Preaching - Lesson 6

Propositions & Main Points

In this lesson, you gain an understanding of the importance of clarity in preaching by learning about propositions and main points. You explore various types of propositions, including declarative, interrogative, and hortatory, as well as guidelines for developing them. Additionally, you learn how to identify, organize, and enhance main points with subpoints, which contributes to a more effective sermon. The lesson concludes with practical tips for integrating propositions and main points into your preaching.

Bryan Chapell
Lesson 6
Watching Now
Propositions & Main Points

I. Introduction to Propositions and Main Points

A. The Importance of Clarity in Preaching

B. Defining Propositions and Main Points

II. Crafting Effective Propositions

A. Types of Propositions

1. Declarative

2. Interrogative

3. Hortatory

B. Guidelines for Developing Propositions

III. Developing Strong Main Points

A. Identifying Main Points

B. Organizing Main Points

C. Enhancing Main Points with Subpoints

IV. Conclusion and Application

A. Integrating Propositions and Main Points in Sermons

B. Practical Tips for Preaching

  • Gain insights into effective preaching principles, covering history, essential components, styles, and techniques, and learn how to prepare and deliver impactful sermons.
  • Gain valuable insights on sermon construction, learn techniques for effective preaching, and understand the importance of continuous improvement for delivering impactful messages.
  • Through this lesson, you gain valuable insights into the process of text selection and interpretation for preaching, as well as learning practical techniques for delivering engaging and relevant sermons.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into the process of creating a sermon, from text selection to delivery, emphasizing textual analysis and message relevance.
  • Through this lesson, you gain the skills to craft clear, engaging, and memorable sermons by mastering the principles of effective outlining and arrangement in preaching.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to craft effective propositions and main points, enhancing your preaching clarity and impact.
  • By exploring homiletical outlines, you'll learn to effectively develop and structure sermons, understand various outline types, and apply engaging presentation techniques for impactful preaching.
  • In this lesson, you gain insights into crafting engaging introductions for sermons, exploring their importance, characteristics, types, and the process of creating a compelling introduction that effectively connects to the message.
  • Through this lesson, you learn the importance of exposition in preaching, how to develop an expository sermon, and the role of the preacher for effective communication.
  • This lesson teaches you to create captivating sermon introductions using anecdotes, questions, and facts, guiding you through research, structuring, and presentation to maximize audience engagement and improve your overall sermon impact.
  • In order to understand the basic subdivisions of your sermon in expository development, it is important to it is helpful to see what the specific members of your sermon's body looks like in standard development.

  • By completing this lesson, you learn to effectively prepare and deliver sermons while focusing on personal growth, continuous improvement, and dependence on God.
  • Learn to effectively classify and develop sermons into topical, textual, and expository types, enhancing your preaching skills and audience connection.
  • In this lesson, you learn the significance of explanation in preaching and strategies to craft and deliver effective explanatory sermons while evaluating their effectiveness for continuous improvement.
  • By incorporating illustrations into your preaching, you engage listeners, clarify complex ideas, and enhance memory retention while learning effective guidelines to utilize various types of illustrations.
  • Explore this lesson to learn how to effectively use illustrations in sermons by isolating events or experiences, refining principles, and connecting with your audience through human interest accounts.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to effectively use illustrations in preaching to engage listeners, clarify concepts, and draw from various sources, while maintaining relevance, variety, and ethical considerations.
  • Gain insight into the importance of application in preaching, as well as principles and methods for effective application, to create impactful and relevant sermons that resonate with your audience.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to effectively apply biblical teachings to modern life, considering various approaches, overcoming challenges, and utilizing practical tips for context-sensitive and culturally aware application.
  • Through this lesson, you gain insights into crafting effective transitions in preaching and utilizing the dialogical method for increased audience engagement and message clarity.
  • Gain insight into various sermon presentation methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and learn to choose the right method and improve your preaching skills.
  • Through this lesson, you enhance your preaching skills by mastering vocal techniques and purposeful gestures, ensuring a connection with the audience while continually improving your delivery.
  • Learn the significance of dress and style in preaching and how to balance authenticity, appropriateness, and clarity to effectively communicate your message to your audience.
  • You learn to effectively repurpose old sermons, gaining insight into updating them for relevance, enhancing delivery, and managing time efficiently.
  • By studying this lesson, you gain insight into the crucial connection between the Word and Spirit in preaching and learn to balance them for effective and authentic sermons.
  • Through this lesson, you learn how to apply a Christ-centered, redemptive-historical approach to preaching, addressing common criticisms and enhancing your sermons.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to compose powerful redemptive messages that highlight Christ's work and connect biblical themes to modern audiences.
  • Through this lesson, you gain an understanding of redemptive principles in preaching, learning to identify them in Scripture and effectively apply them to your sermons while navigating potential challenges.
  • By exploring the importance of genre in biblical interpretation and applying redemptive interpretation to various biblical genres, you will gain knowledge and insight into the historical and literary context, redemptive themes and patterns, and contemporary application of different types of genres in the Bible.


Dr. Bryan Chapell explores the unifying principle of grace that binds all Scripture together. He outlines and demonstrates the principles and practice of sermon-crafting and delivery to illuminate the message of grace in each passage, and to submit it to God's Spirit for the transformation of lives through preaching.

Dr. Chapell is making these recorded lectures available for you to access at no charge on BiblicalTraining.org. However, there is no personal interaction with Dr. Chapell in this format. The assignments and activities described are for classes that he teaches in person. We left the descriptions in for your benefit, but we do not offer personal or group interaction to participate in these activities. You can, however, sign up for his new preaching classes at BryanChapell.com/courses.

