52 Major Stories of the Bible - Lesson 25

The New Covenant

Jeremiah and Ezekiel prophesied before and during the exile, when God’s people were conquered by the Babylonians, preaching God's judgment as well as the promise of hope. The hope was the New Covenant where God's law would be written on the person's heart and empowered through the work of God's Spirit.

Bill Mounce
52 Major Stories of the Bible
Lesson 25
Watching Now
The New Covenant

I. Introduction

II. Theme of the Heart

A. New and Old Covenant

B. Ezekiel and God’s Spirit

C. New Covenant and Jesus

III. The New Covenant is About Changing People

  • Genesis 1 is the foundational chapter for the entire Bible. It not only tells us how everything started, but it establishes the basic teaching on who God is and who we are in relationship to him.

  • On the sixth day of creation we learn that people are the apex of creation, stamped with the image of God. This is the source of human dignity, and it is why we pursue spiritual growth, so we will look more like him.

  • Genesis 3 describes how Adam and Eve sinned, how their sin broke the relationship with God for them and for all people, and God’s promise of a redeemer.

  • Genesis 6–9 is not a children’s story. It shows God’s anger against our sin, and yet also shows that he is a redeeming God. Like Noah, it challenges us to step out in faith.

  • Genesis 12:1–15:6 focuses on one man, Abraham, who is part of the fulfillment of the promise God made in the Garden to redeem humanity. Abraham must do two things: believe, and act on that belief. When he does, God makes an eternal covenant with him and with all his descendants, Israel and the church. We too must follow the pattern of our father: believe, and act on that belief.

    The authors of the New Testament refer to Abraham as the person with whom God made the covenant as the father of the nation of Israel. At the time God established the covenant, the man's name was Abram. God changed it later to Abraham and that's how he is referred to in subsequent references.

  • The story of Joseph in Genesis 37–50 is an account of God’s faithfulness to his promises to Abraham, his omnipotence (all-powerful), and his omniscience (all-knowing). Joseph’s brothers sold him into slavery, but God worked through their evil to accomplish good — the salvation of the entire nation of Abraham’s descendants. We too are called to faith in God’s promises.

  • In Exodus 7:14–Exodus 10, we read of God’s salvation of the Israelite nation. The Egyptians had enslaved them, but through Moses God punished the Egyptians with ten plagues and secured the Israelite’s freedom. God is faithful to his promises, and all praise and honor go to him.

  • The Ten Commandments, found in Exodus 20, are not rules to follow, but they give form and structure to how our love for God (the Shema) should manifest itself in how we treat God and others.

  • Moses wants to see God. Exodus 33 contains the account of how God could not let Moses see him or Moses would have died; but he does allow Moses to see the back of his glory. This is the essence of Christianity: a desire to see God. After all, God created us to have fellowship with us. We were created for community with him.

  • The book of Leviticus is consumed with the holiness of God, that he is separate from all sin. The sacrificial system teaches us that sin violates God’s rules, which extracts the high cost of death.  But Leviticus also teaches us that God forgives, that a sacrifice can pay the penalty of our sin (if we repent), and in so doing prepares us for the cross of Jesus.

  • The Shema is the central affirmation of the Old Testament: “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one” (Deuteronomy 6:4). It calls us to rigorous monotheism in which we refuse to worship idols of any shape.

  • The book of Judges shows the necessity of covenant renewal, how each generation must decide for itself if it will follow God. Once the Israelites were given the Promised Land, for the most part they failed to renew the covenant and failed to receive the blessings from God. The same is true of our own families.

  • I Samuel tells of the shift from the nation being ruled by Judges to that of a king. Israel was supposed to be a theocracy, a kingdom ruled by God, and so the people’s desire for a king was a rejection of God. Saul, the first king, did not learn the lesson that God is still king, and what matters for us is to remain faithful. Unfortunately, many people make the same mistake as Saul.

    Update: When Dr. Mounce refers to "theodicy" at the first of the lecture, he means, "theocracy." We have updated the outline and the transcription. We will update the audio when we are able.

  • This is not a story primarily about a young man defeating a great warrior (I Samuel 16-17). It is an account of how faith propels us to trust God, no matter what the appearances.

  • Psalm 23 is David's cry of faith that his divine Shepherd will provide and protect him in all situations, and that God is lavish in his love for his sheep.

