Preaching - Lesson 1

Word & Witness

In this lesson, you will gain a comprehensive understanding of the principles of effective preaching, exploring its history, components, and various styles. You will learn the importance of biblical content, clear structure, and relevant application in preaching. Different preaching styles, such as expository, topical, and narrative preaching, will be discussed, helping you choose the most appropriate technique for your sermons. Additionally, you will be guided through the process of preparing and delivering a sermon, including research, writing, and presentation skills.

Bryan Chapell
Lesson 1
Watching Now
Word & Witness

I. Introduction to Preaching

A. Definition and Importance

B. History and Development

II. Components of Effective Preaching

A. Biblical Content

1. Exegesis

2. Hermeneutics

B. Clear Structure

1. Introduction

2. Body

3. Conclusion

C. Relevant Application

III. Preaching Styles and Techniques

A. Expository Preaching

B. Topical Preaching

C. Narrative Preaching

IV. Preparing and Delivering a Sermon

A. Research and Study

B. Writing the Sermon

C. Presentation Skills

  • Gain insights into effective preaching principles, covering history, essential components, styles, and techniques, and learn how to prepare and deliver impactful sermons.
  • Gain valuable insights on sermon construction, learn techniques for effective preaching, and understand the importance of continuous improvement for delivering impactful messages.
  • Through this lesson, you gain valuable insights into the process of text selection and interpretation for preaching, as well as learning practical techniques for delivering engaging and relevant sermons.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into the process of creating a sermon, from text selection to delivery, emphasizing textual analysis and message relevance.
  • Through this lesson, you gain the skills to craft clear, engaging, and memorable sermons by mastering the principles of effective outlining and arrangement in preaching.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to craft effective propositions and main points, enhancing your preaching clarity and impact.
  • By exploring homiletical outlines, you'll learn to effectively develop and structure sermons, understand various outline types, and apply engaging presentation techniques for impactful preaching.
  • In this lesson, you gain insights into crafting engaging introductions for sermons, exploring their importance, characteristics, types, and the process of creating a compelling introduction that effectively connects to the message.
  • Through this lesson, you learn the importance of exposition in preaching, how to develop an expository sermon, and the role of the preacher for effective communication.
  • This lesson teaches you to create captivating sermon introductions using anecdotes, questions, and facts, guiding you through research, structuring, and presentation to maximize audience engagement and improve your overall sermon impact.
  • In order to understand the basic subdivisions of your sermon in expository development, it is important to it is helpful to see what the specific members of your sermon's body looks like in standard development.

  • By completing this lesson, you learn to effectively prepare and deliver sermons while focusing on personal growth, continuous improvement, and dependence on God.
  • Learn to effectively classify and develop sermons into topical, textual, and expository types, enhancing your preaching skills and audience connection.
  • In this lesson, you learn the significance of explanation in preaching and strategies to craft and deliver effective explanatory sermons while evaluating their effectiveness for continuous improvement.
  • By incorporating illustrations into your preaching, you engage listeners, clarify complex ideas, and enhance memory retention while learning effective guidelines to utilize various types of illustrations.
  • Explore this lesson to learn how to effectively use illustrations in sermons by isolating events or experiences, refining principles, and connecting with your audience through human interest accounts.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to effectively use illustrations in preaching to engage listeners, clarify concepts, and draw from various sources, while maintaining relevance, variety, and ethical considerations.
  • Gain insight into the importance of application in preaching, as well as principles and methods for effective application, to create impactful and relevant sermons that resonate with your audience.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to effectively apply biblical teachings to modern life, considering various approaches, overcoming challenges, and utilizing practical tips for context-sensitive and culturally aware application.
  • Through this lesson, you gain insights into crafting effective transitions in preaching and utilizing the dialogical method for increased audience engagement and message clarity.
  • Gain insight into various sermon presentation methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and learn to choose the right method and improve your preaching skills.
  • Through this lesson, you enhance your preaching skills by mastering vocal techniques and purposeful gestures, ensuring a connection with the audience while continually improving your delivery.
  • Learn the significance of dress and style in preaching and how to balance authenticity, appropriateness, and clarity to effectively communicate your message to your audience.
  • You learn to effectively repurpose old sermons, gaining insight into updating them for relevance, enhancing delivery, and managing time efficiently.
  • By studying this lesson, you gain insight into the crucial connection between the Word and Spirit in preaching and learn to balance them for effective and authentic sermons.
  • Through this lesson, you learn how to apply a Christ-centered, redemptive-historical approach to preaching, addressing common criticisms and enhancing your sermons.
  • Through this lesson, you learn to compose powerful redemptive messages that highlight Christ's work and connect biblical themes to modern audiences.
  • Through this lesson, you gain an understanding of redemptive principles in preaching, learning to identify them in Scripture and effectively apply them to your sermons while navigating potential challenges.
  • By exploring the importance of genre in biblical interpretation and applying redemptive interpretation to various biblical genres, you will gain knowledge and insight into the historical and literary context, redemptive themes and patterns, and contemporary application of different types of genres in the Bible.


Dr. Bryan Chapell explores the unifying principle of grace that binds all Scripture together. He outlines and demonstrates the principles and practice of sermon-crafting and delivery to illuminate the message of grace in each passage, and to submit it to God's Spirit for the transformation of lives through preaching.

Dr. Chapell is making these recorded lectures available for you to access at no charge on BiblicalTraining.org. However, there is no personal interaction with Dr. Chapell in this format. The assignments and activities described are for classes that he teaches in person. We left the descriptions in for your benefit, but we do not offer personal or group interaction to participate in these activities. You can, however, sign up for his new preaching classes at BryanChapell.com/courses.

Dr. Chapell is helped in this course by Zachary W. Eswine, Assistant Professor of Homiletics and Director of the Doctor of Ministry Program (BSW, Ball State University; MDiv, Covenant Theological Seminary; PhD, Regent University). Dr. Eswine served as senior pastor of Grace Church of the Western Reserve in Hudson, Ohio, for six years before joining Covenant Seminary's faculty in 2001. He has served as a campus minister with the Navigators, as a church youth director, and as a chaplain-evangelist in retirement facilities. Since arriving at the Seminary, Dr. Eswine has also served as interim pastor for Tates Creek Presbyterian Church in Lexington, Kentucky, as advisory pastor for the Chinese Gospel Church of St. Louis, and as interim pastor for Cornerstone Evangelical Free Church in St. Louis. He has taught New Testament in Ukraine and served as a short-term missionary in the Caribbean. Dr. Eswine is a gifted preacher and has authored the book Kindled Fire: How the Methods of C. H. Spurgeon Can Help Your Preaching and numerous articles on homiletics. In addition, as an accomplished musician and songwriter, he has recorded three collections of original songs.

Philosophy and Goals of the Course

1. "Prep and Del" is an introduction to the basics of sermon construction and delivery. This is not primarily a course on the theology of preaching, but rather is a practical introduction to the tools, structures, and concepts that help preachers learn to put a sermon together. 