Dr. Chapell is helped in this course by Zachary W. Eswine, Assistant Professor of Homiletics and Director of the Doctor of Ministry Program (BSW, Ball State University; MDiv, Covenant Theological Seminary; PhD, Regent University). Dr. Eswine served as senior pastor of Grace Church of the Western Reserve in Hudson, Ohio, for six years before joining Covenant Seminary's faculty in 2001. He has served as a campus minister with the Navigators, as a church youth director, and as a chaplain-evangelist in retirement facilities. Since arriving at the Seminary, Dr. Eswine has also served as interim pastor for Tates Creek Presbyterian Church in Lexington, Kentucky, as advisory pastor for the Chinese Gospel Church of St. Louis, and as interim pastor for Cornerstone Evangelical Free Church in St. Louis. He has taught New Testament in Ukraine and served as a short-term missionary in the Caribbean. Dr. Eswine is a gifted preacher and has authored the book Kindled Fire: How the Methods of C. H. Spurgeon Can Help Your Preaching and numerous articles on homiletics. In addition, as an accomplished musician and songwriter, he has recorded three collections of original songs.

Philosophy and Goals of the Course

1. "Prep and Del" is an introduction to the basics of sermon construction and delivery. This is not primarily a course on the theology of preaching, but rather is a practical introduction to the tools, structures, and concepts that help preachers learn to put a sermon together. 

2. Because this course is introductory, certain standards of sermon construction are taught that I hope you will consider "foundational" rather than universal. There is not only one "right way" to preach. However, mastering the methods of this course will help you develop the tools needed for many kinds of future sermons. Students from many backgrounds and preaching traditions have found these tools helpful even as they prepare for other styles in the future. Other methods and styles will be taught and encouraged in future semesters.

3. In Dr. Chapell's seminary class, you would be asked to present some short oral assignments to the class in order to: a) begin integrating the information presented in lectures; b) begin honing your preaching skills; c) and, remove some of the intimidation of your first preaching experience next semester.

(At this time, we do not provide personal interaction to evaluate your progress. We included the suggested assignments and activities to give you direction as you apply the principles you are learning to your own sermon preparation and delivery.)

Recommended Books

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell

Christ-Centered Preaching: Redeeming the Expository Sermon [Hardcover]Bryan Chapell (Author)

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell
Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Highly regarded preacher and teacher Bryan Chapell shows readers how he has prepared expository sermons according to the principles he developed in his bestselling...

Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Dr. Bryan Chapell
Propositions & Main Points
Lesson Transcript

[00:00:00] This recording is provided courtesy of Covenant Theological Seminary. Let's do our mid-term review. Questions. Is there only one proper way to outline a passage for a sermon? Is there only one proper way? We say no. Now, the exegetical outline may be very similar, but what will vary greatly the homily article outline may vary greatly. And part of the reason for that, it's not in your notes here, but you'll recognize it. I think, as I say it, an expositor is bound to represent the truth of the text, but not the what The pattern of the text. So you are bound to present the truth of the text as an expositor, but not necessarily the pattern of the text. What governs how a sermon then should be outlined. I'm looking for words like purpose and FCF. So if there's not one right way to use that raw material out of the exegetical outline and your other study, what does govern the outline, The purpose, the FCA, three basic types of outlines. Can you remember some of these three basic types of outlines? What's the most common logical? What else? Sequential or chronological and picturesque or imagistic? So logical, Sequential. Picturesque. What are the qualities of good homily article outlines? There's actually a couple of ways you could go on this. One would be to list those things like unity. Brevity. Parallelism. Proportion. Progression. That's one way of going. Another is remember form the little acrostic, a forum they should have form faithful to the text, obvious from the text relevant to a following mission focus and moving to a climax. So those are just summary thoughts from your last lecture. As you are thinking about what's coming up, let me remind you that at the end of today's lecture, there is an assignment, and the assignment is to be preparing an outline for next time.

[00:02:09] And the outline is based on specific scripture text to which you're being assigned. And up here again is the current alpha list of what texts are yours to go with. So at the end of the lecture, there is a, a, an old list. Okay. It's just kind of a pattern I work off of. But this is the actual list for this semester. So wherever your name falls next to that text, that's what you'll be working on this semester. And again, if you're not proceeding in the Hamlet sequence, you're the middle text. Okay. Even if your alpha name doesn't fall on that particular place, if you're only in this course in the Hamlet curriculum, then you're working on the middle text question. And as we get to the end of the hour, we will tell you the specifics and it will be not an exegetical. It will be a humble article outline for next time. You'll be preparing proposition. And the main points, not sub points, not illustrations, not applications, just proposition and main points for next time based on those texts. And we'll talk about it at the end of the hour. What we are going to be talking about is, again, basic principles of outlining, but moving to greater particulars. And when I kind of prepare this a little bit by a hard experience that some of you in this room are aware of. There's a very dear friend of mine and a friend of the seminary who we are not sure yet. He has been missing for a couple of days now and he has probably taken his own life. And he's a pastor and a pastor to some people. Actually, quite a few people who go to the seminary. And as I spoke to his wife yesterday, you think what great truths can you communicate in such a time? And in my mind, the great truths are the simple ones.

