Preaching - Lesson 11

Sermon Divisions & Development

In order to understand the basic subdivisions of your sermon in expository development, it is important to it is helpful to see what the specific members of your sermon's body looks like in standard development.

Bryan Chapell
Lesson 11
Watching Now
Sermon Divisions & Development

I. Introduction to Exposition

A. Definition of Exposition

B. Historical Context of Exposition

C. Purpose of Exposition

II. Components of Exposition

A. Three Major Components of Exposition

1. Presentation of the Word

2. Explanation of the Word

3. Exhortation Based on the Word

B. Three Essential Components of Exposition

1. Explanation Component

2. Illustration Component

3. Application Component

C. Proportion of Expositional Elements

1. Explanation (One-third)

2. Illustration (One-third)

3. Application (One-third)

III. Expositional Structure and Variations

A. Double Helix Representation

1. Explanation Component Variability

2. Illustration Component Variability

3. Application Component Variability

B. Impact of Subject, Audience, and Situation

IV. Distinguishing Scripture Intro and Sermon Intro

V. Upcoming Preaching Lectures and Special Chapel

VI. Thanksgiving Break and Class Expectations

VII. Q&A Session

  • Gain insights into effective preaching principles, covering history, essential components, styles, and techniques, and learn how to prepare and deliver impactful sermons.
  • Gain valuable insights on sermon construction, learn techniques for effective preaching, and understand the importance of continuous improvement for delivering impactful messages.
  • Through this lesson, you gain valuable insights into the process of text selection and interpretation for preaching, as well as learning practical techniques for delivering engaging and relevant sermons.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into the process of creating a sermon, from text selection to delivery, emphasizing textual analysis and message relevance.
  • Through this lesson, you gain the skills to craft clear, engaging, and memorable sermons by mastering the principles of effective outlining and arrangement in preaching.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to craft effective propositions and main points, enhancing your preaching clarity and impact.
  • By exploring homiletical outlines, you'll learn to effectively develop and structure sermons, understand various outline types, and apply engaging presentation techniques for impactful preaching.
  • In this lesson, you gain insights into crafting engaging introductions for sermons, exploring their importance, characteristics, types, and the process of creating a compelling introduction that effectively connects to the message.
  • Through this lesson, you learn the importance of exposition in preaching, how to develop an expository sermon, and the role of the preacher for effective communication.
  • This lesson teaches you to create captivating sermon introductions using anecdotes, questions, and facts, guiding you through research, structuring, and presentation to maximize audience engagement and improve your overall sermon impact.
  • In order to understand the basic subdivisions of your sermon in expository development, it is important to it is helpful to see what the specific members of your sermon's body looks like in standard development.

  • By completing this lesson, you learn to effectively prepare and deliver sermons while focusing on personal growth, continuous improvement, and dependence on God.
  • Learn to effectively classify and develop sermons into topical, textual, and expository types, enhancing your preaching skills and audience connection.
  • In this lesson, you learn the significance of explanation in preaching and strategies to craft and deliver effective explanatory sermons while evaluating their effectiveness for continuous improvement.
  • By incorporating illustrations into your preaching, you engage listeners, clarify complex ideas, and enhance memory retention while learning effective guidelines to utilize various types of illustrations.
  • Explore this lesson to learn how to effectively use illustrations in sermons by isolating events or experiences, refining principles, and connecting with your audience through human interest accounts.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to effectively use illustrations in preaching to engage listeners, clarify concepts, and draw from various sources, while maintaining relevance, variety, and ethical considerations.
  • Gain insight into the importance of application in preaching, as well as principles and methods for effective application, to create impactful and relevant sermons that resonate with your audience.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to effectively apply biblical teachings to modern life, considering various approaches, overcoming challenges, and utilizing practical tips for context-sensitive and culturally aware application.
  • Through this lesson, you gain insights into crafting effective transitions in preaching and utilizing the dialogical method for increased audience engagement and message clarity.
  • Gain insight into various sermon presentation methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and learn to choose the right method and improve your preaching skills.
  • Through this lesson, you enhance your preaching skills by mastering vocal techniques and purposeful gestures, ensuring a connection with the audience while continually improving your delivery.
  • Learn the significance of dress and style in preaching and how to balance authenticity, appropriateness, and clarity to effectively communicate your message to your audience.
  • You learn to effectively repurpose old sermons, gaining insight into updating them for relevance, enhancing delivery, and managing time efficiently.
  • By studying this lesson, you gain insight into the crucial connection between the Word and Spirit in preaching and learn to balance them for effective and authentic sermons.
  • Through this lesson, you learn how to apply a Christ-centered, redemptive-historical approach to preaching, addressing common criticisms and enhancing your sermons.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to compose powerful redemptive messages that highlight Christ's work and connect biblical themes to modern audiences.
  • Through this lesson, you gain an understanding of redemptive principles in preaching, learning to identify them in Scripture and effectively apply them to your sermons while navigating potential challenges.
  • By exploring the importance of genre in biblical interpretation and applying redemptive interpretation to various biblical genres, you will gain knowledge and insight into the historical and literary context, redemptive themes and patterns, and contemporary application of different types of genres in the Bible.


Dr. Bryan Chapell explores the unifying principle of grace that binds all Scripture together. He outlines and demonstrates the principles and practice of sermon-crafting and delivery to illuminate the message of grace in each passage, and to submit it to God's Spirit for the transformation of lives through preaching.

Dr. Chapell is making these recorded lectures available for you to access at no charge on BiblicalTraining.org. However, there is no personal interaction with Dr. Chapell in this format. The assignments and activities described are for classes that he teaches in person. We left the descriptions in for your benefit, but we do not offer personal or group interaction to participate in these activities. You can, however, sign up for his new preaching classes at BryanChapell.com/courses.

Dr. Chapell is helped in this course by Zachary W. Eswine, Assistant Professor of Homiletics and Director of the Doctor of Ministry Program (BSW, Ball State University; MDiv, Covenant Theological Seminary; PhD, Regent University). Dr. Eswine served as senior pastor of Grace Church of the Western Reserve in Hudson, Ohio, for six years before joining Covenant Seminary's faculty in 2001. He has served as a campus minister with the Navigators, as a church youth director, and as a chaplain-evangelist in retirement facilities. Since arriving at the Seminary, Dr. Eswine has also served as interim pastor for Tates Creek Presbyterian Church in Lexington, Kentucky, as advisory pastor for the Chinese Gospel Church of St. Louis, and as interim pastor for Cornerstone Evangelical Free Church in St. Louis. He has taught New Testament in Ukraine and served as a short-term missionary in the Caribbean. Dr. Eswine is a gifted preacher and has authored the book Kindled Fire: How the Methods of C. H. Spurgeon Can Help Your Preaching and numerous articles on homiletics. In addition, as an accomplished musician and songwriter, he has recorded three collections of original songs.

Philosophy and Goals of the Course

1. "Prep and Del" is an introduction to the basics of sermon construction and delivery. This is not primarily a course on the theology of preaching, but rather is a practical introduction to the tools, structures, and concepts that help preachers learn to put a sermon together. 

2. Because this course is introductory, certain standards of sermon construction are taught that I hope you will consider "foundational" rather than universal. There is not only one "right way" to preach. However, mastering the methods of this course will help you develop the tools needed for many kinds of future sermons. Students from many backgrounds and preaching traditions have found these tools helpful even as they prepare for other styles in the future. Other methods and styles will be taught and encouraged in future semesters.