  • Psalm 51 gives the pattern for true biblical confession, which admits our own guilt and God's justice, makes no excuses, and appeals not to our good works but to God's mercy.

  • Solomon was the wisest of all people, and yet he died a fool because he ignored his own advice (Proverbs). It is not enough to know the truth; you have to do it. Wisdom begins with knowing that God knows best.

  • Job learned that bad things happen to good people and bad people alike. The question is, will you continue to trust God in the difficult times? Is he worthy of our trust when we don’t know all the answers and our lives are filled with pain?

  • 1 Kings 14–18 tells the story of Elijah and his battle with false religion. The word of the day was “syncretism,” the mixing of two religions. In our day, we are faced with the same challenge, especially the mixing of Christianity and secular culture. Elijah challenges us to not have divided hearts or divided loyalties.

  • Isaiah 6:1-8 tells us of Isaiah’s visit to God’s throne, and there we learn the true meaning of worship: the cycle of revelation and response. As God reveals himself to us, and we must respond appropriately. It asks the question, ”How big is your God?”

  • Isaiah 52–53 give us one of the most exact and theologically helpful looks into the death of Christ. Isaiah prophecies about a servant who was to come, whom God would punish for our sins. This, of course, is a prophecy about Jesus. Here we learn that there is no sin God cannot forgive, and that peace comes not from within ourselves but from outside, from God.

  • Micah prophesied three sets of what we call a “Woe” (judgment”) and “Weal” (restoration). The Israelites believed all they had to do was go through the external motions of worship, and then they could live any way they wanted the rest of the week. This brings judgment, but with judgment God promises a future restoration.

  • Hosea prophesied to people who were caught in persistent sin. Their sin caught them in a downward spiral beginning with idolatry and enforced by luxury. But even at the bottom of spiral, after the people have experienced the necessary punishment, God is still present to forgive. Sinners are called “whores,” living unfaithful lives.

  • Habakkuk asks the question of why do the wicked appear to flourish and the righteous suffer. At the root of his question is whether or not God is righteous. Because Habakkuk asks in faith, God answers his question by telling him to wait. Eventually, the wicked are punished and the righteous are rewarded. In the meantime, the righteous person lives by their faith that God is a righteous God. 

  • Jeremiah and Ezekiel prophesied before and during the exile, when God’s people were conquered by the Babylonians, preaching God's judgment as well as the promise of hope. The hope was the New Covenant where God's law would be written on the person's heart and empowered through the work of God's Spirit.

  • The book of Lamentations teaches us that there is an end to God’s patience with sin. It is a national lament in which Israel expresses their deep sorrow over sin. It starts by being honest about the cause of sin, not blaming anyone but themselves. But it concludes by expressing their faith in the God who forgives.

  • Back in Genesis 3:15, God promised to do something about sin. The Old Testament shows God working to keep his promise, a promise that is eventually fulfilled in Jesus Christ. But unlike popular expectation, Jesus was more than just a human being. He was fully God at the same time he was fully human. But it is not enough to know these facts; you must receive God’s blessing in order to walk in relationship with God.

  • The Old Testament ends on a note of promise, that God would send Elijah to prepare the people for their coming savior, the Messiah. This Elijah turns out to be John the Baptist, who prepares the people by teaching them about repentance. Much to their surprise, the people learned that being born Jewish was of no advantage, and that they too had to learn that they have nothing of value to offer God if they are to enter his kingdom.

  • Perhaps the most common term used about Christians is being “born again,” or “reborn.” This comes from the account of the Jewish leader Nicodemus. Jesus tells him that if he is to enter God’s kingdom, he cannot get there naturally, through what he can do. Only the supernatural work of God’s Spirit in making us new — so new that it is a rebirth — can accomplish our salvation. All this is explained by the most famous verse in the Bible, John 3:16.

  • Do you want to be blessed by God? Jesus tells us how this happens with eight statements at the beginning of his famous “Sermon on the Mount.” Contrary to popular belief, blessing comes through recognizing our spiritual depravity, mourning over our sin, and as a result being meek, pure in heart, and pursuing peace. How will the world respond? It will persecute you, which is also a blessing.

  • Jesus teaches us that prayer begins with us orienting ourselves to our heavenly father, being most concerned with his glory and the advance of his kingdom, and concludes with our admission of total dependence on him for our physical and spiritual needs. Prayer is primarily about God.