[00:04:15] He is the good Shepherd. And I'll ask him now to carry you close to his arms. Close in his arms and close to his heart. You know, we're going to do a lot of technical things here the next few times, but I don't want the technical things to steal your sight of what we were trying to accomplish. We're just trying to make God's Word clear to God's people. And there are some technical things about communication that we need to learn to do that well. But don't lose sight of the goal. We're not trying to make things more complex. We are trying to make the Word of God and all of his eternal truths crystal clear for his people. Let's pray the Lord would enable us to do that. Father. We will deal with matters to us. In this class this day that are highly technical and in some ways as we are gaining facility in them, even frustrating to us. But the goal is great, and the goal is that the hope that is in your word, that you have transferred through the ages would be proclaimed to your people with boldness and compassion and great clarity where there will be moments in life that we need it very, very clear to us. Grant Therefore, as we do what we confess, are some rather mundane tasks. This day. Sight of the goal. Your people understanding your word. Give us your blessing. We pray for the sake of your people and the message of your son. We pray in his name. Amen. Our goal for today, as you see it, is to understand the basic features and construction of good propositions and main points. If you think of this class in large scope, what we've done is we've talked about the nature of the Word of God in general.

[00:06:11] We've talked about the nature of the servant of God. We've talked about the nature of text. What we're trying to communicate out of them. And now we're moving right into what is the nature of that sermon itself. And we're going to look at some of the skeleton. So we're going to come right in and do that that hard work of anatomy and begin to think particularly for formal messages. Now, we won't always preach formal messages, but particularly for the most formal classical messages. What do those outlines look like? Now, I say that because I will readily confess to you, I do not always preach this way. This is the most classical method and we are learning taxonomy. We are learning very basic things that we will now use in much greater ways and more facile ways in the future. But we're going to walk down this path for a while and recognize it is playing the scales before we get to jazz. So this is learning the scales, and I want to freely confess that to you. But once we have this terminology and these principles down, we can do lots of different things. So that's the goal. And as we think about it, recognize after the overview. We are now zeroing in on the detailed development of specific components. First is what's a proposition? Now the traditional definition, this is as old as John brought us. The traditional definition of what an outline is of a proposition is. Is this a statement of the subject as the preacher proposes to develop it? So pretty basic, right? Your English teacher would call it the theme statement, but this is for a sermon, a statement of the subject as the preacher proposes to develop it. Now that is now over 150 years old.

[00:07:53] So let's talk about some additional developments in definition. We will add to that traditional definition some distinctions for what an expository message is, particularly framed according to classical guidelines. Number one, a proposition is also a theme statement indicating how an FCF will be addressed in the message. So it's not just a statement of the subject, it's a statement of the subject addressed to the fallen condition focus. What's the burden of the message? What's wrong that you will be addressing? So the theme is addressed to that problem, as it were, that this text will be speaking to. Number two. A proposition is a statement of the main thing. The message is about, which is broad enough to cover the content of all the main points and which is proven or developed by each of the points. Now, if you can just draw on your notes, that stool that I brought in earlier in the semester, that's the idea, right? The proposition is the seat. The proposition has to be broad enough to cover all the legs or the main points, but it also has to be supported by those specific main points. Okay. So the proposition is to be supported by cover and be supported by each of the main points. The main point shouldn't be about something else. They are about this very specific Proposition three. A proposition is a summary of the introduction. It is a summary of the introduction and an indication of what the rest of the message will be about. Thus, the proposition points both forward and backward. You can kind of think of it in the hourglass mode here that what a proposition is, it's a summary of the intro. So in that way it's kind of pointing back. The introductions were saying, here's what I'm going to be talking about.

[00:09:48] Here's the problem. Here's how this text addresses it. So the proposition summarizes what the intro has been about, but it is automatically signaling what the rest of the message is going to be about. So a proposition is both a summary of the introduction and a preparation for the rest of the message. A key idea to which we will return many times in the semester is this The introduction prepares for the proposition in two major ways. In concept and terminology. The introduction should prepare for the proposition in concept and terminology. On the hourglass again, if the proposition right here, kind of at the neck of the sermon, if the proposition is a summary of the intro, it is certainly going to use the concepts of the introduction. The introduction should be getting us ready for what's the subject of the sermon. But again, we are in an oral medium. People are listening for what we're saying and we are giving them cues, not just conceptually, but even in the terms that we use in the introduction. So if in my introduction I am talking about God is a friend to centers, and then my proposition is going to be God is kind to all people. You may think, well, that's the same subject. It's different terms. The ear is now confused. So unlike your English teacher who would say use different words, your Hummel Alex instructor says use the same words. We're preparing the ear as well as the mind for what's going to follow. So the introduction is preparing for the proposition in concept and terminology. So to refine our definition at the bottom of your page there a proposition is this going back to the classical? A proposition is a statement of the subject.

[00:11:44] As the preacher proposes to develop it. That's still true. Proposition is a statement of the subject as the preacher proposes to develop it in light of an FCF. In light of and FCF. With the concepts and terms of the introduction. A proposition is a statement of the subjects as the preacher proposes to develop in the classical definition. With this in the light of an FCF. In the light of an FCA and with the concepts and terms of the introduction. Now, that's the general definition. So let's begin to talk about the marks of such propositions again in the most formal structure. So in classical terms, in your readings, you read, I think with a little bit of tongue in cheek for me, the statement from Henry Jewett and his is the one that, you know, virtually every Hamlet textbook has quoted for the last half century over and over again in the statement of what that proposition is, Jewitt says, I do not think any sermons should be preached or written until that proposition has emerged clear and lucid as a cloudless moon. Well, you know, that's good graphic language. I mean, it should just shine there. And in the darkness of the text, you know, just to say, here's what this message is about, as clear as a cloudless moon. Now, where we can begin to think about what that proposition includes is what we know the rest of the sermon will be about. Remember, we said a sermon is not just what is true. Sermon is what is true. And. What to do about it. What is true and what is not. Just what to do. That's just kind of preacher arrogance. Do this, do this, do this. Nor is it just what is true.