3. In Dr. Chapell's seminary class, you would be asked to present some short oral assignments to the class in order to: a) begin integrating the information presented in lectures; b) begin honing your preaching skills; c) and, remove some of the intimidation of your first preaching experience next semester.

(At this time, we do not provide personal interaction to evaluate your progress. We included the suggested assignments and activities to give you direction as you apply the principles you are learning to your own sermon preparation and delivery.)

Recommended Books

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell

Christ-Centered Preaching: Redeeming the Expository Sermon [Hardcover]Bryan Chapell (Author)

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell
Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Highly regarded preacher and teacher Bryan Chapell shows readers how he has prepared expository sermons according to the principles he developed in his bestselling...

Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Dr. Bryan Chapell



Sermon Divisions & Development

Lesson Transcript

[00:00:00] This recording is provided courtesy of Covenant Theological Seminary. The first one on your review is what are three major components of exposition? So three major components of exposition evidence in Old Testament models that were systematized in synagogue worship patterns reflected in the New Testament. That's a very long question that says, What pattern do you see established in the Old Testament that continues into the New Testament for presenting and preaching biblical text? You have presentation of the word then what explanation of the word and then exhortation based on the word. Remember that pattern that you saw from Nehemiah that picks up and moves through? So you have presentation of the word, explanation of the word and then exhortation based upon the word. Now that's those components of biblical pattern that follow through. The next question what are three essential components of exposition? So now you're just looking at that explanation component, right? So what are three essential elements of exposition that are to be included in every main point? And we, of course, have to say, are they formal traditional sermon? We recognize this will be varied, but if you're looking at a formal main point, you have what always included exploration, illustration, application, explanation, illustration, application of the three formal elements. And the next question is very or should I say stereotypical? And we have to acknowledge that what is the proportion of these expositional elements for a general audience, you know, this kind of thing for a very generic sermon? What proportion would explanation, illustration, application have? A third, a third, a third. But of course, the next question is even more critical, which is how may a double helix represent the expositional structure of a Sherman's main points? And how may this structure vary depending on target audience? Which means, of course, explanation, illustration application may do would vary tremendously.

[00:02:20] So if you're looking at that double helix, those bubbles may swell or shrink accordingly to the nature of the subject, the nature of the audience, the nature view of the nature of the situation. So many variables there that we recognize. I will just tell you straight out, almost every year I simply ask for people to reproduce the double helix and begin to explain its components. So we're going to keep adding to it. But it's very common that I'll say. Tell me what the components are. Tell me how they vary and we will see. They get more involved as we go. But it's very common that I ask people to reproduce that. And then just to get a sense of today, it's not on your questions, but I think you'll have it in your brain to description to just distinguish. It's often important to distinguish the scripture intro from the what? The sermon intro. The Scripture intro as introducing the Scripture. The sermon intro is introducing the sermon. And sometimes we confuse those two things. It's where we actually deaden the beginning of the sermon by confusing those two elements to let you know where we are and where we're going. I think you recognize next week are the preaching lectures. So let me give you a quick schedule there. Again, the preaching lectures start actually on Thursday morning. So Tuesday morning in chapel at 930. So that's the first of the preaching lectures. Alistair Begg will be the one who is here and Alistair will be speaking on Tuesday morning. That's at 930. Then Wednesday, you remember that classes are called off and all day long is the preaching conference. And everybody who's in a homologs course through the semester is required to come. So those are the times.

[00:04:07] Again, Chapel is at 830 that morning. So the chapel period starts at 830 on Wednesday. Eight 3211 is the first lecture series portion, then 1030 to 12. Life is 12 to 1 and then 130 to 3. So it's pretty much the entire school day, starting from 830 and going to three with an hour's lunch break. So again, that's Alex back now you have work assignments, you can't come, etc. They will be reproduced on tapes for you to receive. You will be tested on that material, though, just so that you need to be aware that that will be part of the midterm is you're being tested on the material that's presented in the preaching lectures. So if you absolutely cannot come again because classes are not are not being held, the assumption is that people can come, most of you. But if you can't, the tapes will be made available to you. Okay, So that's next to Tuesday and Wednesday. And then a number of people were asking about Tim Keller. Tim is actually speaking at the pastors conference, which has gotten so large that we've had to do it off campus. But we will ask him to come and speak on Thursday morning and actually host a special chapel for students who were not able to go out to the to the pastor's conference because we've had to move it off campus. We've asked him to come on Thursday morning and there will be a special chapel, not usually scheduled for Thursday mornings, but when we hear Tim Keller then on Thursday morning as well. So that's coming. Actually, it looks like a tremendous week ahead. So that's a great blessing to have them in town. Michael. Good question. You have to sign up for the Wilson lectures.

[00:05:56] No. Unless you're doing it for separate credit. There are very few people who take it for elective credit and they have extra assignments to do. So unless you're signing up for elective credit. No, you just attend and you do not have to sign up. If you're going to the pastor's conference that not only use sign up. I mean, there are registration fees, etc., if you're participating in the pastor's conference. I think some of that's been in your boxes and you may know more details than I do on that. But again, you don't have to sign up for Tim Keller on Thursday morning. He'll be here for us. But, Michael, something that you're so passionate about. That's right. The Thanksgiving break as you're planning for it. I mean, we just can't cancel classes on both sides of that. So we will continue to have class on both sides of the Thanksgiving break. Is the way it is the way to say it. Thanksgiving great starts Thursday and we will be doing devotionals. That's the sequence that we will be in where we will actually be broken into small sections and being devotional, doing devotionals, presenting to each other across the campus. So in order for us to sequence, we need to keep that in effect at this point. Now, I think what I said was, if you know you absolutely have to be gone, then you'll have to make sure you trade with someone. If you happen to be scheduled to be speaking on that day. That makes sense. On the Wednesday before Thanksgiving, if you're scheduled to be a speaker on that day, you'll have to be careful of trade with someone. So it was possible that I. They were quiet about. Well, I'm sorry.

[00:07:38] The Thanksgiving break is Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. So there's no classes in that period, right. There's not. There's no classes Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. So there's no classes. It's the Wednesday that I typically get concerned about that people make their travel plans to get away at that point. And I'm saying, you know, I can't say never don't do that. But I'm saying there will be assignments do on that Wednesday because people have to be preaching to one another on that day. And they also know that, well, it wouldn't be the day after Thanksgiving. It would be the Wednesday following. Right. Right. The way people often work. I know this would never happen with anybody in this class, but the way people think is I got this four days in the middle of that week. Why not just take the whole week? And that's what I'm saying you can't do. I mean, you can do, but there will be consequences because you won't be able to get your assignment done because we are speaking to one another and being graded on that on the Wednesday before and what would then be the Wednesday after Thanksgiving? Aaron David. It's at 930. So that's going to be done. It's just regular chapel time. It starts just during regular chapel time and. The Thursday, is it? Oh, good question. I don't know. Is there. Correct. There is a chapel the next Friday as well. But, you know, that's a good question. I don't know what anybody know this anybody from student services in here at the moment? No, I actually don't know what on that special chapel that was I was told was on Thursday. I just assumed it was at the normal time. But I don't know that for sure.

