Romans - Lesson 43

Romans 10:14–11:10

Romans 10:14-21 focuses on the necessity of preaching for belief and explores the reception of the message by Israel. Dr. Moo discusses Paul's use of Old Testament quotes, emphasizing their broader contextual meaning rather than strict adherence to original intent. The lesson also reviews Paul's discussion on God's ongoing relationship with Israel, highlighting the concept of a remnant being saved despite broader unbelief, drawing parallels to the days of Elijah. 

Lesson 43
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Romans 10:14–11:10

IV. The Defense of the Gospel: the Problem of Israel (9:1–11:36)

A. Introduction: The Tension Between God's Promises and Israel's Plight (9:1-5)

B. Defining the Promise (1): God's Sovereign Election (9:6-29)

C. Understanding Israel's Plight: Christ as the Climax of Salvation History (9:30–10:21)

1. Israel, the Gentiles, and the Righteousness of God (9:30-10:13)

a. The Righteousness of God and the "Law of Righteousness" (9:30-33)

b. The Righteousness of God and "Their Own Righteousness" (10:1-4)

c. Gospel and Law (10:5-13)

2. Israel's Accountability (10:14-21)

D. Summary: Israel, the "Elect," and the "Hardened" (11:1-10)

E. Defining the Promise (2): The Future of Israel (11:11-32)

F. Conclusion: Praise to God in Light of His Awesome Plan (11:33-36)

  • This lesson offers a deep dive into Paul's Letter to the Romans, revealing its pastoral aims, Paul's intentions to visit Spain, Jerusalem, and Rome, and its relevance to early Christian dynamics and theological inquiries about the Law in Christ's time.
  • This lesson offers a fresh view of Paul's theology, focusing on Romans. It emphasizes the first-century context, highlighting Gentile inclusion and unity in Christ, challenging traditional views. Gain insights into Paul's message and its relevance today.
  • Explore the book of Romans for modern faith conflicts: balance tradition with contemporary practices, learn from history, and grasp Paul's ministry and Gospel's complexities.
  • Follow along with Dr. Moo as he begins a thorough review of Romans 1:2-5. You will learn how Paul emphasizes Jesus' earthly life, resurrection, and his appointment as the Son of God in power. This lesson examines the interconnectedness of faith and obedience, underscoring that while faith initiates salvation, genuine faith inherently entails obedience to Christ as Lord, maintaining a balanced Christian life.
  • By delving into Romans 1:16-17, you'll understand the Gospel extends beyond individual salvation, encompassing God's reign over creation and His establishment of justice. The Gospel challenges worldly powers, offering hope and transformation to all who embrace it.
  • Listen along as the class discusses questions and answers revolving around Romans 1:16-17.
  • In Romans 1:18-28, you learn that all people are held accountable by God, having knowledge of Him through natural revelation but some turn away. This passage highlights the manifestation of God's wrath against sin, the exchange of truth for falsehoods, and the absence of excuses for humanity's actions, ultimately emphasizing God's fair judgment.
  • Listen in as the class and Dr. Moo discuss aspects of Romans 1:18-28.
  • The lesson discusses Romans 2:1-11, it highlights the use of the diatribe device and the transition from focusing on Gentiles to Jews. It underscores the Jewish belief in their special status and their potential misunderstanding of God's judgment. The lesson reviews the focus of the text on key themes such as judgment, righteousness, and the relationship between faith and good deeds.
  • In this lesson, you'll review the significance of the Law, notably the Law of Moses, in God's judgment. Paul stresses that mere knowledge of the Law isn't sufficient for righteousness; obedience is key. The primary message is that salvation ultimately relies on God's grace and the Gospel of Jesus Christ, as human efforts and consciences alone cannot secure salvation. This lesson highlights the importance of understanding these concepts in interactions with people of different religious beliefs.
  • The key takeaway in this lesson is that while being a Jew comes with a great heritage, it doesn't guarantee salvation. Obedience to God's law is crucial, and reliance on religious heritage or rituals won't save you. The lesson emphasizes the universal human condition of being under the power of sin, and people cannot be declared righteous in God’s sight by observing the Law or by the works of the Law. Only through faith in Christ are we made righteous.
  • This lesson explores the New Perspective on Paul, emphasizing that the Law was for Jewish covenant status, not just salvation. It promotes a holistic faith view, balancing vertical and horizontal aspects, Spirit-led obedience, and 1st-century Judaism diversity, enriching Pauline teachings in the church.
  • In exploring Romans 3:21-26, you'll gain insights into the relationship between righteousness, faith, and salvation. Paul highlights God's righteousness, which is accessible to all through faith in Jesus Christ. By weaving together themes of righteousness, faith, and inclusivity, Paul challenges conventional Jewish and Gentile perspectives, emphasizing the continuity of God's salvation plan while underscoring the centrality of faith in Christ for all believers.
  • In this lesson, you will gain insights into the potential challenge in translating Romans 3:23-24, particularly the term "all" and its connection to the debate on universalism in evangelicalism. Dr. Moo stresses the importance of coherence in biblical interpretation and explores the themes of God's righteousness, faith, and grace in justification. The lesson reviews the cultural background of redemption, drawing parallels with the Greco-Roman slave market and emphasizing the need to understand both the problem of sin and the Gospel solution.
  • Embarking on this lesson, you'll gain insight into the historical development and contemporary challenges surrounding the doctrine of justification. Through exploring classic Reformation principles and contemporary reassessments, you'll understand the tensions between Protestant and Roman Catholic perspectives, particularly regarding the infusion of righteousness and the role of grace.