[00:13:43] That's preacher abstraction. This is true. It's these two things together. What is true and what to do about it. So if the proposition is about all of those things, you might easily guess that it's going to be when a principle and application or exhortation excuse me in your notes there. A proposition is a wedding of a principal and exhortation. Also known as the application. Now, again, just to think of what that means, it's what is true, the principle, and it is wed to what to do. That is the exhortation or application. Right under that little sentence of fill in there, you can put the formal way that homily and say it and it's this a proposition is a universal truth. In a heart autori mode, a universal truth in a watery mode, something that's universally true, and I can exhort you on the basis of it. Universal truth in a watery mode. Now because it has those two elements, what is true and what to do. Principle and application. We recognize this. A proposition is not principle alone. Like Jesus is the only hope of salvation. Good statement. All true. Not a proposition. Because why is it lacking? It's lacking the application. It is just at that point principle it neither is it just application alone. We should preach Christ at every opportunity through great application, but the truth for it has not been established. So. A proposition is principle wed to application like this. Because Jesus is the only hope of salvation. We must preach Him or Christ at every opportunity. Because Jesus thing, I hope, of salvation. We must preach Christ at every opportunity. There are two basic forms of doing this, and it's just language to get in front of you now.

[00:15:48] And I confess this is that terminology learning, right? So that we can use it later on down the road. Two basic forms of presenting universal truths in auditory modes. The first is a consequential form. And the key word here is because. So I said, because something is true, do this or this is true, therefore do that. There's a causal effect between the principle and application, and the keyword will be because consequential form, because Jesus is the only hope of salvation, we must present Christ at every opportunity. The second major form is conditional. And you're saying because some conditions exist. Because some conditions this there are necessary implications like and the key words here are what if or since, if or since this condition exist. There are these implications if we are to if disciples are to preach Christ at every opportunity, then we must prepare to proclaim him. If my first clause there, the principle was since all are born in sin. Here. The condition that's the condition in which people exist since all are born in sin. Then we must teach them the gospel. You know, if all are in this condition, what are the necessary implications? Now, I just want you not to try to solve all the questions about which to use. At which time your ear will tell you. Okay. What I really just want you to hear is you got options. Could be. Because. Could be, if could be sense. I just want you to hear the options and not wonder about, you know, which is the right one here. If it sounds right to your ear, it'll sound right to other people's ear. So either because or sensitive, there are many other ways of doing these things. This what is true and what's new about it.

[00:17:39] Wedding. You know Hannah clauses in the Greek. That's not Iva, by the way. You have to pull out your little Greek and go make an a hint a clause, put the the accent mark and everything with it. A hint, a clause clauses. A what kind of clause? In order to do something, we must. That would be another way of doing it. But we're going to not go there yet this semester. We're going to concentrate on these conditional and consequential ways of wording things just to learn some basic principles. And the key thing, again, is just to know your options of either the because statements or the percent statements, because these forms reflect our preaching commitment to preach in accord with biblical priorities, that is truth. And that and having it applied to our lives. It's kind of what we said from the beginning, right. All scriptures inspired for Dr. Reproof Correction instruction in righteousness. Here's the applications truth. It's inspired by God for these purposes, and we'll try to preach it that way. My. I guess when you hear my question say, how do I know which to use? What's you know, what's the difference? They seem to be so similar. And actually, that's where I'm not wanting to go. I'm going to say, if your ear works, it will work for everybody else, too. There is a technical difference between a causal effect and a condition with necessary implications. But how do I say this year? Ere will tell you. And most people won't care a bit. So if you if you just kind of say, I've got these options, if it whatever works, you'll find it at times you'll want to say because well, but cause doesn't work here and then you'll serve the word sense and you'll find it works just fine because not everything will be in a causal relationship.

[00:19:19] But, you know, go to your English grammar and find just make a a conditional statement and a consequential statement, and it will give you those technical things. And I don't even remember them. No, I mean, I recognize, you know, this is the condition and this is cause and effect condition with necessary implications to say, does the coursework does sense work and, you know, use whatever sounds best to you and it will work. Okay. So but sometimes the reason I'm giving you options is you'll start with the cause and just come. And that's just not right. And just once you have the option. Now, those are propositions and you recognize we're not talking about propositions alone, but we are also talking about good main points. So let's talk about some marks of good main points as well. Here they are. And I'm a through F in my outline under Romans three. So you're going to have to make enough space under Roman three to have a through F the first a. What's the mark of a good main point? Good. Main point is also a universal truth in a laudatory mode. Main points are also universal truths in laudatory notes. That's a that is there are wedding of principle and application. So just like propositions, main points are also a wedding of principle and application. Here is Hayden Robinson, who is again one of the one of the wonderful classical writers on Hamlet. And many seminaries use his book, and he's just one of the really Sterling writers on Hamlet. Here's how he does it in his book on biblical preaching. And you'll just see, again, here's some classical forms. We should praise God because he has elected us in Christ. First question, is it conditional or is it consequential? It's consequential because now isn't happening at the beginning.

[00:21:22] It's happening at the middle, and that's just fine. It's still going to be a consequential worded statement, which is the application. But what comes before or after the because. Before. That's right. We should praise God. So there is the application. The principal is here. He has elected us in Christ. So universal truth led to an application by a because. So that is a. Truth and application inconsequential form. Now look at the parallelism as well as those same things happening in the second main point. We should praise God because He has dealt with us according to the riches of His grace. Conditional or consequential. Consequential again. And to have parallelism, you'd have to have consequential again, wouldn't you? So, you know, if one main point is consequential, the rest are going to have to be consequential or else your parallelism is going to fall apart. So it's going to be the same. We should praise God, which is the application first or last part of the statement. The first, we should praise God again, we should praise God. And then we have a new principal. He has dealt with us according to the riches of his grace. Third main point We should praise God because He has sealed us with the Holy Spirit until we acquire full possession of our inheritance. What test may it have trouble passing? It may have trouble passing the 3 a.m. test if you were going to cut it short, just to kind of give it some brevity. Where might you put the period? After Hollis? I think so. You're going to still say the rest in the developed to the point, aren't you? So you could say we should praise God because he is ceaseless with the Holy Spirit. What hand Robinson is doing here, of course, is he's simply quoting more of the verse.

