Preaching - Lesson 5

Outlining & Arrangement

In this lesson, you will learn the importance of outlining and arrangement in preaching, which contribute to the clarity, organization, memorability, and engagement of a sermon. You will understand the principles of effective outlining, including the need for logical structure, unity, coherence, balance, and proportion in your main points and subpoints. The lesson also covers various types of sermon outlines, such as deductive, inductive, and narrative, and teaches you how to properly arrange your sermon material, including the introduction, body, conclusion, and transitions.

Bryan Chapell
Lesson 5
Watching Now
Outlining & Arrangement

Outlining and Arranging

Purpose of this lesson: The basic features of good outlining.


• Outlining provides structure for the truth to be related.

• Why do sermons on the same passage sound different? Because even though we’re always dealing with the same raw material, but “the purpose for which the builder is building,” and the “needs of the people for which he is building,” result in a different product.

• Exegetical outline: raw material.

• Homiletical outline: fruit of exegeting the text and exegeting our people

Expository messages are obligated to provide the truth of the passage, but not necessarily the pattern of the passage.

• Example from Luke 18:1-8.

• In a written medium, main propositions come first.

• In a oral medium, main propositions come last.

• This means that we may have to adjust the order of the points we make because we’re speaking.

• Example from Ephesians 3. Paul starts a thought, has a 12 verse parenthesis, and then resumes a thought. Wouldn’t we adjust because of this structure? Yes.

• Nevertheless, most of the time we’ll follow the pattern.

I. An outline is a logical path for the mind

A. It has steps to follow

B. First purpose: clarifying parts of the sermon for the audience’s mind and ear.

C. Second purpose: clarifying parts of the sermon in preacher’s mind and eye (taking visual cues from outlines when we’re speaking).

D. This shows

1. Credibility: we understand the text and can explain it.

2. Compassion: we care enough to order it so that it makes sense

II. 5 qualities of a good homiletical outline

A. Unity: All the parts support one idea

B. Brevity: All the parts are concise

C. Parallelism: Word order between points is similar

1. Example: Christ’s word demands honor. Christ’s word demands obedience. Christ’s word demands love.

2. Modifiers line up. Nouns and verbs line up.

3. Parallelism with a keyword change is an auditory cue that says, “here’s another major idea.”

D. Proportion: the main points are roughly the same length

E. Progression: the thought should move forward with each component: In an exegetical outline, we will often notice the same idea repeated. To be progressive means that we will group these ideas together so that we don’t repeat ourselves.

III. Types of homiletical outlines

A. Logical

1. Shows the development of thought

2. Example: trust God because his nature is loving. Trust God because his nature is all knowing (he loves and knows what will happen). Trust God because his is all powerful (not just loving and omniscient, but actually able to act).

B. Sequential

1. The chronological development of a passage

2. Example: Because God offers salvation we must come to Christ. Because God offers salvation we must abide in Christ. Because God offers salvation we must testify of Christ.

3. The chronology of the Christian life.

C. Picturesque/Imagistic

1. Take people through a picture/image

2. “I am the ____” vine, light of the world, bread of life. Jesus used images.

IV. Things to include in an outline

A. Some indication of introduction/conclusion

B. Proposition (what the sermon is about)

C. Developmental features

1. Sub-points: the development of the logic of the main point. Developments of principle. Neither illustration nor application are sub-points

2. Illustrations

3. Applications

D. Transitions

V. Developmental principles for good homiletical outlines

A. Let your purpose dictate the number of main points

1. Three point outline: commonly structured as developmental. This idea leads to this idea, and that leads to a culminating idea.

2. Two point outline: balanced. Two things are in tension. Earthy and heavenly. Without this tension, people think it’s incomplete. The implied third point is the tension.

3. Four (or more) outline: Summative/additive/catalog. A group of ideas together that give a picture of the overall idea. Each have equal weight.

B. Principles of subordination: You cannot have a standalone sub-point. If there’s only one sub-point, then it’s heard to compete or confuse the main point.

C. Keep the text evident in the outline

1. Use the words of the text (vocab) in the outline. This won’t always be possible, but aim for it.

2. Tie main points and sub-points to relevant verses. “Look with me in verse ____” “In verse ____ it says.” State the truth, place the truth, prove the truth.

D. Create consistent visual markers in your outline

1. Chapell’s example: draw a circle around illustrations, other shapes around other components.

2. Use what works for you, to allow you to maintain eye contact with people.

E. Number, rather than alphabetize, main points and sub-points

F. Place components on the same place on the page: Instead of having text that runs over pages, place main points at the top of the page every time they appear.

VI. Three cautions for homiletical outlines

A. Take out the “nots”: Don’t state main points negatively. Instead of saying, “do not,” say “avoid”

B. Take out the “bes”: Find an active verb

C. Use alliteration with caution: A powerful communication tool. But it can be problematic because you may twist the meaning of the text, and people may get tired of it.

VII. The bottom line for homiletical outlines: FORM

A. F. Faithful to the text

B. O. Obvious from the text

C. R. Relevant to a fallen condition focus

D. M. Does it move toward a climax?

  • Gain insights into effective preaching principles, covering history, essential components, styles, and techniques, and learn how to prepare and deliver impactful sermons.
  • Gain valuable insights on sermon construction, learn techniques for effective preaching, and understand the importance of continuous improvement for delivering impactful messages.
  • Through this lesson, you gain valuable insights into the process of text selection and interpretation for preaching, as well as learning practical techniques for delivering engaging and relevant sermons.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into the process of creating a sermon, from text selection to delivery, emphasizing textual analysis and message relevance.
  • Through this lesson, you gain the skills to craft clear, engaging, and memorable sermons by mastering the principles of effective outlining and arrangement in preaching.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to craft effective propositions and main points, enhancing your preaching clarity and impact.
  • By exploring homiletical outlines, you'll learn to effectively develop and structure sermons, understand various outline types, and apply engaging presentation techniques for impactful preaching.
  • In this lesson, you gain insights into crafting engaging introductions for sermons, exploring their importance, characteristics, types, and the process of creating a compelling introduction that effectively connects to the message.
  • Through this lesson, you learn the importance of exposition in preaching, how to develop an expository sermon, and the role of the preacher for effective communication.
  • This lesson teaches you to create captivating sermon introductions using anecdotes, questions, and facts, guiding you through research, structuring, and presentation to maximize audience engagement and improve your overall sermon impact.
  • In order to understand the basic subdivisions of your sermon in expository development, it is important to it is helpful to see what the specific members of your sermon's body looks like in standard development.

  • By completing this lesson, you learn to effectively prepare and deliver sermons while focusing on personal growth, continuous improvement, and dependence on God.
  • Learn to effectively classify and develop sermons into topical, textual, and expository types, enhancing your preaching skills and audience connection.
  • In this lesson, you learn the significance of explanation in preaching and strategies to craft and deliver effective explanatory sermons while evaluating their effectiveness for continuous improvement.
  • By incorporating illustrations into your preaching, you engage listeners, clarify complex ideas, and enhance memory retention while learning effective guidelines to utilize various types of illustrations.
  • Explore this lesson to learn how to effectively use illustrations in sermons by isolating events or experiences, refining principles, and connecting with your audience through human interest accounts.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to effectively use illustrations in preaching to engage listeners, clarify concepts, and draw from various sources, while maintaining relevance, variety, and ethical considerations.
  • Gain insight into the importance of application in preaching, as well as principles and methods for effective application, to create impactful and relevant sermons that resonate with your audience.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to effectively apply biblical teachings to modern life, considering various approaches, overcoming challenges, and utilizing practical tips for context-sensitive and culturally aware application.
  • Through this lesson, you gain insights into crafting effective transitions in preaching and utilizing the dialogical method for increased audience engagement and message clarity.
  • Gain insight into various sermon presentation methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and learn to choose the right method and improve your preaching skills.
  • Through this lesson, you enhance your preaching skills by mastering vocal techniques and purposeful gestures, ensuring a connection with the audience while continually improving your delivery.
  • Learn the significance of dress and style in preaching and how to balance authenticity, appropriateness, and clarity to effectively communicate your message to your audience.
  • You learn to effectively repurpose old sermons, gaining insight into updating them for relevance, enhancing delivery, and managing time efficiently.
  • By studying this lesson, you gain insight into the crucial connection between the Word and Spirit in preaching and learn to balance them for effective and authentic sermons.
  • Through this lesson, you learn how to apply a Christ-centered, redemptive-historical approach to preaching, addressing common criticisms and enhancing your sermons.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to compose powerful redemptive messages that highlight Christ's work and connect biblical themes to modern audiences.
  • Through this lesson, you gain an understanding of redemptive principles in preaching, learning to identify them in Scripture and effectively apply them to your sermons while navigating potential challenges.
  • By exploring the importance of genre in biblical interpretation and applying redemptive interpretation to various biblical genres, you will gain knowledge and insight into the historical and literary context, redemptive themes and patterns, and contemporary application of different types of genres in the Bible.