2. Because this course is introductory, certain standards of sermon construction are taught that I hope you will consider "foundational" rather than universal. There is not only one "right way" to preach. However, mastering the methods of this course will help you develop the tools needed for many kinds of future sermons. Students from many backgrounds and preaching traditions have found these tools helpful even as they prepare for other styles in the future. Other methods and styles will be taught and encouraged in future semesters.

3. In Dr. Chapell's seminary class, you would be asked to present some short oral assignments to the class in order to: a) begin integrating the information presented in lectures; b) begin honing your preaching skills; c) and, remove some of the intimidation of your first preaching experience next semester.

(At this time, we do not provide personal interaction to evaluate your progress. We included the suggested assignments and activities to give you direction as you apply the principles you are learning to your own sermon preparation and delivery.)

Recommended Books

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell

Christ-Centered Preaching: Redeeming the Expository Sermon [Hardcover]Bryan Chapell (Author)

Christ-Centered Preaching (text only) 2nd(Second) edition by B. Chapell
Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Highly regarded preacher and teacher Bryan Chapell shows readers how he has prepared expository sermons according to the principles he developed in his bestselling...

Christ-Centered Sermons: Models of Redemptive Preaching

Dr. Bryan Chapell
Word & Witness
Lesson Transcript

[00:00:00] This recording is provided courtesy of Covenant Theological Seminary. We're kind of right at eight by doing review questions. So if you're kind of thinking, I wonder what that final exam is going to be like. I won't tell you every question on the final exam I will give you at the beginning of the hours. But many of them I will give you at the beginning of the hours, because it's my way of saying what was key in that last lecture. Well, let's do some review. So I will do the review, you know, right on the on the spot debate. And we'll do that for 3 to 5 minutes and then we'll move into the lecture time as you're coming in for the sake of the recording that we're doing for all future generations or whatever. If you if you come in after 8:00, you're asked to come in the side doors rather than the middle door, because that would put you right in the aisle in front of the camera as you're coming down. So really, there's no problem coming in the side doors and just sitting on the sides as you as you come in. And that will be our our pattern as we go. Please note that at the beginning of the lecture, it says, even asked today what the reading was for that lecture, at the end of the lecture, it will say what the reading is for next time. It will also give you the assignment if there is one. Now, today there is an assignment and it's not for next time. You see, it's not due until the fourth lecture. So it kind of says, you know, what is the assignment and when's it due and it will kind of kill you as you look at the ends of lectures.

[00:01:28] And at the end of lecture three, you will actually say, Remember assignment the next time. And to cue that way. Now, the difficulty with that a little bit going between lectures is sometimes there are things you have to do between the lectures, and I won't be reminding you every time, for instance, what you'll be doing as an assignment on this lecture. This time is you'll be listening to at least a couple of chapel messages between now and lecture four and evaluating them for the criteria that are established there. So if you wait until the night before to do the assignment, why that would be problematic, because you'll need to kind of at the end of today's lecture, see what that is and then be working on it prior to the fourth lecture in which that material would be turned in. If you cannot go to the chapel services, they are available on the portal and that's where you would then get the materials. So the idea is we're all looking at the same things and responding to them. We're kind of getting a criteria for looking at sermons in the class, but so that we're moving through together. We want to have some standard things we're considering. So those are the chapel matters messages that we'll be evaluating, looking at, and then responding GroupMe to groups is not a word, but you know what I mean. Okay. Let's pray and we'll begin today. Heavenly Father, we thank you that you have given us your word, that which is life and bread to your people. And you make your spirit shine upon it so that it is reflected into our hearts and our hearts made able to receive what you say, but not our hearts only.

[00:03:14] Rather, as we ingest all the goodness of what you have given. You make us also reflectors of your truth to others, and we would be those who shine. Well, help us. Therefore, by what we learn in this class, by what we do to be those who are well equipped for shining your light into darkness for the sake of those that you love and are calling to yourself. We ask not on the basis of our ability, but rather on the ability that is made available by your spirit. We lean upon you now and ask for your help and aid, because apart from you, we can do nothing. Grant us, therefore, your spirit. We pray in Jesus name. Amen. If you look at the beginning of your first lecture there, it gives the goal for this lesson and it's to understand how important preaching is and then what is really important in preaching and especially it's that last one is really important in preaching that may actually surprise you a bit today as we move forward. If I were to ask why you're here, why you would sit in a humble addict's class, why you would go to seminary, I hope you have some sense of gaining the knowledge and the skills for what God is calling you to do. And it is both sides of that gaining the knowledge and the skills for what God is calling you to do. That is important because I think you would recognize if you're here just to gain knowledge. The scriptures themselves say the consequence of that knowledge pops up. That's all it does. If there is not some release, some mechanism by which God is enabling us to share that knowledge, then it's not going to ultimately benefit us.

[00:05:00] It's actually harm to us unless there is some way in which it is being used for God's purposes now and right now is reminding me we are circulating the attendance sheet. So as you do that, just a reminder, don't just check. By the way, the government requires, if you're receiving any form of aid that you actually have to initial. So initial with the date and identify your being here. The idea of God saying what I desire from you is not simply your knowledge of the word, but your ability to communicate it to others. It was even that which I mentioned in the convocation the other day when the Apostles prayed for others. They say, We want you to know everything that we know. But in order for that to be true, you have to be active in the sharing of your faith that you may know how wide and long and high and deep is the love of God in Christ Jesus. That's an amazing concept that really to know what God is saying, it has to be something in which you are actively involved in communicating to others. Therefore, Dr. RAEBURN, who taught this course for 25 years and was the founding president of Covenant Seminary, would always remind us in this first lecture, he would say, Now there is only one thing of your studies that is the Lord Jesus Christ. But he would say, Humility is the Queen. Now, what do you mean by that? He was reminding us that everything we do in the curriculum, whether it's New Testament studies, Old Testament studies, systematics Church history, is feeding a purpose. And that purpose is to equip us to feed others, because it's really the means by which we ourselves are knowing and growing fully in the understanding of the grace of God that he intends for us.

[00:06:42] And so preaching is a since elevated to the highest position. And that sounds nice until you consider the responsibility it puts on you. Because once you elevate the task so high to say this is the main thing to be done, then people who are about to do it feel very inadequate. You elevate the task, you make the servant very lacking in confidence. And what I want to do this morning somewhat is take the monkey off of your back of thinking that the responsibility for the affects of preaching all rests on you. It's just something you have to do well enough and good enough that it's going to have an effect. I want you to just recognize this in its essence. The power is not in you and it never will be. The power is in the word. It's not how well you do the task that ultimately is responsible. It is how well you communicate the word which carries the power of God. We sometimes think of the greatest 19th century reformed preacher as being Charles head. And SPURGEON. I want you to think of what he said about himself. He said, I have often been surprised at the mercy of God to me. Poor sermons of mine that I could cry over when I get home have nonetheless led scores to the cross and more wonderful still words that I speak in ordinary conversation. Mere chants, sentences, as men call them, had nevertheless been as winged arrows from God and have pierced men's hearts and laid them wounded at Jesus feet. I've often lifted up my hands in astonishment and said, How can this be? How can God bless such feeble instrumentality? The key word, of course, is instrumentality. We are those earthen vessels.