[00:23:17] But if we were for millennial purposes wanting to just make it more brief, I think we could put the period there and talk about how the Holy Spirit seals us within the body of that main point. Now, do you notice we should praise God, we should praise God, we should praise God. The applications are the same throughout that outline, right? You've done the reading. I know what kind of consistent messages this. This is an application consistent message because the application clause is staying the same. Okay. So could you have had a principle consistent message? You could have had principle consistent and change the other side. Do you have to start with the application? No. Could it be on either side? Do you have to put the. Because in the middle? No. Could have been at the beginning. So there are variations here. But we recognize that what makes it consequential is because somewhere what makes it a valid main point is it's got truth and application. And what makes it application consistent is the application is what is unchanging throughout the main point. If the principle had stayed the same, it would have been principle consistent throughout the main point. Question How do you. It's a great question how and we're actually going to get to it in just a second. But just to say, how do you make sure that your proposition is broad enough to cover all of that? The proposition is going to have the same anchor clause. So that's going to take care of the consistent clause. So that's how it's going to cover that. The proposition will have the same consistent element, and that's how that stays the same. The developing side, what we will call the magnet clauses, the ones that are changing and therefore drawing attention to themselves, that's whether magnet clauses, they're drawing attention to themselves.

[00:25:13] The clauses that are changing their in your proposition, you have to have a clause conceptually large enough to cover them. I haven't thought about this on hands outline for a while, but maybe we can do it here if. If we were saying we should praise God, if we were creating a proposition, we know that's going to stay the same. Right. So that's be we know that's the first part of our proposition. So he has dealt with us according to riches of his grace. Sorry, He's elected us in Christ. He's dealt with us according to the riches of his grace. He is seamless with the Holy Spirit. Can you think of a clause that's kind of broad enough for that? We should praise God. Because what? Yes. I think that's right, because he has accomplished our salvation. And then I said, How do you do that? He elected us in Christ. He's dealt with us according the riches of his grace. He's given us a seamless with the Holy Spirit. So we have a conceptual entity that's broad enough to cover all the developing clauses. Good. That's good work. And it's, of course, what we'll do very much through the rest of the semester is answer just those kinds of questions. But that is where we're creating this proposition that's got enough umbrella to it that it will cover conceptually the main points that come beneath. That's very good work and that helps us move down the path. Another mark of good main points is that they are parallel. Right. The language lines up. They are parallel in their wording. Another mark of good name points is that they are progressive. They are progressive. We don't say the same, same thing over again. In fact, we move typically toward greater and greater concepts.

[00:26:58] So we're progressing in our understanding and not staying in the same place. The next three items that I'm going to mention about main points are all applying to the application clause specifically. Okay. The first three things I did, Universal truth and auditory mode, parallel and progressive. They apply to all portions of every main point. But the next three things I'm going to mention apply only to the application clause. It is first positively worded. It is positively worded. Remember how we said this last time? You take out the what? You take out the notes. So this semester we're not going to word our main points in negatives. Okay. What not to do. What not to do, what not to do. We're not going to take out the nuts. And you say, But didn't the Lord set a different precedent when he gave the Ten Commandments? Thou shalt not? And I'll say, Well, yeah, but you're not in that position yet. So we're going to learn by taking out the nuts and try to word things in the path of what should people do rather than what should they not do. Okay, So we'll take out the nots. You already know what the next one is going to be. They're also going to be the application clauses actively worded. Take out the what? Take out the bees. Take out all the being verbs. So all the ISS was is has is. Those sorts of things take out the being verbs. So the word them actively. And then the last thing for the application clause is we will seek to word them as you or we we will seek to word them as you or we. No, not technically. That's saying what it's wording them either in the first or second person, plural.

[00:28:52] But I'm just. I just mean you or we. What should you do? You should do something. You must do something or. We. Now. I've already been down the path a little bit with you. Hummel Opticians, particularly classical ones, debate this hugely. Should you say you or should you say we can you recall a little bit what's the advantage if you say you, what's the power of that? It's very directive. It's a certain vote. You have the authority to say, you two people, you should do something. You have the authority to do that. On what authority do you can you do that? The words, if they're not your authority, you can with the authority of the word of God, say you must stop. This is not the way Christians live. You have the authority to say that You have the ability to say we. What's you as great authority? What's the advantage of the we. Community identity. It's identifying with people at times the need to identify with people. At times you need to confront people. The answer is yes. And so I would again back up and say, I don't want to say right or wrong. Can you use that? Great. Word of judgment, pastoral prudence as a pastor, knowing what the word says and who your people are, which is most appropriate. So sometimes you will need to say you and sometimes you need to say we. We are really struggling with grief today. Some of us in this community, we are. And sometimes I need to say to people, you must stop entertainment that are hurting your heart. As you are preparing. To proclaim God's Word to God's people. Sometimes I need to say you. Sometimes I need to say we. And the same will be true for you many times down the road.