[00:09:13] So, Will, it's got to dodge classes somehow. So whatever. Whatever it is, it's. It's a sequence. After the class time, let's pray and we'll we'll move forward here. Father. We call you our Lord and master. We do so because you give us direction and requirements. But you also provide what you require. So you are not merely our master, but our redeemer. And we would ask the stay that she would teach us to be dependent on you, not merely for matters great and the times of extremity. But father in the ordinary course of life, this class period, what we do the rest of the day, what we think about is we are preparing these messages for your people long term. Would you help us, even our hearts now to be saying, Lord, don't send us up to do this task if you don't go with us. Send your spirit even now, to equip us for the purposes to which you call us. We ask your aid, your blessing, your enablement through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen. Here's what we're doing today. And in the Gulf War, the lesson is to understand the basic subdivisions. And the key there is the word sub. We're understanding the basic, basic subdivisions of a sermon in standard expository development. Just to give you the the big picture of where we have been and where we are going, It's this we're zooming in from where we've been, right? We start out by saying, what's the general nature of preaching the word of God? What's the nature of the servant of the word of God? What's the idea of what's in the text? What's the text like? What are rules and ideas for selecting text, then tools for interpreting the text. But at some point we had to start dealing with the text.

[00:11:08] And so we began constructing sermons which we said are taking that exegetical material that comes out of the exegetical outline and other research and beginning to enfolded into a political outline. And we've seen the structure take some form now over the course of these weeks in which we recognize that there is a scripture reading. And the preaching is based upon that reading of the word. There's also, we learned last time now a scripture introduction, and we begin to move in, in a taxonomy here and get terms to deal with the anatomy of a sermon. So we know that the Scripture intro actually has elements in it, like the Sea and Sea. Remember, contextualization and creation of longing. It's fairly brief, but we're trying to get people into the reading of the word. We know that after the reading of the word, there will be an introduction, and this is the sermon introduction, and we begin to recognize this itself had various components, like it was to arouse attention, introduce the subject, make an identifiable FCF, prepare for the proposition in concept and terminology and bond the Scripture. So we recognize there were these various components of the introduction, which was getting us ready for the proposition. And the proposition we recognize had its own components. It was a component of what is true and what to do about it. Member principal plus application. So the proposition had its own components. Now we begin to look at the body of the sermon, and we began doing that by just thinking of the skeleton, the main point structures. So we see that there are these these big ribs, as it were, of the sermon of this main point structure. But then we say we've got to define the meat that's going in and onto these bones here.

[00:13:03] So we begin to look at main points and we recognize they have a configuration themselves. And we describe it as this double helix, which was explanation, illustration. And application. We know that these components can flip. They don't have to be in that standard order. They usually are, but they don't have to be explanation, illustration, application. And where we are today is this. We're now doing some microsurgery and we're going right into there and we're saying, what are the components of the explanation? So what are the components of that piece right there and begin to think of them? Of course, we know later on we'll be looking at the components of illustration and application. But for today, we're going to look at the components of the explanation, particularly its minor ribs. Okay. So we're going to beginning to look at kind of some of the elemental structure, as it were, in the sub points. And that pretty much gets us ready, by the way, just for for page two of your outline that you're reading with me today. So everything that I was just saying is those divisions of the sermon reviewed. That's what that material was, that I was just drawing in picture form for us here. And you see, then we are ready now to begin analyzing the divisions of explanation within the main points. But I do want to back up just a little bit before we go in and begin to look at that filamentous structure and remind ourselves what are the guidelines for the main point, the divisions themselves. So as we think of these big pieces, we need to think again the strategy that we were dealing with when we consider the number and nature of the main points. There can be three of these.

[00:14:48] Okay. So things that we need to consider for the number and the nature of main points. Now, again, you're out of here and you're going to go of course, I mean, these are these are kind of commonsensical things, but they help us get ready for thinking about what sub points are. So the first thing is this In determining the number and nature of main points, we use the number of divisions necessary. We use the number of divisions necessary to present the thought of the passage. Key phrase here is present the thought. We use the number of divisions necessary to present the thought of the passage. So whatever is necessary to get the thought of the passage in front of us, that's how we're choosing the number. We've said there could be three point messages. That's kind of standard. But we know there can be two point messages. There can be four or more point messages. Sometimes we'll discover later that can be one point messages, but will choose the number of divisions necessary to present the thought of the passage. Number two will use the number of divisions necessary to cover the territory. We use the number of division necessary to cover the territory. The expository ethic is to open the Bible and say, Let me tell you what this passage says. We tell you what this passage means. Now, when I do that, if I say so, I explain verse one and I explain verse two and I explain verse four. Now explain verse five. What did I just fail to do? I didn't explain verse three. That's what covering the territory is about, the passage that I present as the expository unit. I will cover that territory because I've said to you as an expositor, I will explain what this means.

[00:16:38] And if you just skip portions, then you can't do that. Now, does that mean you cover every portion equally? No. Some is going to need a lot of attention. Some will need a little attention. Right. Some you might take three verses and group it into one main point. You might take another verse and divide it into into four some points. It will it will vary. The amount of attention you feel is needed to explain the passage. But the goal is to cover the territory, All the language and you'll still see it in a lot of homologs textbooks is to exhaust the passage. That was the old language. Why is that a little problematic to our ears? So when you look at the text, you should exhaust the passage. The answer is you might exhaust the people. Yeah, that's true. Do we? I mean, we typically think about the inexhaustible riches of the word of God, right? That you're never going to get to the bottom of it. You'll never plumb the full depths. But that really wasn't what the old language meant. It really meant cover the territory. So that's what we're going to mind ourselves to do as well is cover the territory. Now, both of these were about presenting the thought of the passage and covering the territory of the passage. The third reason that we determine the number and nature of main points is this We use the number of divisions necessary to organize the thought of the sermon. We use the number of necessary to organize the thought of the sermon present, the thought of the passage, cover the passage. But now we have to organize the thought of the sermon itself. So there's the the communicative obligations as well. And that organization will be things like I need to choose the number to make the number of points necessary to make this logical and proportional and progressive.

[00:18:30] I'll choose the number of points necessary to make the sermon logical, proportional and progressive. Proportional because we don't want one main point to last 30 seconds and the next one to last 30 minutes. Okay. It needs to be roughly, you know, not exact, but roughly proportional and do not feel like we're just stuck in one place that we're progressing as we move through the message. So we choose the number divisions necessary to make the sermon logical, proportional and progressive. But now I think you begin to feel, if I'm going to a 30 minute message or so, then having these main points coming every 8 to 10 minutes, they may themselves get lost. How do I connect these pieces? And the answer is we have subdivisions that are themselves anchored by sub points. So this explanation portion of the main point itself has navigation signs in it, and those navigation signs are sub points that move us through that main point and get us to the next main point. So we're going to talk about for a while the nature of sub points and their key characteristics first or a in your outline here. Three a sub points complement, sub points complement that is support or prove their specific main point. Now as obvious as that is, we look at the sub point and we're saying, does it deal with my main point? Because the tendency is to develop a main point that somewhere in the passage. And then as you're simply moving through the passage, begin to identify some points. But they don't conceptually link to that main point. You're moving through the pattern of the passage, but not developing the thought of your main point, which may mean that you have to move that sub point to another main point, whatever it is.