[00:08:48] We are the instruments. The power is in the word, and therefore the clarity with which we present the word is ultimately what preaching is about, what not what you may be tempted to think, even what this course is about. What is this course about? Will if I just get the outline right. If I can just deliver this, well, then I'm going to be a great preacher. I actually know. It's the clarity of the word, because the word contains the power. In your readings, you read so many of the key verses by which the Scriptures are relating this to us. The power of God inherent in the Word comes. We know because the Word of God is what created the world in the universe as we know it. God said, Let there be light. And there was light. He spoke and it came to be the power of creation was in the word. The Word of God continues to control everything around us. He sends his command to Earth. His word runs swiftly. He spreads the snow like wool and scatters the frost like ashes. He hurls down his hail like pebbles. He sends his word using sight in it. He sends his word and melts them. The Word of God continues to be active in persuading other people like the one who has my word, speak it faithfully is not my word. Like fire and like a hammer that breaks a rock in pieces. Now, some of you have friends that you want to come to Christ and you have family that you've prayed about for years and you wonder what it will be that will finally break them. What does God say will finally break through? It is the word that breaks Iraq a hard heart.

[00:10:36] It is faithfulness to what God himself expresses. The Word of God performs the purposes for which He designed it. As the rain and snow come down from heaven and do not return to it without watering the earth. So is my word that goes out from my mouth. It will not return to be empty, but will accomplish what I desire and achieve the purpose for which I sent it. One of the amazing verses in Scripture whereby the inherent power of the word is being expressed is that in Philippians, where Paul is saying, You know, I'm in prison, and while I'm in prison, I'm still rejoicing. The word is going forth. Now, some people are preaching it out of false motives. Some people are preaching it out of true motives. But I rejoice for both because as long as the word goes forth, it's still accomplishing God's purpose. Now, that's an amazing thought. People even misusing it for their purposes and God still using it for his purposes. The word has this inherent power in it that takes the burden off to us to say, Unless I just do it exactly right. It has no power. No, it has power beyond us. It has sufficiency unto itself, which ultimately gives me a lot of confidence when I preach. There's not some magic to what I'm doing. It has the power. If that's the case, you think about the importance of why it has that power. It is actually communicating Christ himself. The Divine Logos, remember, in the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God. Who is being described. Christ. He is described as the word he is. God still speaking to us in incarnate form, fleshly form, the word present.

[00:12:30] This is what God is saying to us, what Christ himself represents. Why is that important? Because we recognize by the word creation came into being. That's part of its power. Without him was not anything made that was made this word of God. The Word of God created. Now, a bit of a pun going on in Scripture, right? God spoke and it came to be. But the word was also the means by which Christ came into creation and created creation. He is, in fact, that word of creation. He's also the word of the new creation. Again, in your notes, James, one verse 18 and first Peter 123 Here, the pun occurring explicitly in Scripture, James says, He, that is, Jesus chose to give us birth through the word of truth. And what do you think Jim James is talking about when he says God chose to give us birth through the word of truth? Is he talking about the in scripture rated word or is he talking about the Incarnate Word? The answer, of course, is is both. He chose to give us life through the word of truth. That's the word about Jesus and the word that is Jesus. Even more explicit is Peter saying you have been born again, not a perishable seed, but imperishable. The living and enduring word of God. You've been born again by the Word of God. Now again, is it the and Scripture rated word being referred to or is it the Incarnate Word being referred to that makes us born again? Again, it's a trick question. It's both. God is presenting himself to us in the Word, so much so that when He presents Christ to us, he says, That's the word. Now it begins to be really amazing.

[00:14:27] What are the implications of that if Christ is the Word? And when I speak, I am presenting the Word of God. When I speak, who is speaking? It's God yet speaking. And Gusten said it this way When the Bible speaks, God speaks. When the Bible speaks, God speaks. So if I say what the Bible says, who is still speak. And it's my voice coming up, but who is still speaking? God is still speaking to his people through the human instrument that is faithful to His word. So that the second Helvetia confession, that is the early reformers confession sounds too bold to be true. It sounds almost heretical, but this is what it said. The preaching of the word of God is the word of God. And that's a very simple statement. But think of the implication. The preaching of the word of God is the word of God. God spoke and creation came into being. He spoke and it stood fast. I speak. And if it is faithful to the word of God, he still speaks. So that Luther would say the church is God's mouth house. It's the house of God by which God is speaking to his people and into the culture. God is still speaking. Most bold was Calvin, and he said it this way God has so chosen by his spirit to anoint the tongue and the lips of his preachers so that when they speak. The voice of Jesus resounds. No, it's just me. It's just me speaking. Ever sit around the holiday table and think, Oh, Lord, there's all my unsaved loved ones around here, and, you know, it's just Jesus. We're here to talk to them. If. If just Jesus were here, then they'd listen. God is so chosen to anoint the lips and tongues of His people by his spirit that when they speak his word.

[00:16:57] Jesus still speaks. Now, did everyone except the voice of Jesus? Everyone said, Oh, Jesus. I'll go with him because everybody do that. No, but those to whom God was calling to himself, those who he designed to have their hearts broken, as the word will break a rock. Those persons were persuaded by the voice of Jesus, which we yet possess. When we speak the Word of God. And it's it's not magic. It's not that I use the right formula. I say the right words. I use the right tone of voice that I raise my hands just the right way. Now it's the commitment to the truth of God's Word that that contains the power of God's word that gives me such confidence. You know how the writer of Hebrews will say it? The Word of God is living and active. That which we speak is yet living and active, sharper than any double edged sword. It penetrates even to the dividing of soul and spirit joints and marrow. It judges the thoughts and attitudes of the heart. Here is that that activity of God represent that working, living and active as we speak. The words in these pages 2000 years old and yet presently working because the Word of God is yet living and active. So Paul could say, I am not ashamed of the Gospel, for it is the power. Now you know more what that means. It is the power of God under salvation. The good news, the truth of God. I'm not ashamed of it because I recognize more and more it is the power of God communicated to his servants, and I am one of them, not capable in myself. But given this dynamite, given this dimness, given this power that is inherent in itself by virtue of that being the word, so that when I present it, God is yet doing amazing works of creation, even through such as I.