[00:30:40] So those are our options and they work well. And the application clause, is that clear? The first three things I mentioned, four main points. They deal to everything in the main point, principle and application parallelism progression. The last three things taking out the not taking out the BS and using either you or we. Those apply to the application clause only. How do we harmonize these things? I think that was Bill's question a little bit before. Keep the wording of the proposition and main points parallel. How do we make sure that we're keeping things together so that this message has unity? Here. I get it all on the screen at once. Here we have a principle consistent outline. Thank you. See that it is in consequential form because Jesus commands believers to proclaim him boldly. We must proclaim Christ at every opportunity. Now, I hope when you just see a classical form, you already recognize one test. It has trouble passing. What is it? Any classical word, main point proposition does have trouble passing the three m test. It is just a lot of words. So we're going to learn ultimately, we're going to move beyond this, but we're going to learn the classical forms because it does something. It teaches us basic hermeneutics even before we've had the rest of the curriculum. What's happening is you haven't had New Testament intro and biblical hermeneutics and a lot of that yet in which we will talk about how do you take something that is true and turn it into an imperative that that's always a fairly difficult step? Biblically, Jesus told his disciples to go into all the world. So you should go into all the world. Jesus and His disciples wore sandals. Therefore. Well, why is one an imperative and the other is not? Why is one truth lead to an imperative? You're kind of being forced to wrestle with that already by wording, main points and propositions with a truth and application.

[00:32:52] And it's just forcing us before. We've had a lot of principles down the road to begin to look at a text with basic hermeneutical principles in mind that allow us to proclaim truth accurately and boldly for God's people. So what do we do? In a proposition, we are going to make one side of the proposition become the same with the same side in the main points, because Jesus commands believers to proclaim him boldly. Here's the overarching portion. We must proclaim Christ at every opportunity. Parallel phrase anchor clause. Same thing throughout because Jesus commands his believers to proclaim him boldly. We should proclaim Christ in difficult situations. Again, this is the key word change, right? This is what's changing. We should proclaim Christ in difficult situations. We should proclaim Christ to difficult people in the second main point, and we should proclaim Christ despite our difficulties. In the third main point. It's all about we must proclaim Christ in every opportunity, which was the overarching clause of the proposition. In this particular case, the principle is staying the same. So it's principle consistent. The clause that's changing is the application. And therefore it is the magnet clause, meaning it will draw attention to itself and ultimately will say the sub points, the applications. The illustrations are about the magnet clause, the clauses changing because the ear just hears that as that's what's different. That's what you've got to be talking about. What you said is different. So that will be drawing all that attention to itself to fill out your outline. Well, let me just do the other so that you see. Application consistency. What does that look like? Notice this one is inconsequential form. Mike. See the sense Since Jesus alone provides salvation, we must proclaim Christ to the world, since Jesus alone purchased salvation.

[00:34:56] Notice, in this case, the change clause is the beginning. The anchor clause is the second, and it's the application. We must proclaim Christ to the world occurs in the proposition and each of the main points. And that's an application. We must do something. So it's an application consistent outline. And what's changing is the reason. For that same application. What's one reason for that application? Jesus alone purchase salvation. What's another reason? Jesus alone possessed salvation. What's another reason? Jesus alone bestows salvation. So the application is consistent, but the principle is changing. So you're saying, here's another reason to do this same thing. Here's another reason to do the same thing. Here's another reason to do the same thing. Application consistent with a change of principle. Again, here it's in conditional form. You can fill in these blanks now under B, under Roman four under B. Keep one side of the proposition consistent. In main point development. So not only do we have parallelism between the points one side, neither principle or application is going to be staying the same. It's going to be consistent. The side of the proposition that stays consistent in the outline is what clause? The one that stays the same. What's that call? What clause? It's the anchor clause. So the side that stays the same is the anchor clause. If the principle of the proposition becomes the anchor clause, what kind of consistent outline is this? If the principle is the anchor clause, what kind of outline principal consistent? If the application of the proposition becomes the anchor clause, this is what kind of consistent? Application consistent. We keep the non consistent clauses of the main points as parallel in wording as possible except for keyword changes. So even that clause is changing.

[00:36:57] We're still going to try to line up the verbs, line up the subject, line up the option to line them up as good as we can, but something's going to be changing. And of course those are the keyword changes. This non consistent side of the main points is each main points developmental component or what kind of clause? Magnet clause magnet cause it draws the attention to itself. The magnet clause is what the exposition of the main points supports or develops. The main the magnet clause draws or attracts the exposition to itself, which is why it is so named. Thus the sub points of each main point are developing or supporting that main points magnet clause. The sub points will be developing the magnet clause. Now something will seem to be missing. Then when do we ever deal with that anchor clause? When do we ever explain that that is true or how we got there? So that is item D, We establish the truth of the anchor clause. We establish the truth of the anchor clause early. The proof or truth of the anchor clause is established just before or just after the proposition. Usually it's in the introduction that we establish the truth of the anchor clause, but occasionally toward the beginning of the first main point. The early establishment of this premise is necessary since the whole sermon rests on the adequacy of the anchor clause. Okay, here's where you are. The proposition here at the the throat or the neck of the message is going to be based on what's been developed in the intro and preparing for everything that follows. Typically, that means the anchor clauses something rather apparent, rather taken for granted because you don't have a lot of time to be explaining it up in here.