  • Worry carries the illusion that we have some control and that worry can accomplish something. Of course, it can do no such thing. Disciples are to have unwavering loyalty to God. As we see Gods care of his creation, we can rest assured that he will also care for us. Our focus is to be on his kingdom and his righteous; in return, he will simply give us what we need.

  • Many years before Christ, God told Moses that his name is “I AM.” Jesus picks this name up to assert that he is in fact the Great I AM, and as such he says things like, “I am the bread of life,” “I am the light of the world.” The mystery of the Trinity is that there is one God, and yet God is three – Father, Son, Spirit. This is difficult to understand, and yet we should not expect to know everything there is to know about God.

  • When Jesus calls us to follow him, as one person has said, he bids us come and die. Die to our personal ambitions, and live daily as one who has died to himself and lives for God. Only disciples are in heaven.

  • What is the single most important thing you can do? What is the central thing required of us by God? It is to love him him with everything we are. Our love must be emotional (not just obedience) and it must be personal (loving God and not things about him). But if we love God, we must then love our neighbor.

  • Two major events await the disciples: the destruction of the temple and Jesus’ return. There will be signs, warning them to flee Jerusalem, which happened in A.D. 70. But there are no warning signs for when Jesus will return and this age will end. The disciple’s role is not to wonder about when this will happen — not even Jesus knows — but to live a life of preparedness.

  • In Jesus’ last teaching before his death and resurrection, among other things he taught the disciples about the coming Spirit who will convict the world of its sin, show the world Jesus’ righteousness, and convict the world of its coming judgment. We know this “Spirit” to be the Holy Spirit, the third person of the Trinity.

  • The greatest act of salvation before the cross was God freeing the Israelites from Egypt. To celebrate that event, God instituted the Passover celebration, commemorating God’s graciousness act of passing over the Israelite houses and killing the first-born of only the Egyptian homes. But now God is about to perform and even greater salvation event, Jesus dying on the cross. Christians are to celebrate Passover not looking back to Egypt but looking at Jesus’ death and forward to his eventual return.

  • The death and resurrection of Jesus is the culmination of not only Jesus' life but of all history to that point. Jesus died on the cross so that we can be friends of God, and he was shown to have conquered death by his resurrection from the grave. The temple curtain, which symbolized the separation between God and people, was torn in two, from the top to the bottom, and we can now live in direct relationship with God.

  • Jesus’ final act on earth was to commission his followers. Their central mission is to make disciples. They are to make new disciples by sharing the gospel and baptizing them; and they are to make fully-devoted disciples by teaching people to obey everything Jesus taught. Because God is sovereign over all, we must do this. Because he will never leave us, we are able to do this.

  • During the Jewish festival of Pentecost, 50 days after Passover, Jesus’ promise was fulfilled and the Holy Spirit came and empowered all of Jesus’ followers, giving them supernatural power to, among other things, speak in human languages they had not learned. Peter explains the phenomena as a fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy and then preaches the basic message found throughout Acts: Jesus lived, died, was raised form the dead, and therefore all people are called to repent of their misunderstanding of who Jesus is.

  • The church is not a building or an activity. The church is the sum total of all true believers. Christ is the head. We are the body. We are a family. We are the temple of God, the place that he inhabits.

  • Justification is the doctrine of being declared not guilty of our sins. It is a work of God alone; we do not help. In Romans 1:16–17 and 3:21–26, Paul makes it clear that this declaration of righteousness is based not on what we do (“works”) but on what we believe about Jesus (“faith”), that Jesus did on the cross for us what we could not do for ourselves.

  • We are not only saved by God’s grace, but his grace continues to sustain us throughout our life. One way that God’s grace shows itself is in how we give, financially. God’s grace enables to to both want to give and to be able to give. If someone is not giving, they should wonder about the condition of their heart and why God’s grace is not active in it.

  • In Romans 5–8, Paul reminds us of the many reasons why we are joyful. We are at peace with God. We are reconciled to him. We have been set free from sin. There is no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. The Holy Spirit lives within us. We are adopted into God’s family, assured that we are his children. This is the joy of the righteous life.

  • Paul wants the church in Philippi to understand humility. They should agree on one central focus, and that is a humility that stems from a right understanding of who you are in Christ. As an example, we look no further than Jesus, who is God, lowering himself to be human, and in return being exalted. In response, we should take great care at working out the implications of what it means to be saved.