[00:19:07] Now you think of SPURGEON Why was he so able? Because he knew he was so insufficient. He kept getting out of the way. How could God bless one's words? Efforts are so feeble as my own. How can I be an instrument in his hand? Because that's all I am. I rely entirely upon him. So his power is what is coming to the fore. There are many ways in which this is said, and maybe it's best just to express it. In what? In what? You know, Ed and I were just talking before a class of some friends from our past. But do you have friends from the past that you remember from high school days or maybe college days that you recognize? We're living just an entirely different lifestyle. I mean, they were living in a pagan, self-serving, totally lost condition. I think of it from a couple of friends of mine, a guy that I knew in high school, a friend of mine. And basically he he lived for football and the weekends and a girl that I knew who basically lived to be appreciated by men. And basically her life was giving herself to others In dating. I kind of kept track of those friends through the years and during college, one of them and another after he became a parent and a child of his was diagnosed with cancer. Both became Christians, I think. How did that happen? Something I said something a preacher in a church said, How could I say Here were people who were walking after idols, totally self consumed, turned from themselves to serve the living and true God. The Scriptures say they turn from idolatry, to serve the living and true God. How did that happen? Little puffs of air out of my mouth.

[00:21:09] Some vocalization and syllables happen. How does that happen? It's not the word of God. Like a hammer. That breaks Iraq in pieces, not by anything in me, but by the wonder of the word that is committed to us. It has such power that even when I recognize my weakness, my feebleness, my frailties, my lack of adequate instrumentality, I say, thank you, Lord, for the word that takes the burden off of me. And as long as I am faithful to it, it performs your purposes. So I have a much lesser obligation than some sort of dramatic presentation to make the Word of God work. My goal is simply to make the word of God clear. When I've done that, the Word of God works. Now we need to talk about how that occurs. The power of God. If you think of this word and the power it has, how is it applied? One powerful way in which it is applied is expository preaching. And this is item C in your notes. The power of the word is applied in expository preaching. Now, we'll do a lot of definition as this semester moves forward. But let's first the definition of what expository preaching is and then talk about its advantages. How is the power of the word applied in expository preaching? Well, first, what expository preaching is, it's the simple, the meaning of the message, the meaning of the message. Is the message of the passage. The meaning of the message of the sermon is the message of the story of the passage. So what the passage means? Is what the sermon is going to be about. Know what the Bible says? God says the preaching of the Word of God is the Word of God. So all expository preaching is trying to do at its essence to say what is the meaning of that passage? That is the meaning of the message that I will be preaching.

[00:23:28] That's what expository preaching. Now, if you do that. What are the advantages when the message of the passage is also the message of the sermon? What are the advantages? Number one, there'll be three of these expository preaching confronts with the truth of the word. Expository preaching confronts with the truth of the word. It is that truth that is so powerful. So if expository preaching is simply saying what the word says, making the truth plain, then we are confronting others with the truth of the word that has power. Not my opinion, not the philosophies of men. I don't take a poll to find out what I should be saying. The power is in the word and expository preaching is saying I want to confront you with the truth of the word because that's where the power is. Second advantage of expository preaching. Expository preaching confronts with the authority of the word expository preaching confronts with the authority of the word. You may remember in that preface to Christ into preaching, he said, basically, if you say, what is the great debate in our culture today, it is the debate not only over meaning, but authority. Does anyone have the right to tell me what to do? What's the basic answer of society? No, nobody's got the right to tell me what to do, but God does and God has spoken. So my goal in expository preaching is to say, Now I am telling you what you must do. Not on the basis of my authority. On the basis of God's authority. I have no authority. I too am a man under authority, said the Apostle. Remember? And don't listen because of what I say. Listen to the one who I speak for so that when I speak the truth of God, I can do so with boldness because my authority is not my own.

[00:25:29] I speak with the authority of the Word of God. Now that's again, getting kind of the monkey off of my back. Right? I've got to accomplish this. No, it's not upon me to make you believe, nor is upon me to say you must believe. Because I say it. You must believe and respond because God says it. It's his authority as well as his truth. When the meaning of the passage is the message of a sermon. I speak with God's authority. Finally, expository preaching confronts with the power of the Spirit. Expository preaching confronts with the power of the spirit. Here's where I give you the big heads up, and I say, Here's one of the questions that always appears on the midterm. Always appears on the midterm. If I were to ask you who or what alone can change the hearts of men and women who are what alone can you do it? No, you can't. The Holy Spirit working by and with the word in our hearts. Who or what alone can change the hearts of men and women eternally? The Holy Spirit working by and with the Word in our hearts. That's the specific language of the Westminster confession. The first chapter in the fifth paragraph. It's a wonderful expression of what we understand God must accomplish through his ministers. It is not. You see the Holy Spirit working. Apart from the Word, you know. Any number of people will say, Well, the spirit said. And then gross heresy results. It's the Holy Spirit using what God uses to create the new creation and the original creation, the new creation in US new life, new conformity to his word. It is his word that he uses. But what inspired the word is still illuminating us so that we will receive that word and understand it.

[00:27:33] The Holy Spirit working by and with the words. So what is expository preaching doing? It is making sure that the Holy Spirit has the right raw material, as it were, for doing that work of construction. That must be done in the human heart. I'm not depending upon something other than the word to be used by the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is going to use God's Word to convince and change people. So what I'm doing an expository preaching, saying here is the word so that people will be confronted with the power of the spirit. It's this amazing thought. When I preach, I recognize I'm never the first preacher. I'm always the second preacher. The first preachers. The Spirit. He gave the word and he is working already in the hearts of those who will receive it so that when I speak, I am a servant of the work of the spirit. I come along after I speak in conformity with what the Spirit is doing. But the spirit is the first preacher. So I am seeking to work in such a way that the Spirit's work is made manifest in the hearts of others. Now, if I say all of that, that expository preaching is seeking to confront with the work of the spirit, If I recognize that technical excellence is not really what preaching is about, I recognize that undercuts much of the notion of why people get in a preparation delivery course. Aren't we supposed to be talking about excellence in preaching? Yes. The fact that the powers in the word doesn't mean that we will be stumbling blocks to others, Right? At the same time, we are to recognize that the power, the power cannot be in us or else we will actually hurt people.

[00:29:25] I want you to listen to a biographer describe Edward Irving. Now, you've never heard of Edward Irving, though. He was the greatest renowned preacher of his era. Listen to what the biographer of Edward Irving said. He was the preacher in London in the 19th century, to which all the celebrities went and the people of government. This is what his biographer says. The effect of his preaching was to leave men dazzled and stupefied. Rather than convinced or converted. They went home marveling at the eloquence of the orator. Rather than mourning over their sins. And yearning for God. That's that's a rather stark condemnation. He's a great preacher. I mean, people just marvel at how he spoke and what did it accomplish spiritually. Virtually nothing. Now that compared to a couple of other preachers from an earlier and then a later era. Some of you have read these words already from Robert Rayburn, the son of Dr. Rayburn, who used to teach this course. And he wrote this to encourage us. He says, the Lord will use what little we have. But his blessing ultimately is the key to our preaching rather than our abilities. Church history furnishes us with grand illustrations of this fact. I think, for example, of the Court preachers of Louis, the 14th day in mid 17th century France, that court was as decadent and depraved as any kingly court ever was. Yet all the while it professed earnestly its Christianity. And for its appointed preachers it has. John Mashiane and Jacqui say there was some of the greatest preaching ever produced in the history of the church. It was not only some of the most eloquent and powerful oratory ever heard. It was pious, blunt, intensely earnest, unafraid, and for 17th century Catholicism, highly evangelical.

