Biblical Greek - Lesson 14

Relative Pronouns

In this lesson, you will gain a deep understanding of relative pronouns in Biblical Greek. You'll learn their importance in connecting ideas and introducing dependent clauses within the text. You will also become familiar with the different forms of relative pronouns such as nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative. By examining common examples and understanding the context in which they are used, you will be able to better grasp the intricacies of relative pronouns in Biblical Greek.

Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
Lesson 14
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Relative Pronouns

I. Introduction to Relative Pronouns

A. Definition

B. Importance

II. Forms of Relative Pronouns

A. Nominative

B. Genitive

C. Dative

D. Accusative

III. Usage of Relative Pronouns

A. Connecting Ideas

B. Introducing Dependent Clauses

C. Substitution for Other Pronouns

IV. Relative Pronouns in Biblical Greek

A. Common Examples

B. Understanding Context

  • You will gain knowledge and insight into the fundamentals of biblical Greek, including the alphabet and pronunciation, nouns and adjectives, pronouns and verbs, and the importance of further study. You will learn about the declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs in different tenses, such as the present, imperfect, future, and aorist. This lesson provides a comprehensive overview of the basics of biblical Greek, making it accessible to beginners who are just starting to learn.
  • In the Learning Greek lesson, you will tackle memorization, learn about tools to assist you, understand the importance of exercises, and discover the significance of time, consistency, and discipline to enhance your Greek language skills and develop a closer connection with Jesus.
  • In this lesson, you learn the Greek alphabet and its pronunciation, discovering similarities to the English alphabet and mastering special pronunciation rules like gamma nasal, vowels, diphthongs, iota subscript, diuresis, and breathing marks, crucial for Greek language study.
  • You will gain insight into the importance of punctuation and syllabification in Greek, which will help you better understand the meaning and pronunciation of Greek texts.
  • Through this lesson, you will develop a solid foundation in English nouns, their types, functions in sentences, and practical tips for mastery.
  • In this lesson, you grasp the significance of nominative and accusative definite articles in Biblical Greek, exploring their roles in identifying subjects and direct objects, and applying the definite article in context.
  • This lesson equips you with the knowledge to identify and translate the genitive and dative cases in biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding and interpretation of biblical texts.
  • Gain insight into the importance of prepositions in Biblical Greek, explore their different categories and meanings, and learn how they modify verbs, nouns, and adjectives to enhance your understanding of the New Testament's original language.
  • In this lesson, you will learn about adjectives in Biblical Greek, their declension, comparison, and their crucial role in syntax, semantics, interpretation, and translation of Biblical texts.
  • By studying the third declension in Biblical Greek, you gain insight into noun and adjective formations, enhancing your ability to analyze and interpret New Testament texts.
  • You gain knowledge of first and second person personal pronouns in Biblical Greek, learning their forms, usage, and application in translating and interpreting New Testament texts.
  • You will gain a comprehensive understanding of Greek pronouns, focusing on forms and genders, and learn to apply this knowledge to accurately interpret biblical texts.
  • By studying this lesson, you acquire a thorough understanding of demonstrative pronouns and adjectives in Biblical Greek, their forms, syntax, and proper application in New Testament passages.
  • This lesson equips you to comprehend relative pronouns in Biblical Greek and their role in connecting ideas and forming dependent clauses.
  • In this lesson, you gain an in-depth understanding of verbs in Biblical Greek, learning about tenses, voices, and moods, and how to apply this knowledge in biblical exegesis.
  • Master the present active indicative in Biblical Greek to understand the language's structure, form regular and irregular verbs, and accurately translate and interpret the text.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into contract verbs in Biblical Greek, learning to identify and parse them, enabling accurate translation and interpretation of the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson provides a deep understanding of the present middle-passive indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, including their formation, usage, and tips for accurate translation.
  • This lesson provides you with a comprehensive understanding of the future active and middle indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, equipping you with translation techniques and practice exercises to enhance your skillset.
  • Through this lesson, you acquire knowledge of verbal roots and future forms in Biblical Greek, enabling better interpretation of the New Testament by recognizing regular and irregular patterns.
  • This lesson teaches you how to understand and use the imperfect indicative in biblical Greek, offering insights into verb conjugations, context, and translation accuracy.
  • You will gain expertise in Second Aorist Active and Middle Indicative forms in Biblical Greek, their formation, usage, and importance in biblical interpretation.
  • This lesson equips you with knowledge of the First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative in Biblical Greek, covering formation, parsing, and translation techniques while providing examples from the New Testament.
  • By studying this lesson, you learn to identify and translate Aorist and Future Passive Indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, enabling accurate exegesis and interpretation of the New Testament.
  • In this lesson, you acquire knowledge on forming, conjugating, and translating perfect indicative verbs in biblical Greek, with a focus on understanding context and handling irregular verb forms.
  • Through this lesson, you learn about Greek participles, their types, and translation techniques, enhancing your ability to analyze and understand the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson teaches you to identify, translate, and interpret present continuous adverbial participles in Biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding of New Testament exegesis.
  • Gain insights into aorist undefined adverbial participles, their types, and translation techniques to improve your understanding of the Greek text and biblical exegesis.
  • Through this lesson, you master the intricacies of adjectival participles in biblical Greek, including their forms, translation, and syntax, ultimately enhancing your ability to analyze and translate biblical texts.
  • This lesson teaches you the intricacies of perfect participles and genitive absolutes in biblical Greek, enabling you to accurately translate and understand complex grammatical structures.
  • Gain insight into the subjunctive mood in Biblical Greek, understanding its formation, functions, and importance for interpreting the New Testament's nuanced meanings.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to recognize and understand the various roles and functions of infinitives in Biblical Greek, ultimately enhancing your ability to study the biblical text.
  • In this lesson, you learn about the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, its forms and uses, negation, and the subjunctive as an alternative for expressing commands and requests.
  • In this lesson, you learn to understand and apply the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, including its formation, nuances, and its use in exegesis.
  • In this lesson, you gain a deeper understanding of non-indicative forms and conditional sentences, learning to differentiate between subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, and participle forms, as well as first, second, and third class conditional sentences, while expanding your vocabulary.
  • Gain insights into Biblical Greek constructs, conditional sentences, Greek particles, and techniques for parsing and translating complex passages, enhancing your ability to interpret the New Testament.