  • Christians are people of the book. We believe that all of Scripture came from the very mouth of God. It is true in all it affirms and authoritative over our lives. The challenge is to come to the point where you really believe this.

  • The book of Hebrews is a deep theological study on the superiority of Christ over everyone and everything else. Interspersed throughout the teaching are the “Warning” passages in which the author encourages his readers to not fall away from their faith. If people do leave the Christian faith, they can have no assurance that they truly are Christians.

  • James tells us that there is nothing more difficult to control than  the tongue. It destroys people’s reputation, often under the guise that what is being said is accurate. We are hurt, so we verbally lash out. We want to be well thought of, so we feign piety. The only way to gain any victory over the tongue is to work on the heart, since it is out of the heart that the mouth speaks. Unfortunately, gossip often is the natural language of the church, but there can be victory.

  • 1 Peter asks one of the fundamental question of life is, how can an all-powerful, all-good God allow pain and suffering. It helps us grapple with this question by pointing our attention to the realities of our lives, especially the fact that we are exiles on earth and our true home is heaven. We are to recognize in the midst of suffering that God is still at work for our good.

  • The letter we call 1 John is primarily about love. We have been loved by God, and so we should love others as well. Love is not  some simplistic emotion but it involves action: God loved us and therefore sent his Son. Love is the giving of oneself for the benefit of the other.

  • The Bible closes with the prophecy of how all things will end. While there are many questions as to the precise meaning of this book, it’s central message is crystal clear. God will not keep us from suffering and persecution; it is going to get worst; God calls us to be faithful in the midst of our pain. If we are faithful to the end, we will be rewarded. This is what we are waiting for, a new heaven and a new earth where there will be no pain, no sorrow, no sin. The Garden of Eden will be restored, at last. We were created for fellowship with God, and we long for the day when Jesus will return again and take us home.

English | Hindi | Swahili

The Bible is one continuous story filled with adventure, heroes and villains, triumph and defeat, good and evil, love and jealousy, plot twists and ultimately, a happy ending. As you read each of the short Bible stories along the way, you begin to see how the Bible stories combine to form the structure of the one big story. The individual characters and their experiences of tragedy and triumph draw you into their Bible stories and help you see the overarching themes of cosmic love, judgment and redemption.

Telling stories is an effective way of communicating ideas so you remember them. Immersing yourself into the 26 Bible stories from the Old Testament and 26 from the New Testament helps you to understand and internalize the character of God, the splendor of his creation, his love for humans, the evil and destructiveness of sin, the wonder of the plan of redemption and the completeness of restoration at the end of history.

Each of these stories can be considered as Bible stories for kids because the plot and main teaching of the story is something that most children will understand. They are also Bible stories for youth and adults because if you are wise, the examples you see and the lessons you learn will guide you for a lifetime.


Recommended Books

52 Major Stories of the Bible - Student Guide

52 Major Stories of the Bible - Student Guide

The Bible is one continuous story, from the story of creation to the story of Jesus' future return at the end of time. And yet there are smaller, pivotal stories that...

52 Major Stories of the Bible - Student Guide

Dr. Bill Mounce
52 Major Stories of the Bible
The New Covenant
Lesson Transcript



Let’s pray. Father, there is nothing that I can do. There is nothing that any individual in this church can do to change the human heart; only You can. There is nothing that I or anyone else in this church can do to empower us to live the kind of life that we were built to live. That alone is your prerogative. Father, may we understand, anew perhaps, that it is you who save, it is you who changes, it is you who empowers as you call us on this journey of discipleship. In Jesus name, Amen.

