Biblical Greek - Lesson 24

Aorist and Future Passive Indicative

In this lesson, you gain an understanding of the Aorist and Future Passive Indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek. These verb forms play an essential role in interpreting the New Testament text. By learning the formation and usage of both the Aorist Passive Indicative and the Future Passive Indicative, along with tips for translating regular and irregular forms, you'll be better equipped to accurately understand and exegete Biblical passages. This knowledge will ultimately enhance your ability to interpret the New Testament in its original language and contextualize its meaning.

Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
Lesson 24
Watching Now
Aorist and Future Passive Indicative

I. Introduction to Aorist and Future Passive Indicative

A. Basics and Terminology

B. Importance in Biblical Greek

II. Aorist Passive Indicative

A. Formation and Usage

1. Regular and Irregular Forms

2. Translation Tips

III. Future Passive Indicative

A. Formation and Usage

1. Regular and Irregular Forms

2. Translation Tips

IV. Application in Biblical Interpretation

A. Identifying Aorist and Future Passive Indicative in Text

B. Proper Exegesis and Understanding Context

  • You will gain knowledge and insight into the fundamentals of biblical Greek, including the alphabet and pronunciation, nouns and adjectives, pronouns and verbs, and the importance of further study. You will learn about the declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs in different tenses, such as the present, imperfect, future, and aorist. This lesson provides a comprehensive overview of the basics of biblical Greek, making it accessible to beginners who are just starting to learn.
  • In the Learning Greek lesson, you will tackle memorization, learn about tools to assist you, understand the importance of exercises, and discover the significance of time, consistency, and discipline to enhance your Greek language skills and develop a closer connection with Jesus.
  • In this lesson, you learn the Greek alphabet and its pronunciation, discovering similarities to the English alphabet and mastering special pronunciation rules like gamma nasal, vowels, diphthongs, iota subscript, diuresis, and breathing marks, crucial for Greek language study.
  • You will gain insight into the importance of punctuation and syllabification in Greek, which will help you better understand the meaning and pronunciation of Greek texts.
  • Through this lesson, you will develop a solid foundation in English nouns, their types, functions in sentences, and practical tips for mastery.
  • In this lesson, you grasp the significance of nominative and accusative definite articles in Biblical Greek, exploring their roles in identifying subjects and direct objects, and applying the definite article in context.
  • This lesson equips you with the knowledge to identify and translate the genitive and dative cases in biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding and interpretation of biblical texts.
  • Gain insight into the importance of prepositions in Biblical Greek, explore their different categories and meanings, and learn how they modify verbs, nouns, and adjectives to enhance your understanding of the New Testament's original language.
  • In this lesson, you will learn about adjectives in Biblical Greek, their declension, comparison, and their crucial role in syntax, semantics, interpretation, and translation of Biblical texts.
  • By studying the third declension in Biblical Greek, you gain insight into noun and adjective formations, enhancing your ability to analyze and interpret New Testament texts.
  • You gain knowledge of first and second person personal pronouns in Biblical Greek, learning their forms, usage, and application in translating and interpreting New Testament texts.
  • You will gain a comprehensive understanding of Greek pronouns, focusing on forms and genders, and learn to apply this knowledge to accurately interpret biblical texts.
  • By studying this lesson, you acquire a thorough understanding of demonstrative pronouns and adjectives in Biblical Greek, their forms, syntax, and proper application in New Testament passages.
  • This lesson equips you to comprehend relative pronouns in Biblical Greek and their role in connecting ideas and forming dependent clauses.
  • In this lesson, you gain an in-depth understanding of verbs in Biblical Greek, learning about tenses, voices, and moods, and how to apply this knowledge in biblical exegesis.
  • Master the present active indicative in Biblical Greek to understand the language's structure, form regular and irregular verbs, and accurately translate and interpret the text.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into contract verbs in Biblical Greek, learning to identify and parse them, enabling accurate translation and interpretation of the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson provides a deep understanding of the present middle-passive indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, including their formation, usage, and tips for accurate translation.
  • This lesson provides you with a comprehensive understanding of the future active and middle indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, equipping you with translation techniques and practice exercises to enhance your skillset.
  • Through this lesson, you acquire knowledge of verbal roots and future forms in Biblical Greek, enabling better interpretation of the New Testament by recognizing regular and irregular patterns.
  • This lesson teaches you how to understand and use the imperfect indicative in biblical Greek, offering insights into verb conjugations, context, and translation accuracy.
  • You will gain expertise in Second Aorist Active and Middle Indicative forms in Biblical Greek, their formation, usage, and importance in biblical interpretation.
  • This lesson equips you with knowledge of the First Aorist Active and Middle Indicative in Biblical Greek, covering formation, parsing, and translation techniques while providing examples from the New Testament.
  • By studying this lesson, you learn to identify and translate Aorist and Future Passive Indicative verb forms in Biblical Greek, enabling accurate exegesis and interpretation of the New Testament.
  • In this lesson, you acquire knowledge on forming, conjugating, and translating perfect indicative verbs in biblical Greek, with a focus on understanding context and handling irregular verb forms.
  • Through this lesson, you learn about Greek participles, their types, and translation techniques, enhancing your ability to analyze and understand the New Testament texts.
  • This lesson teaches you to identify, translate, and interpret present continuous adverbial participles in Biblical Greek, enhancing your understanding of New Testament exegesis.
  • Gain insights into aorist undefined adverbial participles, their types, and translation techniques to improve your understanding of the Greek text and biblical exegesis.
  • Through this lesson, you master the intricacies of adjectival participles in biblical Greek, including their forms, translation, and syntax, ultimately enhancing your ability to analyze and translate biblical texts.
  • This lesson teaches you the intricacies of perfect participles and genitive absolutes in biblical Greek, enabling you to accurately translate and understand complex grammatical structures.
  • Gain insight into the subjunctive mood in Biblical Greek, understanding its formation, functions, and importance for interpreting the New Testament's nuanced meanings.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to recognize and understand the various roles and functions of infinitives in Biblical Greek, ultimately enhancing your ability to study the biblical text.
  • In this lesson, you learn about the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, its forms and uses, negation, and the subjunctive as an alternative for expressing commands and requests.
  • In this lesson, you learn to understand and apply the imperative mood in Biblical Greek, including its formation, nuances, and its use in exegesis.
  • In this lesson, you gain a deeper understanding of non-indicative forms and conditional sentences, learning to differentiate between subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, and participle forms, as well as first, second, and third class conditional sentences, while expanding your vocabulary.
  • Gain insights into Biblical Greek constructs, conditional sentences, Greek particles, and techniques for parsing and translating complex passages, enhancing your ability to interpret the New Testament.