Dr. Bryan Chapell explores the unifying principle of grace that binds all Scripture together. He outlines and demonstrates the principles and practice of sermon-crafting and delivery to illuminate the message of grace in each passage, and to submit it to God's Spirit for the transformation of lives through preaching.

Dr. Chapell is making these recorded lectures available for you to access at no charge on BiblicalTraining.org. However, there is no personal interaction with Dr. Chapell in this format. The assignments and activities described are for classes that he teaches in person. We left the descriptions in for your benefit, but we do not offer personal or group interaction to participate in these activities. You can, however, sign up for his new preaching classes at BryanChapell.com/courses.

Dr. Chapell is helped in this course by Zachary W. Eswine, Assistant Professor of Homiletics and Director of the Doctor of Ministry Program (BSW, Ball State University; MDiv, Covenant Theological Seminary; PhD, Regent University). Dr. Eswine served as senior pastor of Grace Church of the Western Reserve in Hudson, Ohio, for six years before joining Covenant Seminary's faculty in 2001. He has served as a campus minister with the Navigators, as a church youth director, and as a chaplain-evangelist in retirement facilities. Since arriving at the Seminary, Dr. Eswine has also served as interim pastor for Tates Creek Presbyterian Church in Lexington, Kentucky, as advisory pastor for the Chinese Gospel Church of St. Louis, and as interim pastor for Cornerstone Evangelical Free Church in St. Louis. He has taught New Testament in Ukraine and served as a short-term missionary in the Caribbean. Dr. Eswine is a gifted preacher and has authored the book Kindled Fire: How the Methods of C. H. Spurgeon Can Help Your Preaching and numerous articles on homiletics. In addition, as an accomplished musician and songwriter, he has recorded three collections of original songs.

Philosophy and Goals of the Course

1. "Prep and Del" is an introduction to the basics of sermon construction and delivery. This is not primarily a course on the theology of preaching, but rather is a practical introduction to the tools, structures, and concepts that help preachers learn to put a sermon together. 

2. Because this course is introductory, certain standards of sermon construction are taught that I hope you will consider "foundational" rather than universal. There is not only one "right way" to preach. However, mastering the methods of this course will help you develop the tools needed for many kinds of future sermons. Students from many backgrounds and preaching traditions have found these tools helpful even as they prepare for other styles in the future. Other methods and styles will be taught and encouraged in future semesters.

3. In Dr. Chapell's seminary class, you would be asked to present some short oral assignments to the class in order to: a) begin integrating the information presented in lectures; b) begin honing your preaching skills; c) and, remove some of the intimidation of your first preaching experience next semester.

(At this time, we do not provide personal interaction to evaluate your progress. We included the suggested assignments and activities to give you direction as you apply the principles you are learning to your own sermon preparation and delivery.)

Recommended Books

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell

Christ-Centered Preaching: Redeeming the Expository Sermon [Hardcover]Bryan Chapell (Author)

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell
Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Highly regarded preacher and teacher Bryan Chapell shows readers how he has prepared expository sermons according to the principles he developed in his bestselling...

Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Dr. Bryan Chapell



Outlining & Arrangement

Lesson Transcript

[00:00:00] This recording is provided courtesy of Covenant Theological Seminary. Through our mid-term review questions. What are six critical questions for sermon preparation? I'm just going to go real quick here because they're all in your previous lecture, right? So the six critical questions, the first three are. What's it mean? How do you know? And what concerns caused it to be written. So those were the first three. So what does it mean? How do you know what concerns caused it to be written? That's another the why question, Right. Why? Why was it written? Really even more important to me is the next question after those three. And that's what are the three critical questions that turn a lecture into a sermon. That's the second three of the six. Right? So the first three were what does it mean? What how do you know what concerns caused it to be written? The second three and the actual critical ones that move it from lecture to sermon is what do we share in common with what do we share in common with those to whom or about whom it was written? What do we share in common with? How should we respond? Not just what happened to them, but how should we respond? Again, converting information to transformational. Message. And then the last of the three critical question was how do we best communicate? How best communicate these aspects so candidly? It's the last three that will most often end up on a midterm, because that's that's the critical turn, right? From just dispensing information to actually ministering to people. Complete the following. And again, Dr. Esplin, who did the last lecture and he's just a super guy and he and it's fun to kind of work through things with him.

[00:01:44] So you'll appreciate that. The critical question here is, you know, more to exposition than what is necessary to make the point, but no less than what's necessary to prove the point. You owe no less than what's necessary to make the point. You owe no more than what's necessary to make the point, but no less than what's necessary to prove the point. In other words, if you're answering all six of those questions, you're going to get lots and lots and lots of information. And the question becomes, how much do I dump on people? How much can I actually get out here? And you say, Well, you've got to say enough that you actually make the point. But you can't say less than what's necessary to prove the point where people usually begin just to kind of glaze over and feel like it's overkill is when you've made the point, proven the point, and you just keep proving it, proving it, proving it because you read so much more great commentary on it. So usually the, you know, the straightest or the most efficient way between two points is a straight line. We say, what's the most efficient way I can get there rather than just more and more and more and more information. So if it's clear in the English that this is a completed action, I don't know that you have to point out that it's a Greek arrest also. That makes sense. Now, if it's not clear in English that it's completed action, you may need to say in the Greek language this is actually a verb of completed action. And we call that an arrest verb. When I would say, you know, most of the time you don't need that. Most of the time you say, Is it clear with what people I have to keep going until I prove it.

[00:03:16] But once it's proven, I don't have to keep going. All right. Let's you know where we're going for the next couple of times. We're now, as you've been listening to other sermons and you'll have an assignment do next time, which is listening to other sermons and just trying to identify how people are connecting main points and sub points to the text. And you just kind of been listening for that and hopefully developing ears. Now you're going to start doing it. So that's where we're heading this time. And next time we'll be talking about principles of outlining. And that means after next time you will be starting to produce outlines. So instead of just listening for them, you'll be starting to produce them. If you wanted to kind of get down the road and kind of think where you're going, here's what's ahead for you. In the next few weeks, we will be working on these texts. If your name falls between A and HHR alphabetically, you'll be working on Hebrews 12. One, two, three. If your name falls between second Corinthian? Yes, of course. If your name falls between HHC and P, you'll see you'll be working on the second Corinthians passage. If your name falls between R and W, you'll be working on the first Thessalonians passage. Now, the exception is here in the middle. If you are not going all the way through the Hamlet sequence. Okay, so this is kind of your last. Course, if you're not going through the sequence, will you please work on the middle assignment? All right, So I know it's happening later in the semester, and it'll be easier for those of you not going through the sequence to also work on this middle assignment. But everyone else, if you would just kind of look at your name now, don't.