[00:38:52] It should be something fairly obvious in the passage. Occasionally it will not be so if you don't have time to explain it there. You've got to do it here. Usually very early in the first main point. Otherwise, the sermon has not the foundation that you need to follow. So if I were to say, as you've seen, you know, we must proclaim Christ at every opportunity. You know, I'm going to say, you know, here, Jesus said, take the message to all nations. Everybody needs to hear this. You know, something kind of obvious that will be there. But if my first anchor clause is going to be something like. God elect us by his grace alone. Well, that may be a little further to establish, right? I may have to do a little bit more on that. And I may say first, maybe that's too difficult to handle as an anchor clause. Maybe that should be in the developmental clause that may take the whole sermon to develop. But if I can't just say it quickly and still want it to be the anchor clause, I should be able to explain it fairly quickly at one of these positions, because really it's the developmental side that I'm talking about in the rest of the sermon. So the anchor clause should be fairly clear early in the message. Almost always we can get the anchor clause. It's rightly chosen, explained before the proposition itself appears. The people go, Oh, of course, that's what you said you're talking about. I see that. I know that's what we're going to be talking about. And it's just arbitrary as to whether the. Yeah. Is it as asking, is it just arbitrary whether you use principle or application consistent? No, it's not arbitrary.

[00:40:27] It is a it is a feature of purpose. What is the purpose of this message? So I may say in this message, what I really want is the people to change their behaviors. So in this case, I'm maybe I'm going to be doing principle because this is true. You should do this and you should do this and you should do this. Other times, I may want people not to change their behaviors, but only to reinforce the behavior. Do this for this reason. For this reason. For this. You already know to do this, but you're not doing it. You need to reexamine this reason and this reason. This reason. So you will be doing what you already did. You should pray more. Well, I knew that before I sat down. Why should I do it? You know, so the message is going to be about reinforcing that application. Now, it may be that an application consistent or a principle consistent message can be preached on the same text. Given what you know pastorally is the purpose to which you're directing this message. Question. That's a good question. Does one lend itself better to Webb or Flo? Probably not. Probably not. Let me think about that for a second. Almost always, web is going to occur when there's some. Hard situation to be addressed. Okay, so you're looking for a text to address a situation. What would I be doing most of those times? Probably trying to reinforce faith concepts. It might be application consistent. You already know to believe and have faith in God in this position. Here's another reason. Here's another. Maybe I haven't really thought that through, but web and flow usually relate to how we select text rather than how we're going to form the message.

[00:42:13] Question. Right. Good to see. Yes. Right. What? What if your proposition comes from a different text than the rest of the message that you're preaching? If it comes from that? Technically, that will be known as a textual message, and we will not do that this semester. In an expository message will say the proposition main points come out of this text. Textual preaching has a rich history in humility, but we're not. We're not going to do that this semester. We're going to we're going to do expository messages which say, I'm going to say, what does this text say? We may go to other text to support a corroborate. I say, Well, here's what it says here, and I can show you it's here. But just so that, you know, that's true, I point to other texts as well, But we're not going to be saying and I'll even give you examples of a little bit later in the semester. Here's something from first, John. Now let's see how it played out in the life of David. We won't do that yet. That's technically called a textual message, where main points come from the text, but developmental features come from somewhere else. We're going to say main points and some points come from this text. So this semester we're doing expository only and we'll actually talk about some of those definitions in the days to come. What is the text and what? How does that play? If the text is actually a repetition of a previous text, then we'll say context is part of text. In order to understand this text. You need to know where that repetition was. So that is necessary to interpret this text is to identify its context. So that's. That's different than a textual message where that idea is not okay, where that's actually, you know, the classic thing that we would say is if he were saying, I'm going to tell you what faith means.

[00:44:30] And James, by going to John. Who you are in big trouble now because they use the word differently. Okay. So we're going to say, what does this author mean in this place and make sure we're being expository. Yes. Yes. Still. Yes. Yes. The idea. Yes. You can have series messages on topic and an individual topic can be preached expository. However, that is actually known as a topical message and is different than an expository message. So you all are really anticipating things well. A topical message takes its topic from the text, but its development from other texts. And that technically is not an expository message. So we'll get there. It doesn't mean that it's not from the Bible, doesn't mean it can't be developed scripturally, but an expository message suddenly binds itself to say, I'm going to tell you what this text means. Now, I may have a subject in it, but I'm not saying here's a subject prayer. And let me tell you what five texts say on it. We're saying, what does this text say? So you can preach the topic of prayer exposition, Lee drawing it out of scripture. But an expository message by historical definition gets main points and sub points from this text. Okay. So that's that is its definition. And we'll we'll go there. Guys, you all have a quiz to take in 12 minutes. Okay. So I'm going to I'm going to kind of go and see if I can gather your questions toward the end, if we could, because most of what you've asked, we'll actually get to. And if I'm confusing here, I don't want that to be a hindrance to us getting down the road in a bit. Some cautions for propositions and main points. Here's some cautions.

[00:46:31] A Make sure main points are not co existent. Make sure propositions and main points are not coexisted. Now you see the from your readings. I think what that means. Coexistence definition. What is it? Remember when the thought or wording of a main point? Coexistence occurs when the thought or wording of a main point. Is too much like a proposition. Or other main point. When the thought or wording of a main point is too much like the proposition or another main point. I put an example here on the screen for you. The proposition because Jesus is the only hope of salvation. We must preach Christ at every opportunity. First main point. Because Jesus is the only hope of salvation. We must preach Christ whenever there is an opportunity. Now. It was different words in it. But what is it conceptually like? The first main point is just the proposition over again. So even though I've chosen different words, the concept hasn't changed. Now, what does a hearer who's not looking at an outline, just listening. What does the hearer wonder? Was that a development or is that the same thing over again? Or let's say you use this number one as number three, because Jesus is the only hope of salvation. We must create Christ whenever there is an opportunity. If that was the third main point, people would say, Wait a second, we're too talked about that. We're spinning our wheels. We've been there already. Coexistence usually happens when you've chosen different words, but the concept is too much like the first one. Okay. You've already been there. You know, when you usually pick it up, when you start doing applications and you've got nothing different to say than when you said in that other main point.