These lectures will take you through the main points of each chapter in Bill Mounce's Basics of Biblical Greek (3rd edition). These Summary Lectures are also available at billmounce.com, along with other free resources for learning biblical Greek. [The first lecture was originally given in the course Dr. Mounce was teaching at Gordon-Conwell seminary. The syllabus he mentions was for that group of students and is not available.]


BillMounce.com also sells video lectures by Bill Mounce that cover every point in the grammar.

Recommended Books

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

William D. Mounce's "Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar" and its companion tool "Basics of Biblical Greek Workbook" are the best-selling and most widely accepted textbooks for learning New Testament Greek.
Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Dr. Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
Relative Pronoun
Lesson Transcript

[00:00:00] Today we're going to look at chapter 14 and you should see Chapter 14 as a huge milestone. Why so last chapter on the noun system? Now there are bits and pieces that you're going to learn as we go through the verbs, but this is almost all of the noun stuff you need to know. So congratulations. I've been that hard, has it? In chapter 14, we're going to learn relative pronouns. These are the words like who? And in its different inflected forms, whose and whom. Same word. And that in which this is not the interrogative. In other words, we have an English words that can perform multiple functions, kind of like a vowel toss, and sometimes like who can be an interrogative? Well, that's a different word. The relative pronouns don't ask a question, but they're the words who that in which it's easier just to say it that way, then try to define it, because the definition is pretty complex. The teacher whom the students love won the Teacher of the Year award. The glass that broke was my favorite. I sold the car whose color made me ill. Okay, if you have a sentence where the direct object is the teacher. Take for example. This had to ask Alon hon Olga Pohl. Hon is a relative pronoun. It's accusative, as you might guess, right? It looks like a case ending with a vowel in a rough breathing, doesn't it? That's your clue. It's accusative and it's masculine. Singular. And so this would say the teacher whom I love. Okay. I must have felt a need for some affirmation at this point in my life when I wrote this. But. Okay. Whom I love, hon. Pole is your relative clause. In other words, a relative pronoun.

[00:02:00] And what follows it is called the relative clause. And Hahn is the relative pronoun. Notice several things. The relative pronoun will be the first word in the clause. It'll introduce the clause just like a preposition introduces a prepositional phrase. Secondly, how would you guess? Greek determines the case of a relative pronoun. Now it's not an adjective. But it introduces the relative clause. But what you do on relative clause is you kind of put parentheses around them because they're self-contained units. They're going to have a relative pronoun and they're going to have a verb in a subject because they're clauses. Well, the case of the relative pronoun is determined by its function inside the relative clause. It doesn't modify another word. The relative pronoun introduces the clause, but is performing a function inside the clause. And that's what determines its case. So why is horn accusative in this example? Because it's the direct object of the verb to pull. And what I do is I replace the pronoun with its antecedent. If I'm trying to figure out case whom I love, when the subject is either pole, I love whom I love. The teacher. I love whom. Koran is accusative. So in the case of a relative pronoun is determined by its function inside the relative clause. Thirdly, how do you think Greeks determine the gender and number of a relative pronoun? Right. It's and has seen what it stands for. You may not know it here, but it's not following natural gender. Why is Hawn masculine? Because the masculine is masculine. Why is Horne singular? Because Dada Guillen is singular. So even if I were a woman did ask. Allen is still a masculine noun. And so the relative pronoun will be masculine. So cases are determined by function within the relative clause.

[00:04:12] Gender and number are grammatically determined by the gender and number of the antecedent. Now, in the process of translating that, you may have to find that you have to move the English around a bit. Let's say, for example, Didst Galon were another word. Then the relative pronoun would be neuter, but you couldn't translated. Is it because I'm not in it? And fourthly, relative clauses are dependent clauses. What does that mean? What's the point we've been making when I've been talking about this? It will not contain the main verb and it's subject in the sentence. Now there will be a verb and a subject in a relative clause. You have to have a verb in a relative clause, but it's not going to be the main verb of the sentence in terms of the form of the relative pronoun. It's really straightforward. It looks like a case ending with the initial vowel appropriate for the declension. It's a212 word. Notice that it always has a rough breathing and it always has an accent. These are just the singular forms. Plurals are follow the same rules. Now this becomes important in the nominative, masculine and neuter when you compare them to the article, because the article is not going to have an accent in those cases. So the way I remember it is that as I look at a form, if it looks like a case ending with the vowel and it has a rough breathing in an accent, it's always the relative pronoun and you know, it's forms. All right. You double down school.