Since we are near the end of the Old Testament, I thought it would be a good time to quickly review. I want to go back to the opening chapters of Genesis where God promised Abraham land, descendants, and then he promised that through Abraham God would bless the world. In order to achieve this, God established a covenant with Abraham’s descendants through Moses at Mt Sinai, after they were rescued from Egypt. And we can hear the heart of what God wanted in Exodus 19 starting at verse 5. God says, “Now therefore, if you will obey my voice and if you will keep my covenant, then you shall be my treasured possession among all peoples for all the earth is mine. And you shall be to me a Kingdom of priests and a holy nation. Eventually the refrain starts, “I will be their God and they will be my people.” That is the heart of God’s desire for us, that He be our God and that we be His people. Unfortunately, though, most of the history of Israel is how Abraham’s descendants failed. The Northern Kingdom quickly fell into idolatry and God sent them prophets like Elijah who condemned syncretism with Baal. He sent them prophets like Hosea who proclaimed their faithlessness and compared them to a faithless wife. Yet they did not repent, and in 722 B.C. God sent the Assyrian empire to destroy the Northern Kingdom of Israel and punish them for their sin. The Southern Kingdom saw a few glimmers of hope during the Kingships of Hezekiah and Josiah. But they, like their northern sister, also fell into sin and so God sends them prophets like Micah who condemns external religion that it is only a matter of the mouth and not the heart, but they did not listen. God sends them prophets like Isaiah who talks about the holiness of God and the sinfulness of man. He talks about how sins will be forgiven through the work of God’s suffering servant, and yet the Southern Kingdom of Judah did not repent and God raised up the Babylonian Empire and in 586 B.C. sent the Babylonians to destroy the Southern Kingdom of Judah as punishment of centuries and generations of sin. It was about this time that Jeremiah and Ezekiel prophesied. Jeremiah prophesied a little bit before the Babylonians came and Ezekiel prophesied after the people were taken away into the Babylonian captivity. They preached messages of judgment that always included a messages of hope that after the exile, after their punishment, God would bring his children back to their home and that he would restore them and give them a hope.

Theme of the Heart

Within that context, I want to look this morning at one of the specific themes in Jeremiah, which is the theme of the heart. If you just do a word search on the word "heart," you will find many of the references in Jeremiah, 55 references, I believe. Jeremiah understands and expresses, perhaps more clearly than any other prophet, that the heart is what is primary and behavior, while important, is secondary. The relationship between the heart and the behavior is critical to understand if you are going to understand the message of Jeremiah, because the heart is the center of our will. It is the center of our thinking. It is the center of our decision making. It is the center of our passions. That is how the Bible uses the word “heart”. All decisions are made in the heart; our priorities are set, our values are established, and it is where the heart leads, and our feet and our mouths simply follow. It is where our heart leads and that our feet will just follow. That is why in Jeremiah the emphasis is not on some external code of conduct, but the emphasis is on our heart and what is going on deep down inside at the core of our being.

There are always reasons for why we do what we do, even if we do not know the reasons. We will ask our young children, “Why did you do that?” and they shrug their shoulders perhaps and say, “I don’t know”. Regardless, there was something in their heart that was motivating them, that was driving them to respond or to react the way that they did. Jesus understands that when he says, “What comes out of the mouth proceeds from the heart.” Things start deep inside, and it does not do any good to look at the external, to look at the mouths and to look at our behavior and to say “Well you should do that” or “You should not do that.” That stuff is important, but that is not the starting point in Jeremiah. It is not the starting point in the Bible. The starting point is in our hearts where we make our decisions; where we set our values. That is the key. Jeremiah understands that. It is why he talks so much about the heart. Jeremiah also understands that the human heart is wicked. Jeremiah 17:9 says it most clearly. “The heart is deceitful above all things and desperately sick. Who can understand it?” This is a major stumbling block in evangelism. I am really glad that it is not my job to convict you or my neighbors or anyone of their sins. That is the Holy Spirit’s job. But this is a major stumbling block in evangelism because there will be people who you are sharing your faith with and they will not believe that they are, at the core of their being, wicked! Most secular people believe that the heart is basically good, that fixing something external would fix the deeper issues in individuals, communities, and countries. However, the problem is ''not'' external, even if they tell you it is. They are simply wrong! The core of the human dilemma is the wicked, human heart. Jeremiah was right! He is right! The heart was created good by God, but bent by sin and it becomes willful, it rebels against God and left to its own, the human heart will always lead to sin, will it not?