[00:31:57] This is the same John Marcion you may remember who when appointed to preach. Louis The 14th funeral sermon ascended into the high pulpit of Notre Dame, surveyed the great congregation, including the crowned heads of Europe, and forever honored the Office of Preacher by saying to them. In the hour of death. Only God is great. And what was the consequence of that bold, courageous evangelical preaching? Nothing. The spirit did not blow on that occasion. But a few years later, in Cambuslang, near Glasgow, Scotland, there was a minister named William McCullough who was so bad, a preacher he was nicknamed the Hail Preacher because when he got up to speak, all the men left for the pubs. His own son says of his father. He was not eloquent. He was very different from the popular orators of his time. After being licensed, it took him nine years to get his first pastorate. But it was upon this an elegant, poorly constructed, poorly delivered sermons that the Spirit of God fell in 1742 and produced such a spiritual awakening in Scotland. Such has not been known since he was no marcion. But it was not McAuliffe's gifts that were the key. But the spirit. Who alone can convert the hearts of men and women. Only the spirit working by and with the word in our hearts. Not our oratory, not our eloquence. But when we present the Word of God, it is the spirit who then can use us as His instruments, though we be weak. And in eloquent and seemingly pure vessels. Commitment to the truth of God's Word is the enabling. Of the work of the spirit for the purposes of God's Word. If you think of the effectiveness of the word, you have to say how is it made effective in the lives of people? And this may seem to undercut just a little bit what I've said for while the power is in the word, you know that we can get in the way, can't we? How do we make sure that people are getting through to the word and that we are not getting in the way? How is the effectiveness of the word promoted by testimony and the Roman numeral two in your notes? I want to talk to you about Aristotle's distinctions of what is included in every persuasive message.

[00:35:00] Now, if we were in med school, it's the time of the class where you recognize we're going to get some definitions going on. We get the taxonomy being explained. Because if you were in med school, a lot of the first year is doing what you're simply learning the terminology, you know, what is the tibia and what's the fibula and what's the clavicle? And humala, Titian do the same thing. We are going to be looking at sermons for the next couple of years and we are going to be preaching sermon. And we simply need to know some common terminology so that we can dissect, as it were, but also so we can heal so we know what we're talking about as we look at the different components. And one way of thinking about that is to think of the elements that go into a message that make it persuasive historically and what are unique aspects of that. When we talk about getting people in confrontation with the Word of God, one way to think of it is this every persuasive message is made up of at least three components. The first is called logos. Logos. Historically, that is simply what's logos mean in Greek word. It's the words, it's the verbal content. Logos is the verbal content of the message. It includes not only the words used, but the arguments used. It's craft, the logic of the message. What's the verbal content? That's part of the message. It's logos. A second major component of any persuasive message is pathos, which is that what is it? It's not the verbal content. What is pathos? The emotive content. That's right. It's the emotive content, the passion or fervor or feeling with which something is expressed. Now, I must tell you, it is sometimes hard, particularly for men and young men in this culture, to feel the weight of pathos because we're kind of trained in a in a John Wayne, Indiana Jones culture, which is kind of, you know, stoic, you know, to really be strong, you don't express emotion.

[00:37:05] And there is we all recognize a manipulative sort of preaching that expresses emotion just to get effect. But I want you to recognize how dangerous preaching can be that shows no passion. And if you do not receive Jesus Christ, you'll probably go to hell. And, you know, let's look at the next page. What did you just say? It was once said of Moody, he was one of the few people qualified to speak of hell because he could not do it without weeping. It grieved him so, and people knew it did. There was this sense of if if the message does not move you, this doesn't seem to have an impact on you. Why would you expect that impact on anybody else to speak about the love of God in a way that does not move you is actually to speak untruth? To say this isn't very important. This isn't very significant. Your your manner is now contradicting your message. And it's just a standard rule of communicators. What if your manner contradicts your message? What will be believed? Your manner. So the matter needs to go with the message. One of the wonderful creatures of the 19th century was Robert Murray McShane, and some of us actually visited his church this summer. He was a a wonderful preacher, sparked a revival in Scotland, died before age 30. So he's the age of many of you here when he was known as one of the greatest preachers of the English Isles. And if you want to hear some hints of why he was so listened to, listen to his own diary. This is what he wrote on February 21st, 1836, preached twice in Larbert on the righteousness of God from Romans 116 in the morning was more engaged in preparing the head than the heart.

[00:39:16] This has frequently been my error and I always felt the evil of it. Reform it then. Oh Lord, what's he saying? My sermon had become just a lecture. Just give them information. I prepared the head, but not the heart. Some weeks later, on March 5th, he again wrote in his diary. Preached again in Larbert. With very much comfort oil, chiefly to my remedy in the era of 21st February. Therefore, the heart and the mouth were both full in large, my heart and I shall run, said David Lord in large, my heart, and I shall preach. Well, it's a wonderful expression, isn't it? In large, my heart. When you speak to God's people, do they see your heart full? Are you able to express? Our personalities were very greatly right. The goal is to say things. As though you deeply mean them. You will vary our personalities, but in whatever way shows the depth of your feeling. Just talk to people that way as though you care because that there's so much on the final aspect of persuasion, and that is ethos. The final component of every persuasive message is ethos. Now this you have to write down, careful, this is one of those midterm questions, All right? It is the perceived character of the speaker. What's the key adjective there? Se It's not the character of the speaker, you know, you say, but I. I know what I am. Well, how are you being perceived? It is the perceived character of the speaker. That's one of the reasons that logos and pathos are so important. What's your character perceived to be if you are disorganized? It seems that you don't care. What's perceived about you. If you don't speak with passion, it is perceived that you don't care.

[00:41:39] Now, you may care very much, but my inattention to logos and pathos ethos is damaged. And what everyone has known throughout the centuries. If you were evaluating the importance of these things, logos, pathos and ethos, which is the most important for persuading people. Ethos, the perceived character of the speaker. You know this some of you, you know, you go to visit a friend on vacation and they're telling you about their wonderful preacher, and you go listen to him and you go. Man. How am I going to talk about this? This guy's really awful. Why do they think he's so good? Because they know him. They know his heart. They know his care. They know his compassion. They listen to character. And the character becomes part of the vehicle for hearing the word of God. That's why the Apostle would say we put no stumbling block in other people's path. It's our character that we recognize is part of the means by which people hear the Word of God. If you could see it visually, this was in your book, so I won't go over this long. But if you were just to see it visually, you would recognize this. The path of the gospel is the word. So we would we would recognize that the word of God is going to be the thing that convinces. But somehow the listener has to get in contact with the word. So we are telling the meaning of the word. That's the logos, the verbal content. But if we have heartfelt in this that is not showing, if our manner is contradicting our message and that becomes a barrier to people hearing the content of the word. And of course, if our character does not reflect the meaning of the word, then people will say What you do speaks so loudly.