[00:05:04] There's not an assignment do yet. Okay. It'll be after the next lecture, but I want to give you a heads up because that will give you the weekend and then part of the next week to start working on these passages. And if you wanted to look ahead now, you can get an idea of what's that about, what that will be about. Again, no assignment yet, but these are the passages that you'll be working on as you start to produce your own outlines. Having listened to them now, one other heads up. The reading for next time. The reading for next time, which is the reading for lecture six. Is the most important reading you will do this semester, and I will quiz you on it. All right. Just that straightforward. The reading you will do for next time is the most important reading of the semester, and I will quiz you on it. So that's just saying that is very, very important that we all be tracking together on that lecture material. And the reason is, of course, now you are going to start producing your own outline. So we're going to be working on principles together and going that way. Got that. That's about. There will be some questions, a few of them from the previous readings. So if you're not caught up, now's the time. Okay. So there would be there will be a few questions from the previous readings as well. So it's the time to catch up. We're now going to be six lectures in. And I will tell you, unquestionably, there will be a quiz unless there's a national natural disaster of some sort. There will. There will be a quiz and you can be ready for that. No. The questions that you requested to use for the review.

[00:06:46] Questions for the midterm are helpful in preparing for the review, but they are not exclusive of what will be on the review. There there can be others on the midterm. There can be other. Please remember that these are just helpful hints. These are typical questions that appear on the midterm. But I'm not just kind of giving you the midterm as we go through this. These are typical things. What I've said is, again, I'll help you. And here I think me to say to you also the lectures, I can not say all that's in the readings. I know they track pretty closely, but I just cannot say all that's in the readings. So I'm expecting you to read as well and and it'll catch you by surprise at some point, if you'll say, Well, that wasn't in the lecture. It's in the reading, though. Okay, so this is where everybody gets real nervous. But that's why I want to do it real early here in the semester to kind of give everybody a heads up. This is the way we're going. And there'll be there will be three more of these after this one. There'll be three more quizzes before we get to the final. And my it's my idea of just kind of keeping us tracking together so we get to that final exam. It's not a total surprise to you. Okay. So these are typical questions, by the way, not only do you have questions at the beginnings of lectures, you have questions at the ends of chapters in the book, too. Right. So those are also helpful. Those are very typical things. I would say probably 80% of what's on the midterm slash final are in those questions, but not all. All right.

[00:08:19] How much does the quiz work? Anybody remember this? This has to kind of get you caught up and not make you too terrified at all. The quizzes together combined for 5% of your total grade. All the quizzes combined. So if they're for quizzes and it combines for 5% of your total grade, that means each of these quizzes is worth about what, 1% of your final grade. So you can blow them off if you want. But the goal is to track all the way through. So it's my giving you hints along the way as we go. The readings for the next time are the most important of the entire semester. If we can track on that together, we're in great shape and. Reading Assignment six. I'm saying, is it really is that. Yeah. For like reading assignment for lecture six. The reading assignment for lecture six. Okay. It says it. It says at the end of lecture five. Right. And it says at the beginning of lecture six. What that reading is. It will be in class next time. Okay, So. It will be Friday. Let's pray. Father. We kid about these things and enjoy even the idea that. There's a certain challenge in accumulating information, but even our own hearts recognize what the goal is, and we ask for your blessing. That the goal is that we would be being prepared to proclaim your word to your people and our minds, even our hearts and our humanity will just focus on our grade. What we're about is the gospel. Help us to prepare for that. Above all things that those who are in darkness would know Your light, those who are hungry would receive your bread, those who are thirsting would receive living water, and it would be from us, granted, that we would be faithful to your word.

[00:10:21] Above all things we pray, equip us for it. We ask In Jesus name, Amen. If you were following some of the wonderful things that Dr. Swine was saying last time, you understand that there are basic features of good outlining that we now need to begin to work on to take the information that comes out of those six questions that he was asking in preparing a message, how do we begin now to move that into an outline form from which we will be preaching? So the goal of this lesson is to understand the basic features of good outlining. And you see after the introduction, kind of the key thought today is outlining provide structure for the truth to be related, outlining, provide structure for the truth to be related. Now, it's important that you know that every passage does not have to be preached the same way. Now, that seems strange because it's the same truth. And yet if you go to any number of churches and you would hear First Corinthians two preached in one church, it probably be a very different outline, very different illustrations, very different applications in another church, even though hopefully both pastors are preaching truth from the same passage. So how can that be if they're outlining correctly, won't it always be the same sermon? Well, think about it for a moment. If you were going to shop at a hardware store to do some construction, you would say there's all the same materials that any carpenter can work with, right? They're the two by fours. There's the drywall there, the hammers and nails and all that. It's all the same raw material. Will the construction all look the same? He said, No, it it'd be quite different. What will cause it to vary? Why will the construction, even though it's the same raw materials, why will the construction vary? What will make it different? Yes.

[00:12:25] The purpose for which the builder is building. That will vary the way in which he uses his raw material. What will determine the purpose of the builder? What's going to determine his purpose? The blueprint. How will the blueprint be formed? Who? Who's going to determine what? You know, why is it going to that, Phil? Okay. Thank you. The needs of the people who are calling for the raw material to be constructed according to what they need so the raw material can be the same. Now, we're going to use two terms to kind of get in your brain. And one is the exegetical outline. That's the raw material. The exegetical outline is where you're going through the text and you are simply looking at the grammar, the structure, the logic, and you're simply outlining the exegetical outline that you're doing, exegesis, figuring out material that's there. But the exegetical outline is, in essence, the raw material. It's telling you what you need to know in order to construct new term the harm. A lateral outline. The homily article outline, which is the sermon outline. Tell me things that are not in the exegetical outline. Simply outlining the text that are going to be in the homily article outline. What are things that are in the exegetical outline, the raw material that are not going to be in the Hummel article at all in May? How do you how do you respond? Okay. We recognize the exegetical outline probably is not going to be some of the times. It will have application and it won't. It'll be saying do or don't do this thing, but often the exegetical outline will not have. How are you supposed to respond, particularly in what situation? Your situation. So it will not have that material, which we know is essential to good sermons, is they have to.

[00:14:21] How do you respond in your situation? That's not going to be in the exegetical outline what other things will not be in the just the outline of the passage. What are other things? It will not be there. Illustrations will not be there. What else will not be there? Application. Yes. MACKLIN That's right. Other things that will not be there. Thank you. Supporting text may not be in the exegetical outline that's going to be various supporting materials that are not here. But depending on what your purpose is, you may need to bring in from other places what other things are not going to be in the exegetical outline. Yes, Thank you. Very good. The context may not be there, the historical context. What else is going on around the passage? What where was Paul at the time he wrote this? That's not in the exegetical outline, its historical background, perhaps literary background. We've said you're going to mistake what Romans 15 is about if you don't know what Romans 14 is about. So if you've only outline Romans 15, you may not have the appropriate literary background. So now you're going to have say, well, how do I know what context is going to be appropriate, what information to bring in, what supporting texts to bring in, what illustrations to use, what applications to use, What's the ultimate question? We do not only execute the text, what else do we execute? The people. And it's those two things in cooperation with each other that are forming. The blueprint for the Homolog article outline for the construction of the sermon. All right, so raw material, Exegetical outline. Homily, Article. Outline the fruit of executing the text and executing the people and therefore form will follow function somewhat.

[00:16:09] Let's see how it works a little bit. And here's the the key thought before we look at these examples. Expository messages, expository messages are obligated. To provide the truth of the text. I am still before Luke 18 in your little gap for Luke 18. Then that gap there expository messages are obligated to provide the truth of the passage. Expository outlines are obligated to expository messages are obligated to present the truth of the passage. But not necessarily the pattern of the passage. They're obligated to present the truth of the passage, but not necessarily the pattern of the passage. You've got Bibles with you there. Why don't you look at Luke 18? Look at Luke 18. And let's see, can you be faithful to the truth of the text? But not necessarily follow the pattern of the text. I'm going to read Luke 18 versus one through eight. Then Jesus told his disciples a parable to show them that they should always pray and not give up. He said. In a certain town, there was a judge who neither feared God nor cared about men, and there was a widow in that town who kept coming to him with the plea. Grant me justice against my adversary. For some time. He refused. But finally he said to himself, Even though I don't fear God or care about men yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will see that she gets justice and that she won't eventually wear me out. With her coming. And the Lord said, Listen to what the UN just judge says and will not God bring about justice for his chosen ones who cry out to him day and night. Really keep putting them off. I tell you, he will see that they get justice and quickly.