Our Statement of Faith says that we believe that we are sinners by nature and by choice, that the bending of our hearts through the power of sin will ultimately lead us to make sinful choices. If in evangelism the people you are talking to do not accept that, they are simply and sadly wrong. The only solution for the human condition, individually and corporately, is to deal first with the heart and then let that move from the heart out to behavior. That is ''exactly'' God’s solution. It is, in fact, God’s solution in Jeremiah 31. This is the passage that needs to be highlighted in your Bible: Jeremiah 31, starting at verse 31. There are lots of important stuff in Jeremiah, but everything else pales in comparison to Jeremiah’s announcement that there will come a new covenant. Jeremiah 31:31: "Behold the days are coming, declares the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the House of Israel and the House of Judah. Not like the covenant that I made with their fathers on the day when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt." (That is the Mosaic Covenant they had made at Mt. Sinai.) "My covenant that they broke though I was their husband, declares the LORD. But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, declares the LORD." (Here is your memory verse:) "I will put my law within them and I will write it on their hearts and I will be their God and they shall be my people.” (Exactly the same end purpose of the old covenant.) "And no longer shall each one teach his neighbor and teach his brother saying, 'Know the Lord, for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity and I will remember their sin no more.'” A Marvelous promise that things are going to change.

New and Old Covenant

One of the questions in this passage is, how was the new covenant new? How was it new and different from the old covenant under Moses? You need to know that this is an area of debate. Opinions go from one side to the other. Some people say the new and the old covenant are identical. Other people say they do not have one thing in common. I believe that the new and old covenants are more alike than they are different. Their goals are the same. They are both dealing with the heart, I believe. But there is one thing that is radically different about this new covenant, this new agreement, this new relationship that God is going to have with his people, and here it is: the New Covenant comes with power. The New Covenant comes with divine power. That is the point of Jeremiah saying that it is going to be written internally on the heart. It is not some law etched in stone that is outside of me and has no power or ability to help me obey it. Rather, it is going to be written on my heart and that means it is going to come with power. The New Covenant is going to come with God’s power first of all to change my heart. This is the doctrine of regeneration, that through the work of God’s Spirit God is at work in His people changing them, giving them new birth and making them into a new creation.

Jesus says to Nicodemus in John 3, “Unless you are born again you will not see the Kingdom of God.” And Nicodemus says, “I have no idea what you are talking about.” Jesus says, “Unless you are born of the water and Spirit you will not enter into the Kingdom of God.” The regeneration is a necessity, but it is only accomplished by the divine power that comes in the context of the New Covenant, not by you and me working hard at it. It comes with power to change my heart and, secondly, the New Covenant comes with power to help me and you live as obedient children of God. In I John 3:1, John says “See what kind of love the Father has given to us that we should be called children of God." And so we are; we have been changed. Those of us who are disciples of Jesus Christ have become something that we were not before. We were not born children of God, but we have ''become'' children of God through the mighty regenerative power of God’s Spirit. Listen to verse 6 and following: “No one who abides in Him [Jesus] keeps on sinning. No one who keeps on sinning has either seen him or known him. Little children, let no one deceive you. Whoever practices righteousness is righteous as He is righteous. Whoever makes a practice of sinning is of the devil."

Ezekiel and God’s Spirit

You and I, by the power that comes from God through his Spirit within the context of the New Covenant, is the kind of power that not only changes us and makes us into the children of God, but it is the kind of power that, as we abide with Him, as we live with Christ, as we live in communion with Him and as we live in community with one another, it is the kind of power that breaks the bonds of sin and dysfunction and hurt and pain. It is called sanctification. That is quite a promise in Jeremiah. The question is, how is that going to be achieved? How will God go about giving us a new heart? The answer is in Ezekiel. I am going to look specifically at Ezekiel 36. How will God bring about the New Covenant? He tells us through Ezekiel 36:26. This is God speaking to Ezekiel, “And I will give you a new heart and a new spirit I will put within you, and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. And I will put my Spirit within you and cause [(there is your power)] you to walk in my statutes and be careful to obey my rules. You shall dwell in the land that I gave to your fathers and you shall be my people and I will be your God.” The New Covenant is about a new heart that is given to us through the empowering work of God’s Spirit. And you want to know how powerful God’s Spirit is? If you think of all the shows of power that we have, the beginning of the universe or Mt St. Helens blowing up, they all pale in comparison with the power required to change our hearts, to change our spouse’s heart, our children's heart, our neighbor’s heart. You know how powerful God’s Spirit is? Look at Chapter 37. A bizarre story at first glance. God takes Ezekiel out to a valley and the valley is full of skeletons. Dry bones! These are not people who have recently died. These are people that have died long ago. There is no sinew, there is no muscle, there is no organ, there is no flesh left. There is no moisture in the bones. They are dry. They are dead. They are dead physically and they represent the deadness of the spirituality of the children of Israel at that time as well. I am resisting any temptation to talk about Ezekiel preaching to a dead church, but that is what is going on here, and God tells Ezekiel, “I want you to go out and preach to the bones.” Can you imagine how Ezekiel felt when God said that? "Go out and preach to dead bones." "God, do I not have something better to do than that?" "No, go preach to the bones, Ezekiel, and here is what you are to say." Verse 5: “Thus says the LORD God to these bones, Behold I will cause breath to enter you. [The Hebrew word for breath is also the word for spirit.] Behold I will cause breath to enter you and you shall live, and I will lay sinews upon you, and will cause flesh to come upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and you shall live; and you shall know that I am LORD.” That is how powerful God’s Spirit is, that through the preaching of a prophet God’s Spirit can enter a whole valley full of dry bones. In Chapter 37, the sinews come and the flesh comes and life comes and these skeletons become living, breathing, human beings. In the New Covenant, God’s Spirit is able to breath life into those who are spiritually dead. In the New Covenant, God’s Spirit is able to change and empower those changed lives to live in blissful obedience to Him.