[00:43:38] I cannot hear what you say. So character becomes part of the point as well. The listener has to go through these doors, as it were, of logos, pathos and ethos to be in confrontation with the world. Paul said it this way, and you remember this is in First Thessalonians one five. Our gospel came to you not simply in words, which is what? Not simply in logos. Our gospel came to you not simply in logos, but also in power and the Holy Spirit and with deep conviction. What is that? There's the pathos. You know how we lived among you for your sake. What is that? That is ethos, and they become absolutely key. If you hear both of those things. You know how we lived among you for your sake. When those who study persuasive speech say what ethos is, it's always two components. It's credibility. Do you know what you're talking about? And compassion? Does the speaker appear to care about whom? The listeners. If the speaker appears to care more about himself, what's my impression? What are you thinking about me? What's the reaction of listeners? It's actually to remove themselves from the speaking event. I don't want to be manipulated. If your main goal is your reputation, I actually will distrust you and not accept what you say. The very reason you see that preachers sometimes speak with boldness, what they know will hurt people is the people know what they're doing. They are putting themselves at risk for the sake of the people. Preachers who ultimately only say what people want to hear finally are never heard. Because people know you do not care enough about me to put yourself at risk. So when you care more about me than yourself, I will listen to you sometimes, even when you say very hard things because you love me that much.

[00:46:01] Now, again, if the goal is simply to assert my authority, that's why you have to listen to me. Then I won't listen to you again. Your concerns now about you. How how do people read all of these things? Ethos. It's the involvement of the life of the minister with the people. Sometimes we think, you know, I can be a great preacher. If they would just give me 40 hours a week in my study, if I could just concentrate on that message. But the fact of the matter is, if there is not life upon life, word will not be heard. It is actually that wonderful balance of having sufficient study to be credible and sufficient involvement to be known, to be compassionate. The pulpit is not the only place you preach. In fact, if it is the only place you preach, you will not be heard. It is involvement in life that gives foundation to what is being said in the pulpit. These things continue in many scriptural places. I think probably my favorite pastoral passage is the one that's in your notes First Orleans two, three through eight and 11 through 12. I'm just going to read portions and I want you to hear how the Apostle is talking about the power of what is moving forward and how it does, he writes. The appeal we make does not spring from error or impure motives, nor are we trying to trick you. So, you know, nestling some magic to make this scripture thing work here. That was the Seven Sons of Steve. I remember. They would just use the name of Jesus as a magic spell, and they thought that was going to make things happen. But he says, we're not trying to trick you.

[00:47:45] On the contrary, we speak as men approved by God to be entrusted with the gospel. We are not trying to please man, but God who tests our hearts. What's he arguing for? Why should you listen to me? Right now he's saying, because, you know, we are trustworthy before God, even so trustworthy that we won't try to please you, but please God instead, you know, we never use flattery. No, we put on a mask to cover up greed. God is our witness. We were not looking for praise from men, not from you or anyone else. As apostles of Christ, we could have been a burden to you. Look at these words. But we were gentle among you. Like a mother caring for her little children. Now, the knives being kind of gentle in our sensibilities here, The actual Greek language here is we were as gentle as a mother nursing a baby. Here's an apostle. Does he have a right to be bold? Does he have authority? But we wanted to show you our compassion. We were as gentle among you as a mother caring for her little children. We loved you so much that we were delighted to share with you not only the Gospel of God logos, but our lives as well. Ethos. Because you had become so dear to us. Wow, what a statement. We were delighted to share not only the Gospel but our lives because we were so concerned for you. So the Logos is traveling with the ethos. Recognizing that becomes the way in which the gospel is heard. Look at second Timothy 215. Study to show yourself approved under God. Now that's almost surprising language studies so that you will proclaim the word of God correctly is what we expect to hear said.

[00:49:42] But he's saying no study to show yourself approved undergo a workman that needs not be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. It's actually ethos now that's coming into you prior to logos before you're rightly dividing the word of truth. You're showing yourself approved unto God. Avoid godless chatter, flee the evil desires of youth, and pursue righteousness, faith, love and peace. Very hard. Next sentence for seminary students sometimes don't have anything to do with foolish and stupid arguments. I love to argue. I do. I mean, in my my college background was competitive speech and debate. I just love, you know, a good get in there and duke it out. And I had to recognize early in my ministry it would not serve me in the church if you reason to go to seminary. So you'll have a great debate. Well, it may be fun for you, but Paul said the man of God must not strive. He must not be known as a lover of debate. I loved you so much. Yes, I would do everything I can to convince you to make you know. But he's not loving the debate. It's loving the product of truth. What is this doing in your heart? Am I actually caring enough about you to to watch what's happening to you and people around us as we simply are engaging in dialog because it's fun to cross swords. It does not serve the church. What are we doing? Defending truth or enjoying the battle? In everything. Paul says the tide has set them an example By doing what is good in your teaching locus show integrity, seriousness and soundness of speech that cannot be condemned. Now, at this point in the lecture, I hope you're feeling a certain tension.

[00:51:40] Because early on I was saying, it's not all on you. The power is in the word. Now, what have I spent the last 10 minutes talking about? Your obligation, your responsibility, your faithfulness? How do those two things come together? Let me try it this way. How do we reconcile the power in the word and the place of ethos? Here are those two. How do we reconcile the power being in the word and the place of ethos in the ordinary process of preaching effectively? I think it's this balance. God can work apart from us. Can you do that? Paul's rejoicing whether for right motives are wrong. I'm rejoicing the words going forth. God can work apart from us. But He chooses more often to work through us. And in that he uses our character to confirm the truth of his word. So where does that leave us? It's here. His ability to work without us removes the burden. His ability to work without us removes the burden. I've just got to do it right or won't work here. That his ability to work without us removes the burden. His willingness to work through us grants us the blessing of knowing our labors not in vain. His willingness to work through us grants us the blessing of knowing our labor is not in vain. So we have this burden taken off of us. And still the blessing of knowing that God rewards faithfulness. If I'm not faithful, I am not rejected. If I'm not able enough. I don't say, Oh, no, God, can't now work? No, the burden is off of me. But I have the wonderful blessing to know that he is able to use my efforts, which I want to give him. I mean, that's true of the heart of a believer.

