BibleProject - Old Testament - Lesson 8

Deuteronomy - BibleProject

You will gain a comprehensive understanding of the book of Numbers through exploring its authorship, historical and cultural context, literary structure and themes, as well as the theology of the book. Additionally, you will learn about the significance of Numbers, its contributions to the Pentateuch and the Old Testament, and its relevance to the Christian faith today.
Taught by a Team
Taught by a Team
BibleProject - Old Testament
Lesson 8
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Deuteronomy - BibleProject

Numbers, The Bible Project, Bible, Bible Study, Old Testament, Torah, Pentateuch, Books of Moses



I. Introduction to Numbers

A. Authorship and Date

B. Historical and Cultural Context

C. Literary Structure and Themes

II. Theology of Numbers

A. The Presence of God

B. The Holiness of God and His People

C. The Relationship Between Obedience and Blessing

III. Significance of Numbers

A. Contributions to the Pentateuch and the Old Testament

B. Relevance to the Christian Faith Today

  • By watching this video, you will gain a comprehensive understanding of the Old Testament, including its literary design and flow of thought. You will learn about the different sections of the Old Testament, including the Pentateuch, Historical Books, Wisdom Literature, Major Prophets, and Minor Prophets. You will also gain insights into the stories, themes, and messages of each of these sections and how they contribute to the overall narrative of God's relationship with humanity.
  • By studying Genesis, you will gain a deeper understanding of the Old Testament and its key themes and characters, as well as the literary features of the book, such as its structure, style, and genre. The creation story is a key part of the book, as are the stories of Abraham and the patriarchs, the fall and sin, the flood and Noah, and God's covenant with Israel. Additionally, Genesis introduces readers to the Old Testament and sets the stage for the Pentateuch and Books of Moses, while also introducing many themes and motifs that continue throughout the Bible.
  • Discover the captivating stories of the patriarchs in Genesis Part 2, exploring themes of covenant, God's sovereignty, human responsibility, faith, and obedience.
  • Explore the Bible's book of Exodus to gain insight into God's rescue of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, the significance of the covenant and law, and its connection to the New Testament.
  • Gain insight into the book of Exodus and its themes of salvation and redemption, revealing God's character through his interactions with Israel, with significant influence on Jewish and Christian traditions and connections to the New Testament through its foreshadowing of Jesus Christ.
  • By studying Leviticus with The Bible Project, you will gain a comprehensive understanding of the historical and literary context, themes, and structure of this important book in the Old Testament. You will also learn about the significance of Leviticus for understanding the Torah and its relevance for Christians today.
  • By studying The Bible Project's lesson on Numbers, you'll comprehensively understand its structure, themes, and significance, gaining insight into the journey of the Israelites in the wilderness, God's guidance, rebellion, priesthood, and offerings, as well as its historical, theological, and contemporary relevance.
  • Explore Numbers' authorship, context, structure, and theology to gain a comprehensive understanding of its significance to the Pentateuch and the Old Testament, as well as its relevance to the Christian faith today.
  • You will gain knowledge and insight into the book of Joshua, including its historical context, literary genre, and summary. You will learn about the book's themes, such as God's faithfulness, obedience, and judgment, and its significance in foreshadowing Christ's work and providing historical and theological implications.
  • Explore the historical and cultural context, literary design, and theological significance of the book of Judges in the Old Testament, and learn how it fits into the broader biblical storyline, including its relevance for today.
  • Explore the Book of Ruth to understand its historical context, literary features, themes of loyalty and faithfulness, redemption, the kinsman-redeemer's role, and its Old Testament significance.
  • Studying the Book of Samuel provides insight into the rise of the Israelite monarchy, the lives of Saul and David, and the importance of obedience to God, covering themes of leadership and kingship with the presence of the Ark of the Covenant.
  • By exploring the story of Absalom in 2 Samuel and the broader context of the Old Testament Historical Books, you will gain insight into the themes and messages of these books, as well as their historical and modern-day significance.
  • Through the study of 1 Kings and 2 Kings, you will gain a deeper understanding of the history of Israel and Judah, as well as valuable spiritual lessons from these Old Testament books.