These lectures will take you through the main points of each chapter in Bill Mounce's Basics of Biblical Greek (3rd edition). These Summary Lectures are also available at billmounce.com, along with other free resources for learning biblical Greek. [The first lecture was originally given in the course Dr. Mounce was teaching at Gordon-Conwell seminary. The syllabus he mentions was for that group of students and is not available.]


BillMounce.com also sells video lectures by Bill Mounce that cover every point in the grammar.

Recommended Books

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

William D. Mounce's "Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar" and its companion tool "Basics of Biblical Greek Workbook" are the best-selling and most widely accepted textbooks for learning New Testament Greek.
Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd (third) Edition

Dr. Bill Mounce
Biblical Greek
Aorist and Future Passive Indicative
Lesson Transcript

[00:00:00] Well, welcome to chapter 24, Chapter 24. We're going to learn the arrest and future passive. Now, you might say that's an odd combination. And yes, it truly is an odd combination. But here's why we talk about the arrests in the future. Passive. Together, both are formed off of the same stem. In other words, we generally refer to it as the arrest passive stem. And then when you want to form a future passive, we make one little change to it and then we form the future passive off of it. So both the arrests and the future passive are formed off of the same verbal stem. That's what we talk about them together. Okay. And actually this whole chapter is pretty straight forward. It's just a matter of learning a couple of things and looking at paradigms. There's not a whole lot that's really new in the chapter. How do you form an arrest? Passive? And you notice I've combined first and second arrest. There's so similar except for one thing, you must learn them together. Well, it's easy. You take an augment, it's an arrest, right? And then you take the arrest. Passive tense stem. We'll come back and talk about that. And then you have your tense formative. If it's a first era stem, the transformative is theta ETA. If it's a secondary stem. Then it's simply Ada. And then you use secondary active. Why? I don't know. But what you're going to see in the rest of the chapters in the book is that it actually is quite calm. And we're going to see it in participles and elsewhere. It's actually quite common to use active forms with the arrest passive. But what happens is that theta ETA is so big and it just stands out there in the word that you're very rarely going to be confused by the fact that it's an active ending.