[00:53:48] I want to serve my God. I want to use my gifts for his purposes. And God blesses me by saying I will use them. It is my choice to do that, even though I do not need to do that. What are the implications of this ethos Power that if we recognize that God can use it powerfully, even though He doesn't need to? Recognize this isn't required. There are three things here Ethos Implications. First, guard your heart. Guard your heart. It ethos can be so used of God. Archibald Alexander said it this way. There is no person that needs to be more in constant exercise of prayer. Then the theological student in the midst of studies. His heart should be raised to God more consistently for help and direction than in any other place in society. As you're taking in all this information, all this material for one of God to actually know that what I am taking in will be used of God says I must guard my heart. So I take it improperly, especially as these foundations are being laid for all future ministry in life, whether you know it or not. You see, this ethos enables us to witness to others, but actually to know the word. So far we've actually talked about witness the most, right? People examine who we are, so they'll listen that we we know holiness of life is necessary. Commonly holiness of life is necessary most of the time for the effective communication of truth. Do you know that holiness of life is also necessary for the knowledge of the truth? That's a rather startling thought. By communing with God, I actually know more than I would know without him. I can't express to you all that I wish I could in this regard, but you know it.

[00:56:03] Why are there certain ministers you have to listen to? Because they seem to have special spiritual insight. They walk with God. And something in you knows that. And because they walk with God, they seem to have. I'm not talking about a pipeline of, you know, special revelation. But but their hearts are resonating in such a way that that they are living in a way that makes God's truth powerful in its communication. I think of Abbey Earl, and he was a great Baptist evangelist in the last century. And when he wrote prior to the radio and TV age of what he thought would be so effective in terms of communicating the gospel to others, he ultimately recognized it was his own heart's communion with God. And so he wrote in his diary these words this day, For the sake of God's people, I make a new consecration of my all to Jesus Christ. I now and forever give myself to Him my soul, to be washed in his blood and saved in heaven at last, my whole body to be used for his glory, my mouth to speak for him at all times. My eyes to weep over lost sinners. My feet to carry me where he wants me to go. My heart to be burdened for souls, my intellect to be employed at all times for his glory. I give him my wife, my children, my property, all I have, and all I ever shall be. I give that I may obey every known duty for the sake of my Savior and his message. Do you think this man knew something of the Lord? I think he knew more and more and more and more so that those who counted by the time he was done, said that he was responsible for hundreds of thousands of conversions in the pre electronic era.

[00:58:21] Amazing. He knew more by walking with God. You'll discover more and more of that, won't you? You'll see it around you. Not to be judgmental of anyone, but the guys who seem sometimes so intellectually gifted and so cold. And those who seem so warm toward God and what you really want to learn from them. They know something about God because of their guarded heart, which gives them integrity before him. Then what should you guide your heart? A second implication of ethos is become well acquainted with the grace your heart requires. Becoming well acquainted with the grace your heart requires is a recognition of something. Once we put so much weight upon ethos. Everyone is, you should say. But I can't do that. I can't do that. Here's this wonderful example of Abbey Earl, who is willing to give everything to God, and we recognize the power of that. But ultimately, Abby Earle was preaching the gospel. And the gospel said, I am not dependent upon my work. I, in my best efforts, recognize my failures before God and therefore I am dependent upon his love and mercy in my behalf. If you are to preach grace, you must know it. And knowing it means you put not only the willingness to obey before God, but the constant heart of confession before Him. Lord, as much as I will, I fail. Though I want to do good. I do it. Not teach me of your love. Teach me of your mercy. Because when you then experience it, when it's not your ethos, that's the power of the word, but your recognition of God's conforming your character to himself by His grace and despite your character. But then your heart from God enlarges. The grace of God begins to motivate you and you become one not only whose character is observed by God's people, but whose compassion is felt by God's people.

[01:00:40] You know the grace of God. Character, when pursued, leads you to a sense of failure. And failure rightly responded to teaches you much of the grace of God, which makes you desire to be all the more conformed to His image. It's interesting isn't how that works, that when I pursue character for his sake, I know the need of his grace. And when I experience his grace, I so much more long for more of his character. It's my blessing to follow it then. We got our hearts. We become well acquainted with the graces in our hearts and in the last ethos of implication Ethos. The implication is this Believe in the grace that says you can be a great preacher, believe in the grace that says you can be a great preacher. Dr. Rayburn, when he would teach this class, always at this portion of the lecture would say to us, You will have different levels of skill. Some of you are just naturally gifted puppeteers and some of you are not. But if your heart loves the Word of God and the people of God, the words that you say, even if they barely can crawl over the lip of the pulpit, will be heard by God's people. Because what they are listening for is somebody who understands the grace of God. More than anything else, more than eloquence, more than great argument, more than great organ. What people listen for is, do you understand the truth of God's Word so much that you can communicate the gospel to me? Why don't I sit down? Why did I come into this place of church to hear? Just so I would get more information, just so that you could tell me. It's hard to raise kids today.

[01:02:43] I knew that before I sat down. Why don't I sit down? Don't you have a word of God for me? Isn't there some healing that you can provide when you know the grace of God? God can greatly use you. And believing that grace is ultimately what makes you a great preacher more than any other thing, is understanding the work that he has done in your behalf. Do you remember how Paul said it to Timothy? He was a young man, fearing he wouldn't be able to minister in Ephesus. Paul said, Don't let anyone look down on you because you are young. But set an example for the believers in speech, in life and love, in faith, in purity, ethos. Until I come the vote yourself to the public reading of Scripture, to preaching and the teaching. Do not neglect your gift which was given to you through prophetic message when the body of elders laid their hands on you. Be diligent in these matters. Give yourself wholly to them so that everyone can observe your progress. Now think of that. You put yourself on the line before people so they can observe you as they hear what you're teaching. Be diligent in these matters. Watch your life and your doctrine closely persevering them. Because if you do, you will save both yourself and your hearers. Watch your life. But also what you teach because you are teaching what saves people. Teach that. And when you do it will not only be nourishment to your soul, but to many others as well. I want you to believe it deeply. God can greatly use you not because of your gifts primarily, but because of your heart set on him. You can lead others to his healing and his salvation forever.

[01:04:43] Tell me we have 10 minutes. And that's my desire here to see if you have questions and give you opportunity. Do you see that there is an assignment for next time? Look over that just for a little bit and tell me if you have questions about it. You're to listen in chapel and then write a one page comparison of two sermons. Divide the page into thirds. Divide a third to comparing how the speakers establish and use logos, pathos and ethos. So it's just beginning to listen. Listen. You can turn this into a very dry dissection. You know, you can have roast preacher for lunch every day, you know, And that's what we're talking about. Are you trying to learn so that you can feed God's people, not be critical, actually, say, what am I learning about how this person is by ethos, giving me confidence? Or is there something being said that's actually putting me off that I just trust this person now? So I even reckon I don't want to go there. Not not to be mean or harsh. I'm learning something. Or is this person saying something that draws me in? How is pathos being expressed? What's the difference between saying something authentically moving and something that seems kind of manipulative? What makes me feel one way or another is I listen to other people and logos. Could I follow it? Did it make sense that the argument, or was it logical to begin to just divide third of a page? Look at two speakers, Only one page. All I'm looking for and look at logos, pathos, ethos in two separate chapel speakers. I think there's only two that will happen before you have this assignment. Do at the fourth lecture. So to do it, the fourth lecture, which I think is a week from Friday, you're comparing both on the one page, so you're comparing both regarding logos, both comparing pathos and both comparing ethos.