[00:20:27] You want to make sure this sub point complements or supports its specific main point. And then the little stool with all the legs under it for proposition main points. Same still works for main points and at some points. Right. The main points is the top and all the sub points have to conceptually fit under that main point. Number two sub points relate to their main point in the same way sub points relate to their main point in the same way. That is, they can answer a similar not same necessarily, but a similar diagnostic question or support the main point in the same way. Now, if you hear it, you'll automatically know what I'm talking about. Let me give you a main point and sub points and you tell me which one doesn't fit. Okay, because it doesn't develop the main point in the same way as the others. Let's just listen to in your ear will tell you. Because God is sovereign, we should honor him. Main point. Because God is sovereign, we should honor him. Some points we should obey him. We should trust him. Prayer leads to godliness. Which one is not like the others. Number three. Now, it may be a very true statement. Prayer leads to godliness. It may be within the text. It is even something about honoring a sovereign God. Prayer leads us to you know, it even conceptually may fit, but it is not worded like the others. It does not develop the main point in a similar or same way. Let me just read it again. Because God is sovereign, we should honor him. We should obey him. We should trust him. Prayer leads to godliness. What question is being answered by We should obey him. So how? QUESTION Right.

[00:22:20] How should we honor him? Because God is sovereign. We should honor him. How should we honor him? We should obey him. We should trust him. Prayer leads to godliness. Now convert it. How could you take prayer leads to godliness and make it fit as a sub point? We should trust him. We should. We should obey him. We should trust him. Prayer leads to godliness. Make it fit. We should. We should pray to him. Okay. You word it in such a way that it will answer a similar or same diagnostic question. What you just noticed was strong parallelism, right? The parallelism will usually make you word things in such a way that they are developing the main point in the same way. Now, they may be answering slightly different questions, but the developing the main point in the same way see, again, fairly obvious sub points are about the one thing the main point is about, not new subjects. Sometimes people confuse that, Oh, here's a sub point. I'm talking about something else now. No, the sub points are subdivisions of their main point. They're not about new subjects. They're about the development of that subject. So they stick on point. The sub points ordinarily support the developmental or develop the developmental clause. We also call that the magnet clause, right? Some points ordinarily support or develop the developmental clause that is the magnet clause of the main point. I was just remind ourselves again, the magnet clause is the one with the keyword change, right? That triggers the ear. Oh, there's something different in that parallel phrase. So those sub points are dealing with what attracts the attention of the ear in the main point. What's different in the main point, the sub points are about that, which means they are supporting or developing the magnet clause.

[00:24:17] The very point of the magnet clause was to draw attention to itself and therefore it draws the explanation of the sub points. The sub points are about the magnet clause. Quick reminder, where does you develop the anchor clause just before or after? The proposition that a mega class anchor clause, the anchor clause of the main points, remember the thing that doesn't change. Remember, that's the basis of the sermon. So the anchor clause is getting developed way up here, possibly early in the first main point. But the magnet clauses, the developmental side, are the ones that are getting the attention of the explanation. The anchor clause typically is kind of a taken for granted understand very quickly thing that is developed very early. And then the magnet clause is what is drawing the attention of the explanation for this reason. E Sub points are brief, sub points are brief, statements of principle. See the double underline there or application. Not both propositions were principle and application. Main points were principle and application, but some points are only going to be about one side of the main point, right? Only about the magnet clause. So some points are going to be principle or application because they are only developing the one side. So whatever that one side was, you typically know that's what the sub points will be just to continue in there. Sub points are generally not weddings of principle in application because only the magnet clause, because only the magnet clause of the main point is being proven, which is either principle or application. This means sub points are usually short sentences. Short sentences. It's not as important as the next fill in. They are usually short sentences or sentence fragments. They are short sentences or sentence fragments.

[00:26:24] We'll see more why that is in just a minute. How you set them up will depend on whether will determine whether they are sentences or just portions of sentences. And we'll talk about it in just a minute. But sometimes some points are not complete sentences. They may only just be sentence fragments. Here's the idea of what you're doing with sub points. For the average listener, the sermon is coming to them. I think that mad wall of words just coming at them. All these words, words, words, words coming at them. And what some points are trying to say. Here's a way to navigate through there. And the way I'm doing it to change the metaphor now is I'm going to be hanging a lot of thought on these sub points instead of just telling you the nature of the Eris tense of the Greek is complete, You know, why is he telling me all that sub point bang a hammer and peg on the door and now I can hang lots of information on it. Now I know what you're taught. Why are you telling me it's completed action? Because I need to know. You're saying because God has taken care of this. Look, even the wording of the verb is when I say God has taken care of it. That was my thought. Peg. Sub points are the thought peg that then we begin to hang all our exegetical explanatory information upon. For a rule of thumb, if the explanation is longer than a long paragraph on a page, you know, if you're getting beyond a third of a page or so, you're going to need another sub point, just a general rule of thumb. Now, you don't always need some points. Sometimes you can function without them because main points may be fairly clear.

[00:27:56] Just move on. But usually if you know you've got more than a a long paragraph of explanation, you're going to need another sub point. Some point say here's a large paragraph of thought, I'm going to give you the general. But first the peg on the door before start hanging all this information on it. So some points are giving people a way to navigate through as we give them that information. Let's go on to some of this other material that will help us and then we'll begin to look at lots of examples. F. Some points exhibit unity that is there about one thing. It is, whatever the sum point is. Uniqueness, the exhibit, unity and uniqueness that is there, not coexistence either. You know, we should say, I thought you just said that they are unique. They exhibit parallelism. Parallelism, they reflect one another in wording. And progression. They consistently lead to the larger concept this, plus this, plus this. I understand the whole. So they're progressive as well. Some points are not required. Well, that's an interesting thought. See, the not so. The one thing to underline some points are not required. But if they are given, they must be multiple. If you had only one sub point what Senator, then it should have been the main point. Sub main sub is a subdivision. You don't have just one subdivision after to at least two. So if you have sub points there should be at least two. If you have only one, relook at your main point and reward it somehow. Okay. So that you don't just have one sub point. You may simply say I don't need sub points. You know, this is so clear. God says you should pray and not give up.

[00:29:45] What that means is, regardless of your circumstances, you should not give up seeking God. Now, I probably don't need to tell you the iterative nature of the Greek present tense. Now I don't need a paragraph. I just probably to say that it's time to illustrate and apply and move on. So not all main points need multiple paragraphs of explanation, which means not all main points need sub points. But if they do have multiple paragraphs of explanation, we typically will need sub points for our heres to navigate through each sub points usually point to a specific portion of the text. Sub points usually point to a specific portion of the text. That is, we often show the verse after the sub point in our outline will say you should honor God. Parentheses, verse three What portion of the text supports what I just said? Can you think of some exceptions where there might not be a verse reference that is supporting your sub point? What other information might you import that might need to be at some point? Context is the key thing. There may be some historical context. There may be some literary context that is not a verse in this passage, but it's something that you're saying. You need to know this in order to know what that main points about. Most of the time. Most of the time there will be a direct verse reference in the text to every sub point. We'll talk more on that later. But I'll show you some examples here in just a bit. Some points usually are symmetrical and proportional, so points usually are symmetrical and proportional. They are similar in length to each other under a main point and proportional. That is, they fairly evenly divide the explanation.