[00:18:29] However, when the son of man comes, will he find faith on Earth? Now, would you say it's an appropriate theme of this text? Could you preach from this that we do not pray enough that we should be encouraged to pray more? Would that be an appropriate thing to preach from this text? Seems pretty clear that that would be a possibility. What if I approached it this way? What if I said we do not pray enough? That's the following condition. Focus knows it stated in the negative. The FCF is something that's wrong. It's the burden of the passage. We do not pray enough. So my outline might begin Pray because prayer is an indication of the believer's faith. Pray because prayer reaches God's heart. Pray because God commands it. Where does that first point come from? Pray because prayer is an indication of faith. Where does that come from? In the text? It's the last verse. That's correct. It's the last verse. What about the next one? Pray, because prayer reaches God's heart. Where does that come from? The middle. That's right. Kind of versus five and six is even the unjust charge can be moved by pleading. How much more would God be moved by the pleading of his own? How about this? Pray because God commands it. Where do we find a simple command to pray? Verse one. Now we kind of move backwards through the text, didn't we? But we're still dealing with the idea that we should pray because we do not pray enough. And we're kind of building from the lesser to the greater right. We're saying that pray because it indicates your faith. Pray because God hears. But ultimately, why should you pray? God says to. I saw. I'm kind of ending with that imperative.

[00:20:20] That's one approach. Look at the next one. What if my FCF is going to be recognizing the people I'm dealing with and their struggles and needs that I would be aware of as a pastor without God. Here's us when he does not answer immediately. Is that legitimate from this text? With Jesus? Yeah. He said we should pray and not worry because God will hear and he will answer When. He will answer quickly. So we say people won't and he doesn't seem to hear. Could you address that concern that following this out of this text? Okay. Different purpose now. Same raw material. How might we deal with it? If you've dealt with this first main point, do not doubt because God desires our example of persistent prayer. Do not doubt because God tells us some request will not be met, but by persistent prayer. Do not doubt, because God will answer persistent prayer. Where is the first one come from? Do not doubt because God desires our example of persistent prayer. Where do you get that? Okay. You get that right at the top, right at the beginning. How about do not doubt because God tells us some request will not be met, but by persistent prayer. The middle and do not doubt because God will answer persistent prayer. What does it tell us? God will answer persistent prayer. Yeah, kind of six through eight, I think. Kind of six through eight. That his conclusion, as he puts it. Now, this time, what we're doing, we're moving right through the passage. We're going straight from beginning to end now. We are being, I hope, true to the truth of the text, but we are not necessarily following the pattern of the text. Now, I will tell you, I think the most frequent and best way of going is going straight through.

[00:22:08] Candidly, I would do that most of the time. I would move straight through in order. But there may be strategies that are significant for communicating the truth of the text that may vary why you'd want to go through the pattern. Here's the most key. When you are in a written medium, when you're writing things down, when your English teacher taught you to say things, when did the most kind of overarching principle get set When you were writing an essay? When is the when does a large thing get set? First give your theme statement first. That is typical of and a written medium. Say the big thing and then you move down to the particulars. When you are in an oral medium, when do you say the most important things that you expect people to walk away with? You see them last. It's one of the memories. So we need to learn some of the difference between essays and sermons. Now, to be fair to the truth of the text, if the most important thing is said first, when might you choose to say it in the sermon to be true to the truth of the text? You might say it last. To be fair to the truth of the text, you are going to divide a strategy that most communicates the truth. And it may be in a written medium and you may have to recognize there are certain things I have to adjust in an oral medium. Now, even if you won't buy that one, here's one. If you are preaching from Ephesians the third chapter, you will recognize that Paul starts. And then he has a 12 verse parentheses before he picks up the thought of the first verse again. Do you think you might want to preach that pattern or a different pattern? What I mean is right now, you totally lose people in an oral medium.

[00:24:00] If you kind of start a thought and then you're going to execute 12 verses before you finish the thought. My guess is you will find a different oral strategy to deal with that written information. Your exegetical outline will tell you, Here's the beginning of the thought, here's the end of the thought, and there's a lot in between. But you're probably not going to preach that exegetical outline. You're probably going to convert to a homily, article outline. You'll find that some of the Psalms are built on Hebrew across sticks. So they're built on the Hebrew alphabet, sometimes like some 119 repeating verses seven or eight times before moving to the next letter. Do you think you can do that? Well, in an English medium can be very hard. You're probably find another way to orally communicate the truth of the text rather than follow the pattern. Now, when I go back and say how often, however, most of the time, what will you do? Most of the time I think you will follow the pattern. But I don't want you to get suddenly in the sense of, Oh no, how am I? I can't see how to do that. The way the pattern is. And watch us. Fine. Do the truth. That's that's the expository obligation, the truth of the text, not necessarily the pattern of the text, because our purpose is going to be driving pattern. It's not going to be determining truth here. The difference? Our purpose will be the driving pattern, but it will not be determining what the truth is. If you think of what the purpose of the outlines themselves are, the kind of classical statement from a Hamlet textbook from centuries now is an outline is a logical path for the mind.

[00:25:42] Pretty, pretty simple. An outline is a logical path for the mind. If I'm going to tell you now that you're in St Louis, some of you for a while, how to get to Ted Cruz. I don't just kind of say which is the ice cream custard place, right? I'll just say go east, You know, I'll say, Listen, you take Conway, the bowels, you take bowels 2 to 7, you go south on to 70 and you get the 44. You take 44 down to Chippewa and you know, I'm going to give you the here, there to there. I'm creating a logical path to get to the ice cream and outline is a logical path for the mind and it has steps in it. We need to talk about how those steps are, but just so we say, what are the purposes they're to We say kind of the outline purposes. The first purpose for an outline is it clarifies parts of the sermon, it clarifies parts of the sermon in the listener's mind and ear. It's a logical path of the mind. How is it doing that? It's clarifying the parts of the sermon in the listener's mind and ear. So my what the listener hears, they're getting that path toward truth that we are developing. But the second major reason that preachers have outlines is it clarifies parts of the sermon. Clarifies parts of the sermon. In the preacher's mind. And I. It clarifies the parts of the sermon in the preacher's mind and I. Now, you know, I'm speaking to you off of an outline and I see a major point and I begin to see the supporting material under it. I even kind of circle some things that I will use as illustrations while I'm talking to you.

[00:27:33] I'm expecting you to kind of pick up the steps, but the mere fact that I'm creating an outline helps my while I'm speaking to say, made your thought. Supporting thought. Illustration how I'm going to apply it. I just my outline is communicating that to me. I've spoken enough my outlines that I'll recognize if there are large gaps. There's something missing that I need to include. The creation of the outline itself will be giving signals to me as a speaker what to say and what to include and in what sequence to be doing that. So the outline great for the listeners. It's also helping me organize my thought by giving my eyes signals about what I'm going to be saying. As you think about outlines, just a thought of why we organize along some frame. I mentioned it to you before as you are aiding the listeners ear and aiding you, are I? You're ultimately working hard on ethos as well as logos. Log us because you're developing an argument of some sort. You're proving something is true. How is ethos being helped by the outline? Okay says you're credible. You're thinking at the flip side. It shows you cared enough to get organized. Those are the two pieces of ethos again, Right? Credibility and compassion. So we got credibility. I know what I'm talking about. I can put the thoughts together. I've analyzed this text and I care enough about you to have put it in an organized way. So its entry outlines are accomplishing lots of things for us, not just in organization, but also in ethos. If you said. What are qualities of good outlining of good homily article outlines qualities of good homily article outlines are going to be five of these.