[01:06:35] So third to each component on the page. Yes, sir. Can you use the sermon from the convocation? Yes, you may use the sermon from the convocation. If you have enough kind of recollection of that, you can do it backwards if you want, as well as forward questions about the lecture itself. Do you feel the tension that I mentioned to you? God saying, I can work without you, but I choose to work with you and if I will work with you, I need your heart as well as your words. But of course, now we say, But my heart isn't pure enough. That's right. But remember, God is sufficient still. So it takes the burden off of us, even if it gives us the delight of knowing I can be used of God. Questions. I would just tell you straight out, it always appears on the midterm. Who or what alone can change the hearts of men and women eternally. The Holy Spirit working what by and with the word in our hearts and with the word, You know it will come. Anything else? Yes, sir. The perceived character That's tough in the perceived character of the speaker. Yes. The question regarding is it's just hard to say the perceived character of the speaker, because we all know that we can be misperceived. And that's why we have to say just the reality is perception becomes the reality. And if people are perceiving me in a way that I do not intend, I have to recognize that and deal with it. It's in your readings and will come up again. But you know, Dr. Sanderson, when he taught here, used to say that the way that you test any candidate for preaching what you should do, anybody read this year that you'll get to it.

[01:08:11] He said you play softball with them. And when they were when they were safe at second base on a close play, call them out, see what happens. You know, the great pastoral test, you know that. But what he's saying is what people perceive about the individual largely will determine how they will receive what he's saying. Phillips Brooks. In a statement. What truth is or preaching is truth poured through. What do remember personality preaching is truth poured through personality. Now lots of different personalities. But if I think you're a liar, will I listen to you? If I think you don't care about me, will I listen to you? It's actually, I think just for what it's worth, I mean, one of the one of the weaknesses of my background and I think many young men in my setting, when you come from families where you were taught to be stoic, not to show emotion, then then kind of reaching into the pulpit, setting in which you're saying, if I act like this doesn't matter, then I'm perceived as not caring. I care greatly, but my manner is something trained from my youth that I have to in some ways war against in order to adequately communicate what God is saying. Now, again, different personalities, right? Some people, if they just kind of almost lift an eyebrow. Wow. He really means that, you know, just but other people almost have to be quite demonstrative because they're demonstrative all the time. So the fact that they really mean something is going to take more and we'll talk a lot more as we go through things, how we express things so that we're not mis communicating what we're trying to say. Because there are there are simple things at times that we do that mis communicate and we don't recognize what they are.

[01:09:59] For now, recognize character just oozes out of you in ways we don't even know, right? You're in a conversation with someone, you've met them for about 5 minutes and just their choice of words, the way they hold their bodies. You know, you're making all kinds of judgments about them just like that. What scares us is speech communicators say that people typically make those judgments in the first 30 seconds. Of whether or not even you care about them and are willing and whether they are willing to listen to you. Now, we're not with people 30 seconds and we're pastors. We're with them for years and years, and recognizing that our perceived character really weighs in their minds. What we're whether we are worth listening to is important and deadly if I don't believe in the grace of God. Because they will always perceive my weaknesses louder than my strengths. So I need to know greatly. God has forgiven me. That's what gets me back up here again. He makes me his own, despite my weaknesses. I didn't take that monkey off your back that I perceive character's going to be a tough one. That's always going to be there. And yet it has to be in our minds as we evaluate giving ourselves for other people. Not just working in my comfort zone. Right. I'm comfortable with this. Well, how are you being perceived? That has to be taken into account, too. Yes. How did you feel? How did I find out how I was being perceived? People will talk to you about what they're unhappy with. One of the things that you'll do, not this semester, but in future ones, is you'll watch a videotape of yourself. It's torture. You know, you have to look at yourself, you know, while you're preaching.

[01:11:38] And, you know, sometimes when you're preaching, you know, your heart is racing and and you just feel like, wow, I'm just so demonstrative. And you look at yourself on the tape and you're going and I believe that this is the most important thing. And you're kind of you know, you're aware of that and you felt we saw anime, but you look at yourself on tape and sometimes it's quite different. You will get some feedback from your peers this semester because we'll do those devotionals and which you'll present something and people will give you an evaluation. John Stott And many preachers just put themselves under the discipline of meeting with People Weekly just to give them feedback on their messages. I mean, they just so much recognize I can be the worst perceiver of myself that they know there's a pretty thick skin and a pretty sure ego, you know, to do that, but actually say, what do you think? And and then begin to trust God enough. How do I say and understand people enough to properly filter what they're saying? Because certain people will come at you no matter what. And you say, well, there's a certain legitimacy to what you're saying, but I have to remember who you are. And other people, of course, will never say anything unless it's very wrong. And if they say something, you really have to listen. But that's some of that pastoral prudence coming forward. Right. What do I need to listen to? What do I actually, before God, have to turn a deaf ear to? All those become part of the resources. But we'll read more about how you gain in your knowledge of yourself. Key. Yeah. Yes. What's the difference between becoming credible for the sake of perceived understanding versus then just becoming manipulative and not authentic? And at that point, you have to say it, and I have to ultimately do certain things so much that it becomes authentic to me.

[01:13:26] Those will get down to it a little bit later. But for instance, if you just say, you know, I'm just not a demonstrative character, you know, it's just not my nature. So I just don't want to gesture when I talk. Well, ultimately, I think, you know, what you need to do, not just I will tell you, but many of you need to over gesture and practice, you know, just just gesture all the time when you're talking so that finally when you're speaking, it is natural to you. So you you, you do enough of what is outside your comfort zone so that it actually becomes comfortable to you and natural to you. And that's why I'm becoming a different person. But we just must recognize, say, well, you know, I'm just a soft spoken person, so I will talk softly when I preach so well, that doesn't work. You know, you're going to have to raise your voice. And if you consistently raise your voice, it becomes natural to you. And then it's not something you put on. It just becomes natural. So practice regular interaction with people and learning what's putting them off can deal with some of that. More to come, though. It's a good question. How do we deal with what's necessary without becoming inauthentic? We are going to try to say more and more, being natural for who you are is the most powerful thing you can do. But it's not natural to do certain things. And we'll actually find out. Standing in front of people actually create unnatural things in conversation. The people who say, I just don't want to gesture. So if I were to look at you in any conversation, you would gesture. Everybody does. But when you stand in front of people, suddenly your arms have weights on it and we stop, you know, or we start gesturing with our shoulders and we say, actually, that's not natural, you know.

[01:15:06] So the goal is to be stay natural and we'll talk about more how to do that. So a lot of this authenticity is a very good question and we'll come forward. See you next time.