You may have been praying for someone for a long time. You may have been witnessing to a co-worker or a neighbor and absolutely nothing seems to get through. You may know someone who claims to be a Christian, maybe a member of your family, who is living in sin and you find yourself saying, “Are these people ever going to wake up and see the destructiveness of their behavior?” Or, you may be struggling with your favorite sin and wondering when is the cycle going to stop? When is the anger going to stop? When is the critical spirit and gossip and slander going to stop? When will I be able to sit down at my computer and not be driven, lured and driven, to the pornography on the internet?

New Covenant and Jesus

In the New Covenant it is not not human effort, but it is God’s Spirit that is able to breath life into dead bones, to change the heart, to give you a new heart and then empower you to live as you want to live. So that the good you want to do you will do, most of the time. The bad you do not want to do you will not do, most of the time. That is the message of Jeremiah and Ezekiel, that God is in the business of changing hearts and lives. This is the message of hope that carries throughout the rest of the Old Testament. The prophet Joel prophesied that there would be a coming “Day of the LORD when God would pour out His Spirit on all flesh.” The Old Testament ends with the Book of Malachi, and Malachi’s prophesied that, before this “Day of the LORD” would come, Elijah would re-appear and would announce the coming of the “Day of the LORD.” And we move into the New Testament. The word covenant comes through the Latin into the English as “Testament.” The New Covenant is the message of the New Testament. We see the New Testament beginning with John the Baptist coming, heralding the coming of the Day of the LORD, the coming of the Lamb of God. We read through the stories of Jesus and get to the end of his life, and we find out that this New Covenant was, in fact, established on the cross. That this new relationship that we can have with God, that this power that is available to change and then to empower, was made available through what Christ did on the cross. There are many places that we could look at, but one of the best is in I Corinthians 11, where Paul is recounting what Jesus did the night before he was betrayed and then the next day died. In I Corinthians 11, starting at verse 23, Paul writes, “For I received from the LORD what I also delivered to you. That the Lord Jesus, on the night when he was betrayed, took bread and when he had given thanks he broke it and he said 'This is ''my'' body for you, do this in remembrance of me. In the same way, also, he took the cup after supper saying 'This cup is the new covenant [the New Testament] in my blood. Do this as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.” Jesus is redefining the Passover service. It no longer refers back to the salvation of the people of Israel after the 10th plague, but it now is a celebration of the salvation that Jesus was going to effect on the cross. He explains it is now about Him. Just as the Old Covenant was accomplished through the sacrificial death of a lamb and memorialized through the Passover feast, so the New Covenant was accomplished through the death of the Lamb of God, Isaiah’s suffering servant, and memorialized through the Lord’s Supper, which we celebrate near Easter.

The forgiveness that was promised in Jeremiah 31 and the power of God’s Spirit that is present in the New Covenant, is now a reality at the expense of the life and death of Jesus Christ. A few days later, at Pentecost in Acts 2, Joel’s prophesy was fulfilled and God’s Spirit was poured out on all flesh and hearts were changed and lives were empowered to live within the New Covenant guidelines. God’s promise to Abraham of world wide blessing was being fulfilled and the purpose of the Old Covenant is now fulfilled in the New Covenant.