[00:31:32] Right. I don't I don't have one sub point that runs a third of a paragraph and another sub point that runs five paragraphs write the roughly evenly dividing the explanation of a main point and j the really tough one here. Sub points, develop the cosmological outline, sub points, develop the humble medical outline rather than outline. The text that is merely describe the text. The classic word of competitions is sub points are stated as principles, not mere statements of fact stated as principles, not mere statements of fact. I'll show you, because I know that's often confusing just what that means. When you say that you're they are not. Merely describing a text. Here's an example of sub points that merely describe the text. Because God blesses faithfulness, we should obey him. My first point is Israel confronted Jericho. My second Israel marched around Jericho. My third, the walls of Jericho fell. Is it true? Yes. Is it taken from the text? Yes. Does it describe accurately what happens in the text? Yes. But they are simply statements of fact. There are no principles being developed such as this would show. Now recognize it's the same passage because God blesses faithfulness. We should obey him. Faithfulness requires confronting God's enemies. Do you hear the principle? What's the fact that supports that? Would it wrong Israel go up against? They went up against Jericho. Okay. So I'm going to bring those facts into this explanation paragraph. Right. But the sub point itself is where is a principle of biblical truth? It's not just a regurgitation of the facts of the text. It's the principle the facts will support. Because what you're ultimately developing is which we should obey him. Right. So you're developing the principle up here. It has to be these print these things where this principle, faithfulness, requires obeying God's word.

[00:34:01] What was the simple fact? Israel marched around Jericho. Who told them to do that? God told them to do that. The walls of Jericho fell. Faithfulness requires obeying God's Word. Faithfulness results in seeing God's hand. Now face most results in seeing God's hand. What facts will support that? The walls came tumbling down. Okay, so it's not merely stating the facts of the text. Again, from a logical outline, it's developing the principles the facts will support. Now, the place that will deal the most with this is actually a semester from now when we begin dealing with narrative passages as we begin to look at the accounts of Scripture. That's where people are tempted to make the facts of the text, the points of their outline. This semester you're dealing with didactic passages from the epistles, so you typically won't fall into this, only describing the facts of the text. And that's okay. But I just want you to kind of hear that language begin to develop in your brains, and that is what we are developing the message. We are not merely describing the text, we're developing the message in the homily article outline, not merely describing the text description of the text. We'll go into the sermon for sure to support the principles that we say are there. Okay, let's go to some basic types of sub points to begin to think how this is going to occur for us. And the reason we're doing this, everyone is what's ahead of us. You know that we're putting our sermons together for the semester, right? So here's where we're going in assignments. You've done main points, you've done propositions, you've done introductions, we're moving toward conclusions and sub points. So you won't do it for next time.

[00:35:58] But your next big assignment is to return in your outline with some points and conclusions. Okay. So as we continue to build the sermon, so what we're doing today is kind of saying, what are the nature of these sub points, even as we're moving toward what's the nature of conclusions? So let's talk about some of the specific kinds of sub points that there are. The first very basic form of sub point in your notes. There is analytical question responses, analytical question, answers or responses. What happens in your notes? I'm just gonna read their first for all sub points. In a main point we ask and you almost want to put in your notes. We ask out loud. We ask out loud a question and overarching question like how do we know that this is true? Or when should this apply in our lives? And then we answer the question with short statements that introduce the explanations. Here you go. Here's the main point Because Jesus provides the only hope of salvation, we must present Christ despite our difficulties. When we ask a question about that, this is known as interrogating the main point. Okay? We ask the question about it and of course, and what types of difficulties must we present Christ in? Circumstantial difficulties? In relational difficulties? In spiritual difficulties. Are these points complete sentences? No, they're sentence fragments. Right. But they are answers to this question. That is a complete sentence. Okay. So that was. That's what makes the fight complete. The answer to the analytical question. So we ask a question about the main point, and then we answer that question with the sub points. You see where it gets its name. Analytical question responses. See? And also question. And the sub points are the responses to one overarching analytical question.

[00:38:11] The question is a great question, Aaron. Is the analytical question considered a sub point? No. The analytical question is only getting the sub points ready. Okay. So the the analytical question is just setting up the sub point answers. All right. Now, that was an analytical question, response very similar. And the next major type of sub point are interrogative sub points. Interrogative sub points. On your notes again for interrogative, for this, for each sub point, we ask a new question rather than having an overarching question that we answered with the sub points. For each sub point, we ask a new question. Now in your notes, it's really important, even though I've underlined it, that you underline it too. We answer it immediately. We answer the question immediately with a concise statement, then show where the statement is derived and give the explanation that supports the statement. Do not delay the answer until after the explanation. The ear does not have the patience of the eye. Again, where sermons will differ from essays. Many of you have been taught to write essays with that very powerful way of ask questions. Then develop the answer, then give the answer. Okay, so the eye is saying, Well, now here's an important question. Why is the population of Greece diminishing today? And then you begin to say, this happened in Greece, this happened, Greece, this happened. Well, it's because of the wars that have gone. And so we get all these explanations and then we get the final conclusion. And the conclusion comes at the end of the paragraph, or maybe two or three paragraphs. We don't do that in preaching and preaching. We say, what types of difficulties may we face? Christ enemies. Look in the verse it says.

[00:40:09] Then I begin to explain my answer. So the question sets up the answer that is given immediately in an interrogative set point, and then we begin to explain how we got that answer. Aaron. Now ask your question again is the question of sub point. Thank you. One of the questions is the questions I don't know. The answer is the sub point. The answer is the sum point, which means we're going to try to keep our answers as well as the questions as parallel as possible, not just the questions parallel. We need the parallelism of the question. So the ears saying, oh, he's beginning another subdivision here. So we have what types of difficulties might we face? Quite enemies. What helps us face these difficulties? Christ Armies. Here. I'm striving to get parallelism. Where am I going To explain what Christ armies means? Now in the paragraph that follows and looking at the text and developing what is there about Christ armies. But the questions are as parallel as possible and the answers are as parallel as possible to okay, because technically the answer holds the sub point. We're getting to the sub point by the questions. So again, I didn't even read this main point because Jesus provides that in the hope of salvation we must present Christ despite our difficulties. Underline would be the anchor cloth. So we're developing. We must present Christ despite our difficulties. That's if that's the main idea. We must present Christ. Despite our difficulties. I got obvious questions. What types of difficulties may we face? Christ enemies. Another main question. Well, then what helps us face those difficulties? Christ armies. So it's a way of moving through the explanation by repetitive questions. It's actually a very engaging way to preach.

[00:42:05] It's it's typically what should I say? It's typically not the way you think of developing outlines when you write them. You know, you'll do an outline. You kind of do bullets. Most of us do. So the way we write outlines is as bullet statements, but you'll find the way often to present them very engagingly, is keep asking questions, ask questions out loud, and then respond to your own questions. It's it's dealing very sympathetically to the hearer. If I were sitting in your seat, what question would I be asking? Then go ahead and ask it. And people know he knows what's in my mind. That guy reads my mail. You know, he he knows exactly what I'm thinking. And all you're doing is you're asking the questions you would naturally ask if you were the listener, but you're asking the questions for the listener and then answering them as the way of developing the thought of the passage. The last form, the basic form of some points is what we probably thought would be the first form, and that is bullet statements. Bullet. These are sentences or sentence fragments, again, that are not set up by questions. They are simply statements in themselves. So because Jesus provides the only hope of salvation, we must present Christ despite our difficulties in the midst of busyness, in the face of fear, in the storm of anger. All right. So I'm simply moving as bullet statements, developing what we do to present Christ despite our difficulties. Now, there's something I just want to show you conceptually, the difference between analytical question responses, interrogative, and bullet statements. But I think you recognize if we were actually developing this in an outline, what's missing? Verse references. There'd be verse references going with each of the sub points so that they would typically look more.

