article. And so this construction is translated, this man. Demonstrative tapes when they're functioning as adjectives are in the predicate position. We've already seen this with the word heavily. What word tends to be in the predicate position was is functioning as an adjective. Pass. Right. Pass is going to come up in the predicate position when it's modifying something. Okay, here's the good news. The forms of a canvass are very simple. It's a212 adjective. The only thing you need to be aware of is just like the article. And just like I'll toss when you get into the nominative and accusative singular. It follows that sub pattern, and there's no case endings. So to Kina, that means when you find a kanon with the new, it can only be accusative, singular, masculine. Other than that, it's a normal paradigm. On into the plural as well. Remember when we learned I'll toss the forums, I said, Be sure to realize that Altus always has a smooth breathing. It'll help you keep Altus separate from another word. This is the other word. You noticed what happens to Hooters in the feminine? It goes to how? Tea with a rough breathing. I'll toss third person personal pronoun always has a smooth breathing. Who? US always has a rough breathing or a towel. So you have to toss in the nominal, singular, masculine. But then you go to two to. And on down the paradigm. The endings are the same. The stem is changing so the case endings are all normal. But the beginning of this word changes a bit. So who tasks the demonstrative pronoun always has a rough reading or an initial towel? You notice in the nominative an accusative neuter singular, it also drops the new.

[00:06:28] So if you have two tone, it's accusative, singular, masculine. And you notice there's one other change, and it's not really a big deal. People are curious, but you can still parse these words without knowing it. And that is look what happens to the first stem vowel. It can fluctuate between American and Alpha and is going to agree with whatever the final vowel is. So on to two. You have a stem ending in an crown. So the first stem vowel goes to an immigrant. But if you have tall tastes, you end in an ADA. And so the initial vowel goes to an alpha. In one sense, you could just flip that initial level around and it really doesn't matter. You still can tell what the word is, but that's the rule if you want to know it. I have a confession to make. I lied. There aren't four cases. We talk about a 4K system, but there's actually a fifth case, but it's only kind of half a case, so I guess that's only half a lie. So right now, Justice, we refer to a 4K system. There actually is a fifth case called evocative, but the evocative is so close to the nominative in so many ways that it's generally not taught as a separate case upfront. The evocative is used when you're directly addressing someone. If you were going to talk to me and use a title to disclose. And you would say, Teacher. Then ask your question, for example. Dido's glass is going to be in the variety of case because you're using it to directly address someone. Normally you don't even have to know how to parse these things. It's so obvious from the context that it's evocative because you're addressing the person.

[00:08:18] But here are the rules, and these rules don't cover every occurrence of the evocative, but they cover the vast majority of them in the plural. The evocative and nominative are identical in form. So if you were to see other FOIs. Or Andrus. They're going to either be nominative or evocative. You don't have to parse them as such, but they could be either. And you're going to say. Brothers or men. How they're going to be translated. So in the plural, evocative, a nominative or identical in the singular, it depends upon which declension it is. If it's a first declension word, the evocative is going to be the same as the normative. So first you're going to say, Sister, you'd say Adelphi. If it's a second declension word, the evocative ending is normally epsilon. And so if you're going to address Jesus and call him Lord, use a courier. If was a third declension word. It's normally the bare stem. Although sometimes the stem will have changed a little. So the evocative of Potter was then Ada is Potter, where the ADA has shortened to an epsilon. So the evocative is very straightforward. It's not a big challenge.