[00:29:30] Okay. So five of these under Roman to the first quality of a good homily article outline is unity. Unity. How many things is a sermon about? One thing and therefore all the parts of the outline should be supporting one central idea. All the parts of the outline should be supporting one central idea. You don't want to be in the case of our mythical pastor up here, it occurs to Reverend Billings in the middle of point number two. That point number three misses the point entirely. You want to make sure the points are dealing with the point, Right. The main thing is to keep the main thing, the main thing. And that doesn't work when the points of your outline are not dealing with the main thing. So unity is certainly something that you would expect outlines to reflect. Second, brevity. Qualities of good homily article outlines brevity that is the parts will pass the 3 a.m. test. The parts will pass the 3 a.m. test. We want to say things in outline form as concisely as possible. You know that if you've got a main point that's going on 15 words, it is way too long. You know, if it if it goes on more than, you know, seven or eight, it's probably too long. So we we want to shrink these things down. Now, we've got lots more to say, lots more to say. But that's going to be the information, the exposition that comes under that main point statement, the main points statements and the sub points that we try to make as brief as possible. They're kind of like thought pegs that you hammer on the door and then you can hang lots of stuff on them. But we don't want the peg to be ten feet long.

[00:31:26] Okay. We try to make that peg kind of as crisp as we can, so then we can start hanging lots of things on it. Sometimes we will say things so briefly that people kind of go, What? What did you just say? You know, what God needs is spoilers. What do you mean by. You almost want that reaction. God wants spoilers. He wants those who are willing to spoil the wicked. I'm going to be explaining that more and more as I go. But I want the crisp statement first to get the attention. Here's what I'm going to be talking about and then I can hang lots of things on that thought, pig. The parts will pass the 3 a.m. test. See, maybe a new thought for you is parallelism. Good. How Millennial outlines reflect parallelism. That is the word order. Between the main points, even between sub points within a main point. The word order is similar. Think of it this way. Christ. Word. Demands. Honor Christ. Word demands. Honor Christ. Word. Uh. Demands obedience. Christ Word demands love. Now, this could be three main points in a sermon. Crossword demands, honor, crossword demands, obedience, crossword demands, love. The modifiers are lining up the same position throughout the statement. The nouns, the subject lining up in the same position between the statements. Even the verbs. You have an object in this case, What's changing? That's known as the key word change when things remain parallel, but something changes. It's known as a key word change. What does everybody know this main point is going to be about? Going to be about honor. What's this one going to be about? Obedience and love. Parallelism with a key word. Change is like this verbal flag of the speaker.

[00:33:57] Remember, people aren't reading along with you. They're just listening. So parallelism is like this by saying, Hey, here's another main point. And the parallelism is the signal. That is another main idea similar to another one that was stated maybe 3 minutes, maybe 5 minutes, maybe 7 minutes previously. But it's parallel language saying here's another major idea and it's development is indicated by a keyword change. Where do you see Jesus doing this? Sermon on the Mount. Tell us to places that parallelism occur in the sermon that are two ways that is being demonstrated in the Sermon on the Mount. Can't remember anything that was parallel in the way that Jesus stated things in the Sermon on the Mount. The Beatitudes. Blessed are the poor. Blessed are the meek, for they will be here. The first. Blessed are he word change. Poor, meek, whatever it is. And then even the latter part of that is in a parallel form. Blessed are the poor in spirit, for they will be blessed are the poor, for they will be. So we have parallelism with key word changes. Now that's in the Beatitudes itself. There's another way in the Sermon on the Mount that Jesus is using parallels to indicate subject change. You know what the other one is? Thank you. You have heard it said. But what? But I say to you. Okay. Each time is moving to a new subject. It begins with a parallel statement with a key word change. Now, that saying this isn't some modern innovation, isn't it? This is the way people hear things throughout the ages. So the way in which we give them our outline is parallel phrasing with key word changes. Now, there's lots of examples in your readings and there's lots of examples to come.

[00:35:46] But and by the way, does the key word change always have to be at the end of the phrase? No, it can be. It can be middle. It can be different places. It can even be at the beginning. So, you know, it has to be just one word. So it will vary. But the form of parallelism, that's got some shift in it and we'll talk various kinds of doing those keyword changes. But some shift that kind of says, oh, that's the main idea again. Oh, and there's the shift. That's what this is going to be about, what that key word change is going to be about. So unity, brevity, parallelism, proportion. Another quality of good homily article outlines is proportion. Some of the readings that you'll do will call this simply symmetry. Proportion or symmetry that is. The proportion of similar components of the message is about the same the proportion of similar components. The main points are about the setting numbers putting a stopwatch on, but the main points are about the same length. If you've got multiple sub points, they're about the same length. Now think what would happen otherwise. If your first main point last 25 minutes. And, you know, the next main point is only going to last 3 minutes. Nonetheless, if you have been preaching for 25 minutes and you say to people and my second main point is what's going to happen, you go, Oh, no, we got what are they thinking will happen? Here will be another 25 minutes because the Western ear is expecting things to be in proportion. Again, nobody's got a stopwatch on it, but we're expecting the components to be in roughly equal proportions. E The last is progression. Progression. That is, the thought should move forward with each new component.

[00:37:50] The thought should move forward with each component. We're going to greater understanding, broader understanding of what's been said. So if we just feel like we're sticking in the same place. And haven't moved forward. We're going to go. Oh, it didn't seem like anything happened that move this along. If I were in this outline here and instead of the next word being obedience, if I said God's word demands honor. And then I said from my second point, God's word demands praise. Now, what are people thinking? It's a different word. But what? Seems like we just did that. Okay. It doesn't appear that there's progression going on. Now, here is where you will often develop a difficulty with an exegetical verses a ha millennial outline. Will a text ever repeat something? Sure it will. And if you're just following through the exegetical outline, you might say, all right, the man's honor, and then the word honor appears late and you have to go develop that idea again. If the word honor is repeated or the concept is repeated in the text, what are you likely going to do? You're likely going to group them under this point rather than deal with it, explain it, apply it, and so forth. And then get now, you know, 5 minutes later and do it all again. Okay. So I'm going to try to pull ideas together in a way that explains the text in an oral medium. And that means there will be parallelism. There will be symmetry proportion or there will be as well, and there will be as well progression. Some types of whole article outlines we'll do this very quickly, but just so that, you know, there are different ways in which these outlines that are are put together.

[00:39:34] The most common and the most frequent will use is logical, a logical outline. Then it shows the logical development of the passages thought. You're with me on rum in three types of palm like outlines. The first is logical. It shows the logical development of the passages thought. An example We should trust God because his nature is loving. We should trust God because his nature is all knowing. We should trust God because His nature is all powerful. Well, what if I was dealing with the falling nation? Focus of people just are unwilling to trust God with tomorrow? You say, Listen, you should trust God because his nature is loving. But the objection to that is, even if I trust him to be loving, if God doesn't know what's going to happen next, it's not enough. His being loving is not a sufficient reason to trust him. So I said, okay, Well, the second main point, we should trust God because his nature is also all knowing he's loving, but he also knows what will happen and the consequences of everything. Okay, well, that helps me more. It's still not enough. If he loves me and knows what's going to happen, but he cannot stop the Mack truck from hitting my child, I still have reason to trust him. So I have to say, he's not only loving and all knowing what is he also? He's all powerful. He has control of all things. He is loving. He is all knowing. And he can control all things according to his knowledge and according to his love. In ways the eternal of the beyond is surely. But nonetheless, we can trust him. I'm building in a progressive way. The logic that runs through a passage. That's a logical development message.