  • By studying this lesson, you understand the historical and literary aspects of 1 and 2 Chronicles, emphasizing God's sovereignty, covenant faithfulness, worship, and obedience.
  • Through this lesson, you grasp the historical context, key themes, and modern applications of the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, enriching your understanding of faith, community, and commitment to God's Word.
  • You will gain an understanding of the book of Esther, a narrative in the Hebrew Bible that tells the story of a Jewish woman named Esther who becomes queen in the Persian court and, with the help of her cousin Mordecai, saves the Jews from genocide orchestrated by the villain Haman. The story highlights God's sovereignty and providential care, and the feast of Purim celebrates the Jews' victory.
  • By studying the Book of Job, you will explore the complexities of human suffering, the search for divine wisdom, and the tension between God's sovereignty and human limitations within a unique literary structure.
  • You will gain a comprehensive understanding of the book of Psalms, including its background, structure, authorship, and theology. You will also learn about the various themes and motifs present in the Psalms, which will help you better understand and appreciate this important book in the Old Testament.
  • By studying Proverbs, you will understand the definition and purpose of wisdom, the fear of the Lord, and the personification of wisdom in the book. You will also gain insights into the literary structure of Proverbs and the themes of the book, including the importance of listening to wisdom, the power of words, and the value of hard work.
  • In the Ecclesiastes lesson, you gain insights into the book's structure, themes, and significance, while exploring the search for meaning, vanity, and the importance of fearing God and enjoying life.
  • You will gain an understanding of the literary features, interpretation, theology, and application of the book Song of Songs, including its authorship, historical and cultural context, allegorical and literal interpretation, and its teachings on God and human love, sexuality, and relationships.
  • Through this lesson, you gain insight into Isaiah's historical context, literary features, major themes, and its significance in the Old Testament.
  • Discover how Isaiah's prophetic message of judgment and hope for Jerusalem evolves, as it predicts the fall of Israel's kingdom and envisions a new, purified Jerusalem where God's kingdom will be restored through a future messianic king, uniting all nations in peace.
  • Through this lesson, you will gain understanding of the book of Jeremiah, including its historical and cultural context, literary features, major themes and message, and significance in the Old Testament.
  • In this lesson, you learn about the Book of Lamentations, its structure, themes, and the role of God in the midst of suffering and divine judgment, while ultimately highlighting His faithfulness and mercy.
  • In the book of Ezekiel, you follow the story of a priest named Ezekiel who has a vision of God's glory riding on a royal throne chariot, and is commissioned by God to accuse Israel of rebellion and warn them of their impending destruction due to their covenant violations and rampant social injustice, while also providing a small glimmer of hope for the future.
  • By viewing this lesson on Daniel, you will gain understanding of its structure, themes, and significance in the Old Testament, gaining knowledge about living as faithful exiles in a hostile culture, God's sovereignty and faithfulness in times of trial, and remaining faithful to God even in difficult circumstances.
  • Through this lesson, you grasp the complexities of Hosea, discovering the book's themes, messages, and its role in the Old Testament, emphasizing the relationship between Israel's unfaithfulness and God's unwavering love.
  • By studying the book of Joel, you will gain insight into the historical and cultural context of Judah, the literary features of prophetic literature, and the themes of repentance, restoration, and the Day of the Lord. Joel's prophecy also has significance in the New Testament as it is quoted by Peter at Pentecost, emphasizing the fulfillment of Joel's vision through the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.
  • In the Amos lesson, you explore its historical context, literary features, and themes, enhancing your understanding of justice, the Day of the Lord, and God's sovereignty within the Old Testament.
  • By studying Obadiah, you will gain insight into the historical context and literary features of this prophetic oracle. You will learn about the pride of Edom, their judgment, and the hope for Israel. Through understanding the significance of Obadiah in the Old Testament, you will have a deeper appreciation for the themes and message of this book.