The New Covenant is About Changing People

You remember Exodus 19. The whole purpose was so that God could take, out of all the peoples of the earth, one people. He would make a nation and they would become a kingdom of priests. They would mediate God to the world. They would share God to the world. Through the working of the New Covenant, that is exactly what you and I have become. 1st Peter 2:9: "But you are a chosen race. A royal priesthood. A holy nation. A people for his own possession." Do you like being possessed by God? That is what we are. We are possessed by God. "That you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light." That is what the New Covenant is all about. It is God changing people. You know, Habakkuk’s message of faith must have been difficult for the people of that day and age because Habakkuk says what God requires is faith and that is hard. Hosea’s message of faithlessness must have been hard to those people, because their faithlessness was rampant! How do we live faithful to God? It is too hard! Jesus’ death brought about the New Covenant and the release of power of God’s Spirit to change lives, to give us new birth, to give us a new heart, and then to enable us to live as new creatures so that we can fully obey the Shamah: "Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the LORD is one and you shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and all your soul and all your strength." Do you know what we are going to sing at the end of time in Revelation 21, when all this mess is wiped away and God makes the new heaven and the new earth? Revelation 21, starting at verse 3, "And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, 'Behold the dwelling place of God is with man and He will dwell with them and they will be His people. And God Himself will be with them as their God and he will wipe away every tear from their eyes. And death shall be no more. Neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain, for the former things have passed away.'"

Finally, God is going to get what He wants. Finally, you and I are going to get what we want. God’s purposes in creation someday will be fulfilled and you can either be on the winning team, or you can be on the losing team. It is as simple as A, B, C. The New Covenant is available, but it must be made yours. And it is through the admission that the heart is deceitfully wicked above all else and that while we are created to have fellowship with God, our heart is bent by sin and we are far from Him and we will die and we will live in hell for ever and ever and ever and ever and then ever. If that does not scare you, I do not know what will. Because of God’s grace and mercy, he sent his son, the suffering servant, to die on the cross so that he can pay the penalty for our sins and we simply have to believe it. You cannot earn it. You cannot work your way into Heaven. It is by faith. Yet the kind of faith that makes use of the New Covenant is the kind of faith that allows God’s Spirit to come in and change us and give us a new heart through the power of the Spirit. Then, through that same Spirit, enable us to live lives that we want to live: the kind of lives that are pleasing to God. My prayer is that everyone within earshot of this building will say Hallelujah when Jesus comes back again, and we get to rejoice in His goodness forever more. Please, do not go hell!

Let’s pray. Father, what you have promised through Jeremiah and Ezekiel came true 600 years later through your son’s death on the cross and our hearts can now be changed, the power of absolute sin can be broken, and we can be empowered to live the kind of life that we were created to live. Father, may the Good News of the cross go out from this pulpit, out from this building, and out from every home represented here. May we understand that there is another option, that we do not have to sacrifice our children. We do not have to sacrifice ourselves, because your son sacrificed himself for us. May your Spirit blow through this place, regenerating and empowering us, because You are our God and we are your people. Amen.

May you go as freed people, for whom the Spirit has freed are free indeed. May you go freed from sin and its absolute bondage, and may you go free from trying to live a good Christian life all on your own because you cannot do it. It is only through the Spirit who calls us to it and we follow. May you go a freed people.

Memory Verse

“I will put my law within them, and I will write it on their hearts. And I will be their God, and they shall be my people” (Jeremiah 31:33).

Reflection Questions

  • What are some examples in your own life that show how the heart is primary, and that actions follow the heart? Does your family understands this concept?
  • It is hard to think that apart from Christ the heart — the center of our will and emotions — is wicked. For those who are Christians, look back to what you were like and reflect on this truth.
  • While it is the Holy Spirit’s job to convict the non-Christian of their sin — the evilness of their heart — how would you go about discussing this fact with a non-believer? Without acknowledging this, it is doubtful they will ever accept the necessity of a new heart.
  • Only God has the power to truly change the human heart. And without that change everyone is doomed to hell. How can you explain this to others?
  • If God’s Spirit has the ability to breathe life into a valley of dry bones, he has the power to breathe spiritual life into your friends, especially those for whom you have been praying for a long time or perhaps seem unapproachable. How does Ezekiel give you new strength to continue in your prayer and witnessing to them?
  • How did Christ’s work on the cross and the Spirit’s work at Pentecost bring about the New Covenant? How is that work replicated in your own life?
  • How does God want you to be involved in His work of changing people’s heart and lives?
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