[00:41:22] And when you're preaching from the epistles and some of the Psalms, logical development is the easiest way to go and very, very common. A second major form of outlines. And these are not meant to be exclusive, by the way. But a second major form of outlines is sequential, sequential. That is, we show not the logical development, the chronological development. Of a passage. We showed a chronological development of a passage. Because God offers salvation. We must come to Christ. Because God offers salvation, we must abide in Christ. Because God offers salvation, we must testify of Christ. What's that describing? Come to Christ, abide in Christ, testify of Christ. What chronology is that? Yeah. It's the chronology of the Christian life. Right. We come, we abide and we testify. So at that particular chronology, it's logical, but it's also sequentially moving through what happens in somebody's life. Have you ever heard a sermon where somebody is saying this is what happened in the life of David? Obedient, disobedient, repentant. Some moving through the life of David to say how we must be responding to God. Something like that would be sequential. Another major form of outline is getting the two words here picturesque, like a picture picturesque. Picturesque or imagistic image. Picture or image. Picturesque or imagistic. Why do we need this for this culture today? Are we more linear, logical oriented or visual visual oriented, which are way more. You'd have to say this age, this era, we are very image oriented. And here I listed for you what What I will even confess is an absolutely awful outline. But hopefully I'll make the point a little bit. If we are to be effective fishers of men, we must use proper tackle. If we are to be effective fishers of men, we must go where the fish are.

[00:43:37] If we are to be effective fishers of men, we must react when we get a nibble. You know, if you're a fisherman at all, that may mean a little something. But what am I doing? I'm talking about the process of mission. Through a fishing analogy, I'm bringing to mind people's idea of some fishing experience of their youth and hopefully hoping they get a nibble. It's a terrible one. I will tell you, one of the best I ever heard was by a seminary student who had been in the Air Force. And his career in the Air Force was as a crash investigation specialist. So he investigated what happens when planes crash and he went to the life of King Saul. And he said there has been a spiritual crash that happened in this man's life. How did it happen? And he just took us through the steps of a crash investigation to say, first we need to determine point of impact. Then we need to determine was it pilot or mechanical error? And then we have to say, what steps do we take to avoid recurrence? Now, could you explain the life of Saul that way? Sure. Pretty good, right? Point of impact, pilot and mechanical error. What steps do we take to avoid recurrence in our lives? So he's using an image and taking people through an image or a picture process. And you've heard pastors do this, right? Did Jesus ever do this? He said, I am the world of choices here. I'm the vine. You are the branches. I am the light of the world. I am the bread of life. Taking images that people are familiar with and tying it to spiritual truth in order to communicate what needs to be known.

[00:45:26] So picturesque or imagistic, the item D is just others. Okay, I'm not going to go into those. I think once you get logical, sequential and imagistic, you have a lot of the raw materials you will need for a lot of the purposes will go well, will do others in future semesters. But those are kind of basic, basic outlines. We're dealing. The passages you'll be dealing with this semester are from the Epistles. So what do you think will be most likely your choice of those three? Logical this semester probably doesn't exclude images thinking they find a way of doing that, but probably most of your outlines will be of a logical development order in terms of what goes into these outlines, in terms of what goes into the outlines. You'll be doing this over time in different components. So don't think you've got to do all this at once, but just so that you have an idea of what will be being developed. And this is a this is definitely a shorthand here. There will be these various components. There will be some indicator of introduction and conclusion. So some indication of what the introduction is about and some indication of what the conclusion is about. So first thing that goes in the outlines is some indication of introduction and conclusion. Second thing that goes into outlines proposition, that theme statement. What's the main thing this sermon is about is a proposition. Obviously there will be beyond the proposition main points. So here is a main point. Because Jesus is the only hope of salvation, we must present Christ in difficult situations. Here's another main point Because Jesus is the only hope of salvation, we must present Christ in difficult people because Jesus is the only hope of salvation.

[00:47:29] We must present Christ despite our difficulties. Now, those are longer for reasons that we will be talking about shortly, but I hope you see email. They're very long statements. They have keyword changes. They're parallelism with keyword changes so that, you know, the first main points are going to be about difficult situations. The second main point is going to be about difficult people. And the third main point is going to be about our difficulties. And you see that by the parallel language, you probably recognize that as well as the main points. There are various developmental features. So in your little outline that you're making the on the main points, there are developmental features like here are various ones, some points. Sub points are the development of the logic of the main point. Sub points are the development of the logic of the main point. In addition to sub points, there are illustrations that get indicated in the outline. In addition to the illustrations, there are applications that typically get indicated in the outline. Now, something I said with some care there just a bit ago was that some points are the development of the logic of the main point. That is hopefully. So something begins to kind of come into your consciousness and it is this an illustration is not a some point. An illustration is not a sub point. An application is not a sub point. Yes, they are supporting material under that main point, but the sub points are the development of the logic of the main point. So they are typically developments of principle of some sort. The illustration is going to illustrate, demonstrate what the sub points in the main point have been about. So this is demonstration. The applications are going to apply what the sub points and the main point have been about, but neither the illustration nor the application are some points.

[00:49:40] The sub points are the development of the logic of the main point. You may. Depending on how full your outline becomes that you take into the pulpit, you may end up with transitions of some sort also indicated in the outline transitions. So under contents of good Homolog guidelines, indicators of introduction, conclusion, proposition, main points, developmental features and sometimes transitions will go into that outline. And of course, through the semester. What are we going to do? We're going to talk about each of those. Right. So we're kind of seeing how this will unfold as we think Roman five of some developmental some developmental principles for good. Hummel Article outlines. We said that the raw material is giving us information that we need, but purpose is going to be determining the actual construction of the message. And almost always, there's a sense now of, all right, how many points am I supposed to use? And the answer is. What's your purpose? In the history of preaching, there are standard ways that we think about the number of main points in a sermon, and depending on it's a three point sermon, a two point sermon, or a four or more point sermon, we know that there are basically ways and again, this will vary greatly by culture, but from the Western ear. So people who've been developed kind of in Western educational culture, etc., we tend to have certain expectations of what is being accomplished by the different numbers of points in an outline. So let's say it real quickly. I think you'll you'll catch it real fast. A three point outline is known as developmental. A three point outline is developmental. That is this idea leads to that idea, which leads to a culminating idea, and it comes right out of.

[00:51:43] Greek and Roman rhetoric and the idea of what a syllogism is and the way that we got accustomed in Western culture to here the development of an argument. Major premise, minor premise, conclusion. So we develop a thought by moving to a common native idea. So that Western style logistic method. And by the way, humility will always debate that, you know, where did the three point sermon come from? It is the most common in Western culture. Now, I would say it's most common because we are typically more comfortable in Western culture preaching out of the Epistles than out of narratives. Narratives often will not follow a three point developmental form, but didactic passages almost always will be able to develop that way. So we're kind of more comfortable with this logical development. And so it kind of folds into three point sermons often, but we often go minor idea, more major idea, most major idea. And that's typically what a three point sermon does. It's developmental. You can think of it as going up the mountain. Start here, move up to here, move to the highest perspective and most important idea. Even the language I gave you before of a sermon being progressive has the idea that you're moving toward a higher culmination and a three point sermon accomplishes that very readily to the Western ear. A two point message has a slightly different purpose. A two point message is not developmental, but balanced. Balanced. Two things typically are intention or balance to one another. There's hot and cold, there's inside. Outside there is earthly and heavenly. Here. These hit these duos one typically in balance against the other in some form of tension. If you do not have that tension in a two point message in Western culture, you know what people feel.

[00:53:41] It's incomplete. Exactly right. What? Did you forget the third string at the time? Because you see, the third point is really there. You know what it is? The third point is the tension between the two. So if there's not tension between the two, if they're not counter-balanced in some way, then it has this feeling of that it's not communicating anything to me or you just didn't get done. So in a two point message, and we'll do this very frequently. Right. And the apostle certainly does it very readily. The Apostle Paul has these duos coming between the flesh and the spirit, between the earthly and the heavenly, between the inside, the outside, right between the old man and the new man. Put on the new clothes, put off the old, you know, these duos occurring typically in the sermon as we are moving from the first main point to a second main point in a two point message, we do create the tension. We say, here's what we have been looking at. Here's the flip side that we're going to be looking at. Okay. So we don't expect people to figure out the tension. We tell it to them because they need that information to be able to see how these ideas are playing off of one another. Four or more points, sermon, four or more point sermon. Maybe some native. I mean, just the words. Try to catch them all fast. This is summative summing or additive or even catalog. Summative Give you lots of ideas that are added up. To create an overall impression. So summative. Some call it additive. And as you add this to this, to this, to this or even catalog, give you lots of different ideas. Now we're not moving up the mountain typically in a four or more point message.