  • Through this lesson, you gain insight into Jonah's themes, including God's mercy, human rebellion, repentance, and the significance of mission, while also understanding its connections to other biblical narratives.
  • Studying the book of Micah will give you an understanding of its historical context, literary genre, prophetic message of judgment and restoration, and insights into God's character and how He interacts with His people.
  • In this lesson, you gain insight into the historical context, structure, and themes of the book of Nahum, learning about God's sovereignty, justice, and the relevance of these concepts in today's world.
  • Studying Habakkuk will deepen your understanding of how to wrestle with difficult questions about God's character and the problem of evil and respond with faith and trust in God's sovereignty.
  • In this lesson, you explore the book of Zephaniah, gaining insights into its background, context, literary features, themes, and significance in the Old Testament, including the central message of the Day of the Lord and the promise of future hope.
  • You will gain an in-depth understanding of the Book of Haggai, including its historical and cultural context, literary structure, purpose and themes, individual sections, and theological significance in relation to the Exile, Restoration, and Messiah.
  • In this lesson, you gain insights into Zechariah's historical context, structure, themes of restoration, the coming Messiah, God's sovereignty, and its significance in the Old Testament.
  • Discover the last book of the Old Testament and its themes, such as God's love for Israel, the importance of worship, and the coming of the messenger and the day of the Lord, as well as its connection to the New Testament, which prophesies the coming of John the Baptist and Jesus and calls for a return to God.
BP100-08 Deuteronomy The book of Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Bible, and the final book of the Torah. After the exodus from Egypt, Israel was at Mount Sinai for one year entering into a covenant with their God. And then they had the disastrous road trip through the wilderness and the exodus generation disqualified themselves from entering into the land promised to Abraham. And so Deuteronomy begins with Moses standing in front of this new generation explaining the Torah and it's from here that the design and purpose of the book unfolds. Deuteronomy is a series of speeches from Moses where he's calling the next generation of Israel to be faithful to the covenant with their God. At the center of the book is a collection of laws, which are the terms of the covenant between God and Israel. Some of the laws are new, but many are repeated from the laws given earlier at Mount Sinai, and that's actually where this book gets its name -from the Greek word “deuteronomion” which means “a second law”. Now surrounding these laws are two outer sections of Moses’ speech. Each of these are broken up into two parts themselves. Let’s just dive in and we'll see how this whole thing works. So Moses first of all summarizes the story so far, and he highlights how rebellious the previous generation was in contrast with God's constant grace and provision in the wilderness and God did bring his justice on them, yes, but he did not abandon his covenant promises. After this comes a series of very passionate sermons where Moses calls on this new generation to be more faithful than their parents were to the Covenant. He reminds them of the Ten Commandments and then the centerpiece of the section is the famous line called the Shema. Moses says “Listen Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord alone, and you shall love the Lord your God with all of your heart, with all of your soul, and with all of your might.” This became a very important daily prayer in Judaism and it brings all of the themes of the book together. So the word “listen”, or shema in Hebrew, it means much more than just to hear; its meaning includes responding to what you hear, or in English we would say obey. And the word “love” in Hebrew also means much more than just an emotion or feeling; it’s about a decision of wholehearted devotion to God that involves your will, and your emotions, your mind and your heart. Now, for Israel their obedience and devotion to God served a much larger purpose. Obedience to the laws is going to make Israel a unique people among the nations, just like God said at Mount Sinai. They'll become a kingdom of priests, and Moses now says how. Israel has the chance by following the laws to show the whole world the wisdom and the justice of God. The other key idea in the shema is that Israel was called to obey and be devoted to the Lord alone, or literally in Hebrew it says “the Lord is one”. In context the point is that the Lord is the one God Israel is to worship and obey. Israel's about to go into the land of Canaan, where people worship idols gods that represent all different aspects of creation: the sun, the weather, or sex and war. And in