[00:44:09] Like this. Because Jesus is the only salvation. We must present Christ in difficult situations, facing circumstantial obstacles. First 12 facing spiritual obstacles versus 13 through 14. Now, of course, just seeing it here in outline doesn't mean we're going to say it all that way. We've got paragraphs of explanation now to explain verse 12 and explain versus 13 and 14, and we'll begin to develop those in that paragraph of thought that falls under that sub point. But the point again is the thought, peg, we hammer on the door so we can now hang lots of information on it. Okay. Let me let me show you some examples. Okay. And then take questions because I know you'll have them. But let me let me show you some more examples and we'll show you positive things and then negative things and begin to consider them here as we're looking at this first set of some points about being said to they are they are bullets, Right. There's not a question about them and it's not a question that goes with each one of them. So you know that these are bullet points and they will answer similar diagnostic questions like when our difficulties or what are our difficulties, Right. Circumstantial or spiritual? You say different ways of answering those things. Look at these necks and tell me what type of some points are these? Because Jesus is the only hope of salvation. We must preach Christ to difficult people. Who are these people? Those without mercy. How must we deal with those people as those with mercy? What type of sub points are they? They're interrogative. You've got a different question. Setting up each of the sub points. Now are the sub points exactly parallel? They're not. But you do see there's an attempt to make them as parallel as possible, to try to make them similar in wording as we can.

[00:46:15] So the first was without mercy. Something about without mercy. The next is kind of a contrast parallelism, right? Without mercy. With mercy. And we're trying to get that year working to hear the concepts behind the main point. We recognize the difficult people are those without mercy. How do we deal with them and those who have mercy? We with mercy. Okay. So we're trying to get parallel wording as much as possible. This what is this? Because Jesus is the only hope of salvation. We must preach Christ despite our difficulties. What sorts of difficulties may we face? What sorts of difficulties? In the face of present frustration in the face of past failure? What kind of sub points are those? Their answers to analytical questions. That's right. So their analytical question responses, one overarching question and then the responses to that one question. So those are the different types. Let me show you some negatives and then I'll take your question. Okay. Show you some that may have some problems. Just look at the main point, if you would, because Jesus is the only hope of salvation. We must preach Christ in difficult situations. Peter ignored the authorities. Peter spoke from jail. What's the problem here? He's describing the text rather than developing the message. Okay. Is it true in the text that Peter ignored the authorities and that Peter spoke for all true. But these are not Hamlet, Titian's words. These are not principles. Some points. The principle is not developed. We describe the text, but we don't have wording that enables us to deal with. We must preach Christ in difficult situations. What might be something Peter ignored the authorities. We must preach Christ. In difficult situations. Peter ignored the authorities. I mean, can you make it into a principle? We must preach Christ in difficult situations when we preach Christ.

[00:48:26] When opposition comes. I've got a principle now. Okay. How do I know that? Because Peter went ahead and preached despite the opposition of authorities. Okay. So we must preach Christ, despite opposition. How about Peter spoke from jail. What's a subdivision there? Against all odds, against opposition, against all odds, and then got some assistance going with OWS. With the OWS, they're going. So Peter spoke from jail against all odds. Any other ideas? Against opposition. Despite circumstances, despite constraint. You know, there might be various ways that we could talk about it. But we're looking for principles. So that would be how we would just identify the proper way to go there. What's the problem here? Because Jesus is the only hope of salvation. Now, you have to answer this by looking and finding what's the magnet and what's the anchor clause, because Jesus is the only hope of salvation. We must preach Christ to difficult people first. Jesus died to save the ungodly. Second, Jesus alone can save. What's the problem here? Okay, Aaron is saying it, but Michael saying it, I think even more scientifically, which clause are the sub points developing? The sub points are developing the anchor clause. What should they be developing the magnet clause? Now, Aaron, your point is so on target here, he said it's not developing the obvious question. It's not because the obvious question comes out of the magnet clause nine clauses, what the ear says. That's what the issue is. Why aren't you dealing with the issue? Okay. So there you have somebody developing the anchor rather than the magnet clause. Try one more because Jesus is the only hope of salvation. We must preach Christ despite our difficulties. Number one, our preaching will bring hate. Number two, prayer overcomes opposition.

[00:50:34] What are potential problems here? What's lacking in those two main points? Wording. No parallelism. Thank you, David. That's it. I mean, we would say it's true, but now here's something. Once you see it and begin to speak to people regularly, you automatically hear most years would not even have picked these up as some points wouldn't even have heard them. They're part of that mud wall of words coming. And because they are not distinguished by parallelism, we not even pick them out of the mud wall. They're just part of the mass. We don't hear them as anything different because they're not worded in parallel. They have no audio flags to make us say, Oh, that's the point you're making, because they're not worded in parallel. They're just like every other sentence that's going by. Okay. Questions that you have about some point soon. What should you be very concerned in the intro to establish the anchor clause. And I think the answer is not real. The anchor clause is typically something that everybody sees right away. Okay. So if you're having to spend three or four paragraphs and develop the anchor clause, it probably shouldn't be the anchor clause. I think it's something that your instincts will kind of tell you. You know, this needs to be kind of very obvious from the text. People are almost going to agree from the first time you say it rather than need a lot of proof. So if if you're if you're a statement of something like because God is sovereign, we should honor him. If your real message is saying, what does it mean for God to be sovereign, then that probably ought to be the message and not we honor him. Maybe you just need to say, you know, the anchor clause now is going to be we should honor him.

[00:52:19] So the introduction is about we should honor whoever is sovereign. What people agree with that doesn't need a lot of proof. We should honor what's who is sovereign. So you establish I think when I actually use the word establish more than I use the word proof, establish the anchor clause just before or after the proposition. If it needs a paragraph, fine. You know what a sovereign means. It means God's in charge, and you're not. That's what it means. Well, okay. Ready to roll now? I probably don't want to spend a whole lot of time more on Sovereign, but if I'm dealing with a congregation that has no concept of what sovereign means, I may have to do a whole sermon on what does it mean for God to be sovereign. And then I'm really going to be particular raising that a lot more like I over answered your question, which you were saying just basically. Do I need to be real concerned about developing the anchor clause in the introduction? And I want to say establish it. Don't spend a sentence upon sentence upon sentence doing it. If you're doing that, it's probably not the right anchor clause yet. Yes. Question. Good. Good. It's a great question. What's the real difference between bullet statement, sub points and analytical question responses? Because if you actually look at them on paper, they're pretty much the same, except for the fact that there's been an overarching question. And really the only answer is the difference is the overarching question. It's the way you get into them. Bullet statements typically are not being set up by questions, whereas analytical question responses are set up by that overarching question. And remember that language of you interrogate your main point, you've got a main point and you actually ask a question about it and it shows why you're developing the bullets, that you are bullets.

[00:54:04] Without the question about the overarching question are usually just subdivisions of thought that don't need questions to set them up. Again, a good question. Would you ask the question again explicitly before every sub point and I think it's your option. If it's the same question over and over again, though, it's again that overarching question and you might very well ask it two or three times within the development. You might very well, by the way, you'll see this and I think you all kind of probably rushed by in chapter six. If you're getting so much information coming at you, It's the standard way of also developing propositions and main points proposition. We interrogate the proposition, we ask a strong statement. We should honor God. Well, how do we honor God when. Because he's sovereign. We'll be him. Because he's sovereign. We trust him because he's sovereign. We, you know, worship him. But that first question, what should we do in response? Was the overarching question even that set up the main points? What I'd love for you to do, and you're not in a sense, our English essays have trained us not to do it, is just to get in that oral medium of just ask lots of questions. It's kind of the way you proceed through the message question upon question. I know I'm a very question, Preacher. Does it make sense? Ask a lot of questions. And I often find when I'm in Presbyterian circles, I'm asking questions in a sermon, people start talking back to me and then they get embarrassed because they're in Presbyterian circles and they don't think they ought to be doing that. But but it's actually, in a certain sense, my mark that I'm communicating because because there's so much with me now that they're starting to throw the answers back to me.