[00:55:38] Each of these kind of has equal weight. Each of these points has equal weight, but you need them all to develop the overall idea. I think the longest I ever heard were the 14 attributes of a biblical preacher heard of that sermon one time, the 14 attributes of a biblical preacher. Now, he probably wasn't saying that this one's more important. He kind of wanted us to hear all of them. Right? And he said, You need to hear all of these to get the big picture. So it wasn't a minor premise. Two more major premise. Two more major premise. It was you need this and this and this and this and this. If you go beyond for I will tell you, in this era, it is very hard for people to retain it. Four or five. You're really pushing Max's seven, eight, nine. You're just going for impressions. They are not remembering specifics. 14 You know, you're just kind of saying, well, very much, you know, give me the big picture. I don't remember anything else from there as that goes. So a form or is is summative or additive. And then there are in this culture one point messages. Now, we're not going to do them. We won't do them this semester. We will wait way until the last part of the sequence. But a one point message, as you might guess, is simply called essay form. It's simply an essay. And the one main point is the proposition or the theme statement, and then it's developed pretty much like an essay. Very hard for people to listen to in this culture. You know, just 30 minutes with no breaks, you know, nothing. No road signs in between. Just paragraph leads to paragraph. Leads to a paragraph.

[00:57:19] Leads to paragraph. The way that you wrote essays and and think if you were listening to the sermon. Typically they're read very few people have these memorized. It's another reason, by the way, that we use outlines is very easy to get them in our heads. So we're not reading off of manuscripts. So we do essays and there are some fantastic essay preachers in our culture. If you think of people who kind of present essays in sermons that are effective, any any ideas you might think of. Say again? Swindell I actually would not say Swindell fits this. You know what? We'll talk about Swindell in two semesters because he does a very. Highly effective form of mass communication outline, and we'll look at it a little bit different. But I know why you would fall back say that because it is a little different telling. Coulson I would certainly say Coulson is an essay preacher. Wonderful, marvelous social essays, usually not expository sermons. Right. Usually not taking a text and unfolding it. But. And probably James Kennedy would be the other I would mention that they're often essay forms rather than expositions and we'll even talk later why that is because often the essay form is the way of addressing an issue as opposed to developing a text. All right. And so there may be a reason for an essay sermon, but we're not going to do it this semester. Under Roman numeral five. In addition to the developmental principles of good Hummel article outlines in addition to let your purpose dictate the number of main points, it is also important that Jesus know the principles of subordination. Now here I am going to go in the tracks of your English teacher. If you have one sub point, what must you have in addition? Another.

[00:59:04] You can't have one sub point under a main point if you have one sub point. What should it have been? It should have been the main point. If you have a main point statement and only one sub point, it will appear to compete for the listener. And what is the main point here? Is that a restatement of what you just said or is it something that I just missed here? You did. You mean to state that instead of the main point? So if you have one standpoint point, you have to at least have. Two. We have to have another. Okay. Can you have three sub points? Sure. Can you? For sure. Can you have five? Oh, you're stretching. Okay. Usually two or three, right? Is common. Two or three. You don't have to have sub points. All right, Maybe the main point will carry the thought in itself. But if you do have a sub point principles of subordination, so you have to have at least one more. At least one more. And typically there's two or three. See? It's helpful to keep the text evident in the outline. It's helpful to keep the text evidence in the outline as you're developing, Hammel article outlines. It's often very helpful to use the words of the text. In the development of the political outline. So people hear you say something. They look at their Bibles and it's using similar words. So if I were saying God, Christ, word demands honor, and verse two had the word honor in it, that's very helpful to people in it. Now, can you always do that? The answer is no. It may be that the word honor didn't appear in the text at all. It may have been something like Give God praise, sing songs to him, and I had to take two different phrases and roll it into one main point.

[01:00:45] So, you know, praise and sing songs. What is that about? Well, that's about giving honor. So I may have to take an entirely different word and use it as a summary word to get the biblical concepts. But if I can use the words of the text, that's often very helpful to keep of the words in the text, if possible. In the outline, if I could. The other thing that I'm going to do to keep the text evident in the outline is tie main points and sub points to relevant verses. Time, main points and sub points to relevant verses. That's how I keep the text most evident in the outline. If I cannot use the words of the text instead, again, it's under it's under C, I can still there keep the text evident. The outline often use the words of the text, but certainly use the verse references in the text. The verse references. So I'm going to say it's like how preachers develop this Christ Word demands honor. Look with me yet verse two it says to what I just did in the standard pattern state the proof. Place the truth. Look with me in verse two, it says, Prove the truth. It says This state. Place. Prove. State the truth. Place it. Look with me in verse two. It says, and I begin to prove it. And we'll talk about various forms of proof as we go here. But state plays proof. So what I'm often doing in my outline is I'm saying. Verse two. And if I have some points under here, I will link them to verses two. So I'll say something like We should give God honor first. This demands our praise. Look with me at verse three. And I'll begin to talk about how verse three explains praise.

[01:02:38] But I may have another sub point that says it also says sing songs, then psalms and hymns and spiritual songs. What are those things? I'll begin to explain what songs and hymns and spiritual songs are, and that may be something in addition. But what I'm trying to do is keep my main points and sub points tied visually to the text. What's the strength of that, this authority are you speaking on? The Bible's authority, not yours. So I say, here's the truth. Look with me in the text. It's doing lots of things. It's making sure your authority comes out of the Bible. It's making sure you are, in fact, explaining what this text says, because you've got to prove that it can't. What you just said comes out of the Bible here and it's doing the expositor ethic. What are we to open our Bibles? And I say, let me tell you what this means. And when I keep saying, look here, it says, look here, people keep knowing, Oh, you're explaining what this means and you keep taking them back to the text. One way is using the words of the text, though, I will tell you, you can't do that a lot of the time. But not only can you, you must use the verses of the text, identify the verse, reference where it is. Another thing that may be helpful to you is to create consistent visual markers, create consistent visual markers in your pulpit, outline you know what you're taking to the pulpit may not be what you have written up. What you take in the pulpit may not be what you've written up. It's often quite a bit briefer. So something that I have just done through the years to create consistent visual markers is when I have the outline that I take into the pulpit.

[01:04:17] I can't tell you when I started doing this or even why I always circle my illustrations. Why? Because I had dinner set off to my eye on what the the sub points are about. So I'm. I'm working along, and it comes to a need to remember what the illustrations. I just. Look, now I don't have to read through five sentences. The illustrations circle. My eye falls immediately to it, so I know automatically what my illustration is before I got kind of computer literate. I almost always use little triangles to indicate my applications. But when I got to where I couldn't create a triangle on my typewriter or a computer, you know that I started using these little parallelogram. Right. And if I see one of those, I know I'm in an application and I isn't trying to read really, really well, but where is it? Where is it? Where is it? My eye just falls to the page and I automatically know that's an application automatically. No, that's an illustration. Now, I don't mean to tell you what you should do. All right. Our our styles will vary hugely, but the thing to do while you're in seminary is to begin to develop your own system. What is what is helpful for you? You put a star by an application. You put a square over the illustration view. Some people do this with the highlighters that we can do this. You know, always put the illustration in blue and the application in red. Now, the difficulty comes when you have about ten varieties of color and you need the key over here to determine what your thing is or that's really going too far. But the idea of having what I'm trying to do is maintain eye contact, speak to people and have these consistent visual markers will help me, among other things.