Moses’ view worshiping these God degrades humans and destroys communities, but worshipping the God of Israel, who’s the Creator and the Redeemer- that will lead to life and blessing. And so we come to the large collection of laws at the center of the book and they're roughly arranged by topic, so the opening section is about Israel's worship of their God. They were to have one central temple where one God would be worshipped and also God was to be worshipped in Israel's care for its poor. So for example, all Israelites were to set aside one tenth of their annual income to be given to the temple, but another tenth was to be set aside every three years and given to the poor. And these are the kinds of laws that put Israel on the cutting edge of justice in comparison to their ancient neighbors - and it was all bound up with their worship of God. The next section outlines the character qualities of Israel's leaders so the elders, the priests, the Kings, these were all placed under the authority of the Covenant laws which God said that he would enforce by sending prophets to keep the leaders accountable. So in contrast to Israel's neighbors where kings were thought of as divine and a law in and of themselves Israel's leaders were subordinate to the law and the prophets. Following this is a large section of laws about Israel’s civil life, so rules about marriage, and family, and business, and also about social justice - about their legal system and how it was to protect widows, and orphans, and immigrants. And then these are concluded by more laws about worship. Now, here's some tips for reading all of these laws. Remember, first of all, these are the terms of the Sinai covenant given specifically to ancient Israel living in a culture that's very different from yours. And so, two, it's not going to be helpful to compare these laws with modern laws from the very different culture. Rather, these were given to set Israel apart, and so we need to compare these laws with those of Israel's neighbors, like in Assyria or Babylon. And when you do that all of a sudden laws that seemed harsh or bizarre become much more clear. You see that God is pushing Israel to a higher level of justice than was ever known before. And so finally try to discern what core principles of wisdom or justice underlie any particular law, and you’ll discover some really profound things. So here's an extra credit assignment: go see how Paul the Apostle does this very thing in his first letter to the Corinthians, chapter 9 vs nine, and he quotes a law from Deuteronomy, chapter 25 verse four, It’s really interesting. So back to Moses - after he goes through all of the laws, he issues a final challenge that Israel should listen to and love their God. He first issues a warning and the ultimatum: if Israel listens to and obeys their God everything's gonna go great- lots of divine blessing, but if they don't listen and rebel…famine, plague, devastation, and ultimately exile from the land. And then Moses forces a decision; he says: “Today I set before you all life or death, blessing or curse, goodness or evil, so choose life by loving the Lord your God and listening to him.” But then Moses says this, he says “I know that after I die you're going to rebel and turn away from God and end up in exile.” Which is kind of a downer, but then again, he's been with these people for decades and it becomes clear that his hopes are not very high. But all is not lost, Moses says one day when Israel is sitting in exile, at any point Moses says they can turn back to their God who will, in his words, “circumcise your heart so that you may love him with all your heart and soul and live”. Now this is a vivid metaphor that's saying something is fundamentally wrong with Israel's heart. It’s stubborn and hard, and it's the same thing wrong with the heart of all of humanity. This is going all the way back to the rebellion in the garden. Humans seized autonomy from God; they wanted to define good and evil for themselves and they've ruined God's good world as a result. But one day Moses says God is going to do something to transform the hearts of his people so that they can truly listen to and love God, from the heart, and be led back to true life. And this is the promise that gets picked up by the later biblical prophets, Jeremiah and Ezekiel - the hope for a new heart. So Moses ends his speech with a poem of warning, and then a blessing, and then he walks up onto a mountain and he dies. And so the torah draws to a close. All of the major plot tensions of the biblical story are in place but left totally unresolved. So, when is the descendant of the woman going to come in defeat evil? Or how is God going to rescue the whole world and bless all nations through this family? And how can God's holiness be reconciled with people who are continually rebellious? And how is God going to transform the hearts of his people? You just have to keep reading to find out. But for now, that’s what the book of Deuteronomy is all about.