[00:55:45] And I'm actually in like that engagement a whole lot. So I think the more you communicate, the more you'll find the value of, again, sitting in the listener seat and asking out loud the questions they would ask if they felt they could. So analytical question responses is just a way of getting us into that. So questions over here, Doug. Yes, that question is in the interrogative sub points particularly, how important is it to have parallelism in the question as well as the answer? I just kind of tell you what standard happens when you're writing sermons. Almost everybody puts the questions in parallel. The ear just knows to do that, even as you're writing out, you know, to make this question kind of stand out. But what they don't do is they don't put their answers in parallel. So you've actually moved beyond and you've said, well, I know the answer needs to be parallel. Does the question when you're writing the sermon, it's typically the opposite that occurs. People almost always know to make their questions parallel, but they sometimes forget to make their answers parallel. So my big emphasis is on making the answers parallel. I think your instincts will tell you to make the questions parallel. Thank you. What? What if? What I need to do in my sub points is not only identify what I am saying, but what I'm not saying to say exactly that it's very powerful. So that could be point one is. Sure. Exactly. I think that's I mean, everybody knows exactly what you're doing it and why. In fact, I think you will find yourself over and over in the future as you're preaching finding. Here's what I'm not saying to be a very important technique to learn.

[00:57:26] Right. Because so often what people do is they impose upon what you have said their thoughts, and you know they're going to do it. So for you as a preacher to actually anticipate not only objections but aberrations, actually anticipate them and begin to say, I'm not saying this, I'm not saying this, I'm not saying this, I am saying this is actually a very powerful strategy for communicating truth. So that would fall under the sub points. Well, I'm not you could even make it a main point. I mean, not not yet in prep. And Dale, I mean, you're kind of going down where we're going here ways, but you could even say in a in a two point main point sermon, you could say, here's what I'm not saying. Here's what I am saying. I mean, you could set up that contrast in the overall sermon. So it's it's often very powerful to do just exactly those things. Yes, But yes, it are the sub points, the places that you can begin to introduce, texts from other passages, references to other passages. And the answer is yes, definitely. With this big qualification, so long as you prove the idea was here first before you went over there. So if if you said we should honor God and you're preaching from first class, first Corinthians five, and what I see in that parentheses is first Thessalonians four, I'm going to go now, I know there's something in first that signs for the backs you up, but I want to see it in first Corinthians five first before you jump over there. So it is supporting what this text says, not establishing what this text says by going somewhere else. It is, as you just said, it's supporting references, which means I've got something here first that gets me going down this path.

[00:59:08] So yes, we definitely will recognize the power of supporting texts. We will also recognize the danger of Isaiah Jesus importing text on this one to make it say what it doesn't say. Okay, so establish it's here and then support it over there, but establish it's here first. Okay. Question. Yes. Great question. You hear it, everyone. If you use interrogative in the first main point, you have to use interrogative and the second main point. And the answer is absolutely not. Okay. If it in fact, this is really a good technique to move different kinds within the sermon itself. Same question on number of sub points. If you have two sub points in the first name point, do you have that two in the second main point? Absolutely not. Okay. Each one is autonomous. What allows it to do? What allows you to best explain that main point? It may have no sub points. It may have three and they have two. They may be in a ragas and they B bullets may be out. Whatever enables you to best explain that main point. It can operate autonomously from the others. Great question, because I know that caused confusion, Aaron. But thank you. Aaron says when you talk about the sub points being parallel. Are they parallel to each other or are they parallel to the main point and proposition? And the answer is to each other. They are parallel in wording to each other, not necessarily to the main point and proposition. Michael, you hear the question? If you're if you're just dealing with one text, one verse and you're subdividing it and then developing the idea from other texts, is that inappropriate? It is not inappropriate, actually. We'll look at in just a bit what you what you actually technically just described is called a textual sermon, not an expository sermon.

[01:00:59] So we won't do it this semester. Okay. We won't say it's wrong. It's got its place, but we're going to do expository messages. And expository messages take, by definition, main points and sub points from this text. Textual messages by definition take main points from the text and developmental sub points from other text. Okay, so they're not wrong. Got a rich history. But what's the danger of them making this text? Say something it doesn't buy by pulling in those other text first. So we're really just, you know, we're doing this semester, we're just kind of locking ourselves down hermeneutic. Is our interpretation correct? So we're looking at this text and we're saying what is true and what to do about it. Can I prove that from this text? From this text, Can I establish this outline? Can I preach this? Now we know we'll do lots of other things in the future, but right now we're just kind of making sure. I want to make sure I can say what God says. We explain this text to you? That's what I'm going to do today. I'm explaining this text to you, and that's the goal that we're striving for knowing more to do in the future. But right now we're saying, I want this expository ethic to be my own. Let me explain this text to you. And that's where we're going. Let me just get other information in front of you. This this next is just kind of general order things that I want you to be aware of. As you think of the standard order of the divisions of the text, you now kind of see how the pieces come. You announce the text, scripture intro, we announce the text we like to say at times, then Scripture reading prayer for illumination, introduction, proposition, main point statement.

[01:02:40] Now look at that first main point statement. You'll have some points, sub point, sub point that is a bit back on our kind of board here, sub point, sub point, sub point. We're dividing the explanation. Right. So if three sub points could be two, could be four. Anyway, we have sub points that divide the explanation, we're then going to move into illustration, then application and that's exactly what it shows under main point development number one there. But look at the second one. You have one sub point. Then you have the illustration. Then you have two sub points. Then you have the application. Anything wrong with that? No, not a bit. We might say, you know what, This second two sub points are going to flow very easily if they get the first one. The first one is really the foundation that sets up the next two. So I actually want to spend my illustrative nickel, as it were, on making sure this first sub point really locks into their brains. And then I'll go back to the sub points. So we're back to there's not a canonical order, you know, they have to do just this and this and this. We can move these things around. What I am going to ask you to do this semester and next so that you just are prepared is, I will say, one illustration per main point. Some of you will not like that because you won't like doing illustrations, just not your personality in nature. You won't like doing illustrations. Others of you love doing illustrations, you know, and I will get you, you know, some of you will do an illustration for every point and every some point. Let me let me illustrate it, you know, because I will.

[01:04:25] Okay, that will come. But for right now, one illustration per main point. Okay. But spend that nickel where you think you make best use of it. Okay. So it might be after the first set point. You know, right in here before you get to the next two. It might not be there. It might be after all three. As a matter of fact, you now begin to know it might actually set up all three. Okay. Phillip, the preacher just said, Huh? As one who is everyone who preaches. So the idea is, wherever you can make best use of that illustration. Great. All right. Now, we'll talk a little bit later how illustrations do fit in ways that we find to make them mesh with the sub points and the explanation. But for now, I just want you to recognize you got options of where they might fit. It doesn't always have to come right after all the explanation. It might come after the portion that you think is most significant remnant of sex is just, I guess, for your feel and how sermons fit together, how they fit together. One of the standard lengths of the major divisions of a sermon. You're now beginning to get a sense of is different pieces of a sermon maybe in a way you never thought of before. There are these different components of this taxonomy of the sermon. And some of you have said to me after class, No, I'm listening to sermons these days, hopefully without a critical ear, the more analytical ear. Right. You begin thinking, oh, that was the Oh, that was the proposition. You know, I'm hearing how he's putting that illustration in there with those explanations. You begin to hear sermons for their divisions, but now you begin to think, what is the actual time it takes to move through all these things? How long are the components? As you begin to think about that final project that you're producing even for this semester.