[01:06:00] Major points being maybe boldfaced and larger and over in the left hand margin. And some points you probably indent a bit, make them smaller. And we just do that naturally in outlining, don't we? So we kind of know major ideas and supporting ideas just by the way that we put them on our page. And that way will be help item. It may surprise you this is different again than your English teacher. When we are developing outlines for preaching, we typically number rather than alphabetize main points. We number rather than alphabetize main points and some points. Let's create if my main point this were a main point, Christ word demands and I'm trying to think of some overarching phrase for it because I've now I've really messed up here when I created this problem here earlier, let's say in praise, What was the original one here? It was obedience. Is that right? Okay, I'm not saying this is good, but let's say the main point was Christ Word demands praise. And then I had some points here. What am I? English teacher. Tell me to do A, b, C, right. When you're talking to people, do you say a, B? What do you say? You say first, second, third. So in Humala, Nicole outlines. We number rather than alphabetize because that's the way we talk. Otherwise, you'll be doing some kind of conversion process in your brain. Let's see. ABC at one, two, three, third. You know, because you will recognize the unnatural ness of talking to people and saying, c d, you know, we don't talk that way to one another. So it's often typical that we will number even sub points as well as main points. To keep the main points in the proper outline clearly segregated.

[01:08:05] Plain enough. Our tendency is to cram things together and to do it just the way I develop this. Again, we're thinking of writing essays rather than developing sermons. So my first main point has gone about two thirds down the page. Where do I start? My second main point if I'm writing an essay? Just keep going down the page. But now next week, maybe this main point first main point ended only a third of the way down the page. So now the second main point takes up two thirds of the page and runs one third on the next page. So every week, you know, the points are starting in a different place on the page. What's one way to overcome that? To recognize you get a lot of paper. So every main point starts at the top of the page. Now, your eye just doesn't have trouble navigating. You know, I finish that point. There's where the next one starts. Finish that one. There's where my eye is always coming to the same place on the page when I'm transitioning between points or major ideas. Now, there's kind of standard in the history of preaching, you know, the old the old one page fold. All right, If I do this, I have one page full at one time. I got one, two, three, four. And on one page I can do an outline. So often, if I'm preaching without a lectern and I've just got my Bible, I can do this right. There's my introduction proposition. First main point. Second main point. Third main point and conclusion. I've just got one piece of paper that I just opened one time and close. So that's kind of a standard thing that people use note cards and all kinds of things.

[01:09:34] My goal for you is just to develop a form of consistency so your eye knows what it's looking for and is not searching on the page, and you can operate very quickly and efficiently with it. That's part of keeping the outline singable. And you see the hint at the bottom, highlighting or underscoring key word changes while keeping most of the wording parallel. Age greatly in lots of ways going to this kind of silly outline up here, but kind of keeping it friendly, honor, obedience and love. If I highlight or underline those things on a page, my eye automatically knows what that main points about. And I'll emphasize it with my voice. And that makes it stick out for people as they're listening might. Question. My question is I'm giving lots of hints for what I said earlier in your notes, but I didn't explain it fully. I'm giving you hints for the pulpit outline for what you take into the pulpit to work with. That may be far different from the sermon that you wrote to get ready for the pulpit outline. I write out sermons word for word. But I never take the manuscript into the pulpit. I use the word for word to get my brain and heart ready for what I'm going to say. But I do not want to preach from a manuscript and be reading at people. So what I'm talking about is what you take into the pulpit. And candidly, as you're getting ready for what we're going to be doing here. I'm trying to get you ready for the steps we're going to take this semester, which is getting an outline, learning where sub points and supporting ideas. We're also going to write sermons out this semester, but we got to have good outlines to work off it first.

[01:11:13] Standard process, I think, for many, many preachers in this culture is exegetical outline, homily, article outline, full manuscript, pulpit outline. Forceps exegetical outline Hamil article Outline outline what I'm doing, then write the whole thing out manuscript and then the pop of outline. Convert the manuscript to the pulpit outline. So four steps, you know, what is the job? It's work. And but it makes our preaching. Something that's very listenable and easy for people to grasp. Some cautions for Home L'article outlines some cautions for how Millennial outlines their three. First, you already know take out the knots in O.T.. If you go back to the first page of this lecture, if you go back to the first page of the lecture. And look at that bottom outline on Luke 18. Do not doubt because Do not doubt. Third. Do not doubt. Now, if you didn't have the full explanation on the back end of that, if it was do not do this, do not do this, and do not do this. What have I left out of the sermon? What to do. Do not do this. Do not do this. And I've left out what to do. Standard preparation. Listen, we will break this rule later on. We will break this rule later on. But for now, prep Handel. We're not going to word main points or sub points in the negative. Okay. We're going to take out the nuts. If I say. Do not do something even better. Say, avoid. Avoid rather than and do not do something. So I'll find another way of saying it other than a negative. So that's something we're going to do this. We're just going to get out of the habit of saying things in the negative and we're gonna say things in the positive.

[01:13:09] Second thing that we're going to take out, the not second thing, take out the BS, the being verbs, the BS. All passives. He was good. Christians are. We're going to find an active verb. Okay. And that's, again, like your English teacher who tells you Make it active, make it gripping. Take out the passive verbs. And the third thing, just to put it in front of you, we will use alliteration with caution. Alliteration. You know what that means, where you start. Each of these key terms with the same consonant. You know, praise, power and plea call come and convert. You know, you get you get some constant going in a pattern is a very powerful rhetorical tool. The ear is very much helped by it, particularly when preachers have picked up the importance of keyword structures. And so there's some pastors who always use alliteration. Listen, it's a very powerful tool. If you do it every week, typically it can be problematic. Why? You twist the tax to fit your litigation scheme? Doesn't exactly mean that. But you think I've got to use the same consonant words So, you know, kind of twisting the truth to me that the other thing is people may find it too cutesy, you know, week after week after week. And now it becomes a word game rather than the proclamation of truth. So it is a tool, but we'll use it with caution. So if it will work naturally and great. But if not, don't feel like you got to push it. And some of you are used to preaching that has alliteration every week. And I won't say if it's natural, great, use it, but don't twist the text to make it happen. It's more important to say the truth than to say something untrue cleverly.

[01:15:01] Bottom line for good, Hammel article outlines. Faithful to the text. F. Faithful to the text. Oh, they should be obvious from the text. What you're saying should be obvious from the text that you're developing. Ah, it should be relevant to a fallen condition. Focus. I said this was the burden of the text. This is why I'm preaching. This is all the material, the sermon still dealing with that fallen condition or VI gone down a rabbit trail. So I keep pointing back to that falling condition is all the supporting material, all the main points. Are they dealing with the FCF and M? Does it move toward a climax? Does it move for a climax? Conclusions carry the weight of the sermon. Have I really said this? You must hear me now. This is what this is about. Which means all sermons have form. Faithful to the text. Obvious from the text. Relevant to a falling condition. Focus and moving toward a climax. Which is how you're trying to, in essence, say. This is what God is saying to you. You must act upon it. All sermons have form. Now, these are just basic general criteria of outlines. I've tried to do two basic things. Tell you what goes in and outline and give you some understanding that all your outlines will not look the same. All right. Those are two main things I try to accomplish today, because now you're going to start working toward developing your outlines. One more task we have to do after doing these general principles. Next time, we're going to be very particular about how you develop formal propositions and main points, and then your assignment after next time will be go do them. Okay. It's like medical training, right? See? One, two, one.

[01:16:54] So you're going to see some outlines, see the forms for formal propositions and main points. And then you will do them based on the text I gave you the beginning of the hour. Don't have to start working on yet. Maybe just start looking at those passages. Okay. But you do know there'll be what, next time? You know, there'll be a quiz. It is The most important reading of the semester is the reading for next time. Question. Logical. Almost always be logical. Yeah. The question was what form of outline will be using? And for most of you, because these are didactic passages, you'll feel very comfortable doing the logical form. See you next time.