[00:02:04] You're going to see the theta ETA or sometimes just the ETA and, you know, arrows passive. And at that point, you don't even have to worry about them being active personal endings. Now, this is passive tense STEM. How many different tense stems are there in a Greek word? Six. Right. And they are we've learned so far present future active which will also be used for the future. Middle earnest active which will also be used for the Earth's middle. And then you have two more, which are the next chapter. And then the sixth is your iris passive, which also is used for the future passive. So when you go to the lexicon, you look up a word. Those are the six forms that are going to be laid out. Now, one of the things that I did is that if the word occurs in the imperfect in the New Testament, I've got it listed right after the present in parentheses, because sometimes the augments get a little weird, but that's just my little idiosyncrasy. No one else does that. So what we're looking at is the formation of the iris passive formed of the six verbal temp stem. And what we're going to find is that the verb has the first diarist. It'll probably be very regular. You're going to be able to identify it very simply. If the verb has had a secondaries active, there's a chance that it's going to have a secondaries passive by anyway. In terms of the formation, is it all clear? You see a lose, say men. And there's that 38 errors passive. A graph. Fay Min So the second error is a little more difficult, but up to this point, the only time you're going to get an ETA before the personal ending is in a second RS Passive.

[00:03:47] So you need to be really cognizant of that. ETA So as you watch that work its way through the paradigms, it's all pretty straightforward. How then, do you form a future passive? Pretty much the same way, except for three things. The first thing is the augment indicates past time. This is the future passive, so you have to get rid of the augment. And so what the Greeks do is they take the Arabs passive, tense them, and they remove the augment. So, for example, you're going to end up with, let's say, Somali, for example, not al-Hussein or some such form in which you get rid of the augment. So the arguments in Epsilon is going to drop out, but as the augment is like an ETA, it's going to go back to an Alpha Epsilon, whatever it originally was. If it's an Omega, it'll go back to an acronym. So he's going to augment and then they're going to add one more letter to the tense formative. So the first arrest stem, the tense formative for the future passive is theta ETA sigma. What if the air is passive as a second arrest? Then the second future passive will be a two sigma and you can see how it works out. And finally. They do use primary because it's not augmented and it does use passive endings. So in other words, the future passive is using the air as passive stem, but after that, it's going to behave more like a future than anything else because it's what it is. To see how it goes together. The face. Smiley face to face. The title Lucy Samantha. Lucy says The flu season. I see the theta and a sigma just jumping right out at the fact that it's in blue helps a little amount.

[00:05:50] Being blue in the biblical text and be a cool biblical text, wouldn't it? A color coded biblical text. Okay. Any questions on how that goes together? So it's very straightforward. Arrows, passive and future passive were formed after the sixth tense stem. The arrows passive tense stem. The arrows. Passive is an augment RS passive tense STEM tense formative either theta to or ADA and secondary active endings. The future passive is the an augmented rs passive temp stim for the transformative theta A2 sigma or A2 sigma plus your connecting vowel and primary passive personal endings. So that's the advantage. You're really seeing the advantage of learning the chart now, aren't you? Because all it's all you have to know and you know the whole chapter in terms of translation, you already know how to translate the errors in terms of the future is probably easiest just to do a straight, simple future. We don't use the future continuous much. The future in Greek actually can be anywhere between undefined and continuous, but the future continuous sounds so odd. Most times we just translated with a simple future. I will study instead of I will be studying or some such thing. Almost their master verb. Chachi, I want you to do your work every day. There you have your first and second future passes and your first and second errors. Passives. We only have two more slots or two more rows, I guess, and that's chapter 25. And then this chart stuns. What I want to do is just open up your textbooks for you and go to the vocabulary for chapter 24. I want to walk through some vocabulary and then the previous word sections, because I want to just kind of talk our way through and help you get comfortable with some of the stuff.

[00:07:47] I've not been emphasizing this in our summary lectures, but I want to make sure that you are doing this. Let's just go through some of the vocabulary. And again, my rule here is learn the rules. Don't memorize a bunch of forms unless the form is just so odd that it's easier to memorize it than memorizing the rules. Now there's rules behind all these things, and if you pick up a copy of my morphology grammar, you can have all these things explained. But for most people, some of the more difficult, tense forms are just. It's easier to memorize them. But the key is that you need to make a decision for yourself, which forms you're going to memorize and which forms you're not. And the way to do it is you look at the tense form. You say, If I saw that in the text, do I know my verb well enough to be able to pass it? The answer is yes. Then my recommendation is don't memorize it. But if you say, if I look at it and go, you know, there's no way in the world I would know what this is. And you have to commit it to memory. Now, on the back of the textbook, there's a list of all the verbs that we're going to learn with all the different tense forms. And I've underlined certain forms. The underlined ones are the ones that I memorize. In other words, these are the ones that they can be explained, but they're so odd that my recommendation is simply to memorize them. It's best your decision, but the only way you're going to get to that decision is to work through all the verbs, you know, and make the decision for yourself. For example, our goal means I lead, bring or arrest.