[01:06:17] This may surprise you. It's kind of fun to go through the first time, the text announcement and scripture introduction. Well, you know, at around a minute, maybe less is what that usually takes, that that little piece right on top. So that's on a page. If you look at the way your final sermon is typed, the example in your books, you know, he just kind of looked I mean, that's a third or less of a page, the scripture reading those on one or 2 minutes. So it's, you know, half a page if you had typed it all out. The prayer for illumination, another minute, a third of a page sermon, introduction, two, 3 minutes. So a half to two thirds of the page sermon. Conclusion 2 to 3 minutes. So again, you've got a half a page or so closing prayer. What a minute or two there. Two and a half a page. Now look at what that means. You haven't got to the body of the sermon and how much of your 30 minutes has gone. A third of it. A third of it is gone. And you haven't got to the body of the sermon. But these are all necessary components in terms of what's going into the normal preaching occasion. I recognize you are in different denominations, some of you, and so things can flip a little bit in terms of where they sit. But it's kind of interesting to see, you know, what, just the the scripture reading the prayers, the introduction, the conclusion, everything that's around the body itself takes about a third of my time that that single space. I think if you again, I don't know quite how to do it because we have so many different fonts on our computers these day.

[01:07:47] But if you look at the example that's in the back of your book, I'm kind of going off that kind of standard formatting of that example that's at the back of your notebooks. So if that's the way it is of a third of your time is in that surrounding material, then you think, what are the average time and page length for the body of the 30 minute message just for the body itself? Well, and those 20 remaining minutes, each main point in a three point message is roughly, what, 6 minutes? So, you know, if you got three points, standard sort of thing, about about six, 7 minutes apiece, which means each main point in all its components is about two pages in length. It's about how long it goes. About two pages in length. How long do you think a sermon was when you heard it before you thought about, you know, 20 pages? 25. 30 pages. You know, what's it going to end up being? Seven one half pages. You know, that's that's about it. It's now, most people don't take it all out, right? We're doing it for a project that we're doing this semester, but it's just getting our sense of proportion here. Each main component. Therefore, if each point is about two pages or 6 minutes, that each main point component. Again, if you just kind of went on a standard, a third, a third, a third proportion, the explanation is about 2 minutes. So, you know, two thirds of a page illustration, 2 minutes, two thirds of the page application, 2 minutes, two thirds of a page is sub point. So if you're dividing down now, that explanation that was going 2 minutes or two thirds of a page, that means each sub point, if you got two of them, would be about a third of a page or what did we say? A good long paragraph.

[01:09:29] If it's getting longer than a long paragraph, you need another sub point. But it's just kind of breaking down fairly naturally. So if you got a long paragraph that typically is a sub point, then you of course got your various extemporaneous comments and they're always, by the way, what gets you in the most trouble. But the various extemporaneous comments, another 2 minutes or so. So the conclusion of all that the written content of the 30 minute sermon that includes only the scripture introduction, sermon, introduction, sermon, body, sermon, conclusion, which you're writing out, will run seven and a half to eight pages. So as you're thinking about your project for the semester, it's kind of a way to think about it in terms of how those components fit together. Sub Point note I've said it a few times now, but just so you can get it in your notes in order to accomplish the third or 33rd exposition symmetry of a main point, the sub points of explanation are usually how many paragraphs a piece one. So just to fill in your notes, they're usually one paragraph a. As a rule of thumb, explanations longer than one paragraph needs sub point divisions. Now one more important set of thoughts. What's the standard conceptual progression of a sub point? So now I'm saying, get some of this off the board here. If I'm developing some points of that explanation. What usually happens first. So I've got some point one. Point two. So point three under. Under a main point, what will happen is we will say we should honor God. Look with me at verse two. It says, In all your ways, acknowledge him. Now, what that means is that wherever we go, whatever we're facing, whatever ways God takes us in life, we should be honoring God, acknowledged God actually in the Hebrew means.

[01:11:40] I just did something. I said first. It means we should honor him. And then I said, Look with me at verse two. And then I began to explain what acknowledge means as it relates to honor. This is a standard progression, which is state I state the truth place show where it is in the text, and then I begin to prove it with the explanation. So the standard conceptual progression of a point is this Number one, we state the truth. We make the main point or the sum point statement to we place the truth. So where it is in the text. And then three, we prove the truth. We prove that that text says that statement that I just said further on, you know, we'll begin to now illustrate and apply. But the sub points themselves are following this pattern. State place prove. We'll talk more about that as we go. There are various ways to do that. Just at the bottom of that page where you see a caution, you see that caution down at the bottom, you now begin to know you can start a main point with lots of different things. You can start with a principle statement or an illustration or even a particular application. What is the one thing? However, you cannot start a main point with The wording is bald as in without hair. Bald explanation. Bald explanation. Here's what you can do in preaching that people will understand precisely what you're doing. You can begin with an illustration and then show its implications. You begin with an application and then show how you got that. You can begin with a principal statement and then show what proves the principle. What will just throw people for a loop, though, if you just begin to throw explanation at them with no particular to accurate and you just begin to talk about the earth or you begin to talk about the history of Israel, or you talk about the imprisonment of Paul and they're going, Why are you telling me this? It has no particular to anchor it.

[01:13:58] Okay. You can anything will serve as a particular statement of truth. Statement of application or an illustration. But what you can't do is just start throwing information at people without such a particular. That is called bold explanation. Just throw material and it has no basis for why they're getting it. Okay. So that's the one thing you can't start with. The next page is just showing you variables and the things I've talked about today and I don't want you to concerned about that. I almost never test on it. We'll talk a whole lot about the variables in future semesters. What we're doing is we're doing a fairly formal approach now, learning the pieces and seeing how they unfold, where we're going. Just so you're thinking about how you're planning, because, you know, we've got the preaching lectures in the middle of next week. So if you're thinking about how can you get kind of a jump on where we're going, you know that where we're heading is your main points with some points and conclusion. So if you want to begin working toward where we're going, begin to think about now some points, what am I going to be doing to develop some points? Anchoring them in the text. By the way, I won't ask you to write out your sub points yet. I just mean the statements and the sub points, and then I'll ask you to attach a conclusion to it. We'll have a future lecture on conclusion, but you got some time. Now, I do probably feel that there will be another quiz at the end of next week, from the beginning of the next. So you've got a gap here, and my goal is to get you caught up again. Okay, so Kenneth caught up on your readings.

[01:15:25] Another quiz is coming and the idea is start working on your sub points. You know, you're going to be hooking them to a conclusion and there'll be a quiz coming either toward the end of next week or the beginning of that next week. That's some kind of get caught up. And that's my goal for you. Where we are in the ring. We will be we will be next week will be at lecture ten. So be reading number ten. Excuse me. I'm sorry. I'm sorry. I'm sorry. This Friday is lecture ten. Then you know you're going to be getting kind of a week's break till the next Friday. Right. All right. See you next time.