[00:48:39] Okay. We should pray more. First name point, and then we should pray more frequently. And you're kind of like waving. What can I say different now than I just said a minute ago? The applications seem to be the same. So we want to make sure that our concepts as well as our wording differs between the main point and that's the note kind of at the bottom of the page there. Coexistence may be conceptual as well as terminal logical. Maybe conceptual as well as term a logical item. Another problem to avoid is this Make sure the proposition makes sure the proposition does not inadvertently indicate a development or structure. The main points do not reflect. If the magnet clause of one of my main points is Jesus saves and keeps. What do people automatically assume the sub points are going to be? Saves and keeps. What gave them the clue that those were the sub points? That conjunction right there. If you use conjunctions the ear hears that is divisions. Hear that you meant to unite things. The ear hears it as a division. So if you say Jesus saves and keeps, you have already signaled to people what my sub points are. But what if you meant to say My first main point is some point here is not saves. He hears and responds. Was the ear prepared for those words? Was not prepared for those words. What if it was simply. Something like he saves and responds. Still not prepared. Still confused. If you create what's called branching. See this? It's branching and conjunctions create branching. You have orally told people where you're going. It can be very effective, can it? You even word the clauses. So it's saying, here's what we're going to be talking about.

[00:51:20] But what you don't want to do is to create a development you don't follow because then you only create confusion. Now, I'm just going to tell you, for a number of you who are working on the Thessalonians passage, you're going to be tempted to say things like, Because Jesus died and rose again, we should follow him. What do people automatically assume are your sub points? Jesus died and rousing you now for you're in your ear. That's just one concept. He died in Rose again. The ear doesn't hear it that way. You just divided the thought. Okay. So what would you say if you had to say he died and rose again? Which of these would you probably pick if you weren't going to follow those branches, which would you pick? Because if he would pick Rose again. Because the rise again, he must have died. Okay. So if you had to pick, pick the overarching concept. Now, what if you wanted to say my first main point is that he does not mean what's the point? What if my first point is he died in my second Is he rose again? Then what will I want to do? I may very well want to put those branches into the wording so that it follows. But here's the idea. We want to avoid branching unless we use it. Avoid ranching unless you use it. If you use it by all means, it can be very helpful, but avoid branching unless you use it. Some helpful hints to know whether or not we are wording main points and propositions as we want. The first is the imperative test. The imperative test do you have within that main point? A we or are you should we should you should.

[00:53:05] We must. You must. Is there an imperative clause? Is there a we or you should. Or you. You must. You should. Is there a you or a We should or must. An imperative clause. By the way, if you don't use the we or the you, it would be a verb in the imperative mode. Right? Pray because God listens. What's the implied pronoun missing you? You should pray. But you're saying just use an imperative mode verb. But the danger would be that you have two clauses, none of which has an application. Because God is sovereign. He raised Jesus from the dead. What's missing? I got two clauses. But what's missing? There's no imperative, Right? Because God is sovereign. He raised Jesus from two clauses. But there's no you or we. All right. These technically are known as statements of fact, but not exhortations. There's no exalted. It's just a statement of fact about something. But it has no exhortation. Clause B, the stand alone test. Will the principal clause stand alone? If you were just to read the principal clause, would it make sense unto itself? Can you just kind of chop it apart and say that makes sense or not? Not this because Jesus promises it. We should love him. Now, if you were just to chop off the principle clause, which would it be? Jesus promises it. Now, does that make sense? Jesus, what are your question? Jesus promises it. I've no idea what that means. So look at the principal clause and say, Does that make sense? If I were just to make it stand on its own, does it make sense? It's supposed to be a universal truth. So if I just look at unto itself, will it stand alone more like this because Jesus promises his love.

[00:55:04] We should love him. Okay. In that case, Jesus promises his love that makes sense unto itself. Now, one key hint, by the way, this will be on the quiz that you're taking in the next few minutes. So this is where I give you the answers. But have a listen. Homolog This is different. You know, I don't mean to surprise you on anything. I really want, you know, the hundred of us to walk through these next three years together and just not have questions about what we're doing. So, you know, it's a little reinforcement mechanism. So I'm telling you, this is common. It'll be there in the next. Here's the hint. Do not use pronouns in both the magnet and anchor clauses. Do not use pronouns in both the magnet and anchor clauses. This is known as a double pronoun error. Because Jesus loves us. We should proclaim him. Because Jesus loves us, we should proclaim him. What does the we refer to? Because Jesus loves us, we should proclaim him What does the we refer to us? I got a pronoun referring to a pronoun. Okay. Who is the US? Because Jesus loves his people. Because Jesus loves believers. Because Jesus loves his children. Make sure that the pronoun is referring to a noun. If you got, you don't always even have to have a noun in the first clause. But you don't want to. You don't want a pronoun referring to the pronoun. Okay. You need a noun or else an implied noun. The non-sequitur test. The non-sequitur test makes sure the application clause logically flows from the principal clause. The simple fact that you got two clauses doesn't mean they work together because God comforts the grieving. We should tithe. Now there is both principle and application there.

[00:56:57] They do not go together. Okay, So you want to make sure simple fact you got first of all, application does not make it work. You want to make sure that the thought flows, that it's a it's a sequitur, not a non sequitur. Now you've read this material. Kind of heard me talk about it. The next most important thing to do, to understand it is to do it right. So that's what we're going to be doing next time between now and next time. You know, the passages that you'll be working on. And the idea is to come next time with outlines, proposition and main point.