[00:09:21] If you solve the form act, so would you know what it is? Well, sure. Whenever you see see at the end, you know there's a sigma in there. So you know the stem ends in a vellar of that point is relatively easy to figure out that it's our goal. There's no reason to fill up your memory with Axl as the future, however agan. Can you see what happened to the word? It had a double augment, as it were. The word was duplicated. Org went to UG and then the re duplicated initial alpha lengthened to an ETA agag. Now that's kind of a mouthful to remember. It's probably just easier to memorize this as an odd second nearest, but you need to make that decision. I can't make it for you. Then the two slashes are what we're going to learn in chapter 25. And then you get to the errors passive and you have a theme. It's actually very regular. And what's going on with the gamut of he's explained in the textbook, but you have your augment. And what happens is that whenever you have a velar and then you have the theta, that final letter often changes. In other words, any stem that ends in gamma is going to go to a key when you stick the C to honor the tense formative well h thing. I didn't memorize it because I'm kind of a rule guy and I know the rules, but you have to make up your mind whether if you saw a thing in any of its inflected forms, you would remember it. That's your call. The next page for that on my only occurs in the air is passive F for B thing. There is passive deponent regular. No reason to memorize that.

[00:11:16] If you know your master verb chart, please get out of the previous words. A cool in the air is passive. You get a cool thing. Now what's odd in that form? There's a sigma stuck in there. Guess what? There's a whole class of verbs that stick a sigma in before the theta. So do you need to memorize a Costain, or do you need to know that there's a whole class of words, a stick, a sigma before the theta? And who cares? I don't care. When I say ignore, I know the rule. But when I see a Costain, I know there's no word could so. So I see a costain like a augment. A cool honkey has got a letter stuck in big deal. They did a new RS pass of a school camp. Anything else? But you know, you need to work through these Fine Barlow. This very, very important point I want to make on this verbal. What are the category of verbs that we call regular? Remember this from chapter 20. It's very important that, you know, this stems ending in your groups along our regular stems ending in a stop. Our regular contract verbs are regular and liquid verbs are regular. Very important. You keep those four categories in your mind. Here's an example of why so important you get ball low in the air is passive. It goes to a blaze scene. Now a lot of people's tendency is to look at a blaze thing and go, Oh, it's a form of blackball. Is that possible to know anything else? And you can know the answer to that question. Can a blaze sane be from Blackpool? And the answer is absolutely not, because Blackpool is a stem ending in a stop is going to be regular stems and ending and stops are regular.

[00:13:16] Their vowels don't go crazy all over the place, so a blazing has to be from something else. And it's from Barlow. Two things have happened in this form. First of all, what's the root of ball, low ball and then what? Do you know that the root only has a single lambda and you also know the rules of all bloat allow vowels to get long or short or drop out altogether. In this case, the offers just drop down all together. Why is that? Eight of their Because Greek liked to insert things before the theta, sometimes mostly sigma, sometimes eighties. And so a bloody thing is the is passive of Barlow. Now you need to decide whether you need to memorize that or not. I can't make that decision for you. You have to decide whether you can see Barlow in Ablated. Remember, consonants carry the meaning of a verb of a word, not the vowels. Vowels are fickle. Here, today, gone tomorrow, long, one day short another can just can't decide how to comb their hair. Your vowels are just going to move around. Consonants don't like to shift because it's consonants that carry the meaning of the root. And so, for example, in Hebrew, you have a bunch of radicals, you have a bunch of consonants, and the vowels are secondary in a sense. And this is just true in most languages, I think. So you have to decide. Look at Gwyn. Am I now? What's the root of dynamite again? Gamma Epsilon. Nu Well, you see again they say, See, there is you're inserted into big deal. I don't even care what the letter before the theta is. I mean, I really don't care because it's always it's so often it's a change of this or an insertion of that.

[00:15:01] I got my, my, my eye just skips it. As soon as I identify the root, I see the theta. I'm out of there. Do you know Skull, What's the root of Jinnah's skull? You know, Gunner with an old class wall. So when you see igneous, they've got an inserted sigma, then that's absolutely regular. See why you learn the roots is you have to memorize all these things. You're welcome. Anyway, this is the kind of thing you need to be doing now in chapter 25, the next chapter, we're going to look at the perfect, and then we're done with all six of our tense forms. And so certainly by the end of 25, you need to sit and go update all your vocabulary cards and you need to work through all of them, go through the what's in the appendix, all the different ten stems, and you need to make up your mind which forms you would identify when you see them or which forms you need to memorize. But you have to be the judge. Okay.