  • The lesson explores the intricate connection between faith and works, justification, and sanctification in contemporary theological discourse. It delineates divergent views on justification, with scholars like Piper advocating for the preservation of biblical distinctions amidst modern theological trends. The lesson examines key questions regarding the meaning, basis, time, and means of justification.
  • Students in Dr. Moo's class ask multiple questions about justification.
  • By studying Romans 3:27-4:25, you gain insight into Paul's theology, where faith, exemplified by Abraham's righteousness, transcends works and ethnicity, emphasizing the universal scope of salvation through Christ.
  • Hear the questions the students ask regarding Romans 3:27–4:25. And discover Dr. Moo's answers to the questions posed.
  • In Romans 5 – 8, you gain insights into profound theological concepts like justification, identity in Christ, and the tension between present reality and future hope, guiding you to embrace your changed identity and hope for future transformation amidst life's trials.
  • Students as deep questions about Romans 5-8. Hear what Dr. Moo presents as answers to their questions.
  • Through Romans 5:1-11, you'll review the contrast between the Old and New Realms, understanding the essence of living in grace, finding hope amid suffering, and experiencing the assurance of eternal security rooted in Christ's sacrifice and God's love poured into believers' hearts by the Holy Spirit.
  • In Romans 5:12-21, Paul contrasts Adam's sin with Christ's redemptive grace, emphasizing humanity's hope and victory over death through union with Christ, while various interpretations of original sin underscore the universal need for redemption and Christ's pivotal role in restoring humanity to God.
  • Listen to the thorough questions the students ask regarding Romans 5:12-21.
  • The students ask excellent questions of Dr. Moo in this insightful discussion on Romans 6:1-14.
  • Through this lesson, you will gain a deeper understanding of the theological implications of Christ's death and resurrection as explained in Romans 6. You will explore different interpretations of Paul's language regarding the old self and the new self, considering the implications for the Christian life. Ultimately, you will be challenged to recognize your identity in Christ and to actively live according to that identity, rejecting the slavery of sin and embracing servitude to God.
  • Hear the questions the students ask of Dr. Moo regarding Romans 6:1-23.
  • In diving into Romans 7, you'll explore the Law's role in Christian life. Paul's discourse clarifies the distinction between law and gospel, emphasizing the Torah's significance in understanding divine commandments.
  • Class discussion on Romans 7:1-6
  • In Romans 7:7-12, Paul explores the Law's role in intensifying sin and contrasts it with Christ's liberation. His narrative prompts reflection on individual experience and collective identity, enriching understanding of Christian faith.
  • The class discusses the previous lesson on Romans 7:7-12.
  • This lesson covers interpretations of Romans 7:13-25; whether Paul's description is of pre- or post-conversion struggle with the Law.
  • In Romans 8:1-22, discover the Spirit's transformative power over sin, leading to a life free from condemnation, intimacy with God, and anticipation of future glory amid present sufferings.
  • Explore the theological insights on environmental stewardship, emphasizing Christian responsibility in light of Romans 8:19-22.
  • Gain insights into Romans 8:23-27, understanding destined glory despite present suffering. The Spirit intercedes, bridging current and promised futures, offering assurance amid weakness.
  • Romans 8:28 offers profound insights into the nature of God's providence and the believer's journey of faith. Beyond its surface meaning, the verse challenges misconceptions about 'good' and underscores the transformative power of God's grace. It invites believers to trust in God's unfailing love amidst life's trials, anchoring their hope in the assurance of His sovereign care and redemptive purposes.
  • Romans 9:1-5 highlights Paul's profound concern for Israel's salvation and the theological complexities surrounding God's promises. Reviewing salvation history, you'll learn that God's offer of salvation for both Jew and Gentile, fits within the Old Testament narrative.
  • Paul discusses Israel's role in God's plan, emphasizing grace over race. He illustrates divine choices and sovereignty, sparking debates on salvation.
  • Discover diverse views on election, Israel's struggle with faith, and the significance of overcoming theological narrowness in Romans 9:30-10:21. Gain insights into law versus faith in attaining righteousness and the importance of engaging deeply with Scripture for a comprehensive understanding.
  • Gain insights into faith versus works, Christ as the culmination of the Law, and the inclusivity of righteousness through Him. Embrace unity in Christ, transcending cultural divisions, and embodying love and holiness.
  • Gain insight into contrasting righteousness by law vs. faith in Romans 10:5-13. Accessibility of salvation through Christ bridges Old and New Testament teachings, emphasizing unity and continuity.
  • Gain insights into Romans 10:14-21, emphasizing faith, preaching, and Israel's reception of the message. Dr. Moo highlights Paul's use of Old Testament quotes and God's ongoing relationship with Israel, revealing the significance of faith and salvation.
  • Gain insight into Romans 11:11-15. Paul discusses Jewish rejection, Gentile salvation, and Jewish inclusion, aiming to provoke Jewish envy. The phrase "life from the dead" hints at spiritual renewal or future resurrection.
  • Gain insights into the Olive Tree analogy in Romans 11:16-24. Understand humility, faithfulness, and the purpose of warning passages in Scripture.
  • Discover the mystery of Israel's salvation in Romans 11:25-32. Paul reveals unity of Jews and Gentiles, challenging arrogance and emphasizing God's inclusive love.
  • Gain deeper understanding of Christian-Jewish ties, navigate theological challenges, address Israel-Palestine tensions, and embrace God's inclusive grace.
  • Gain deep insights into Romans 12:1-2: True worship extends beyond rituals, urging sacrificial living and transformation in response to God's mercy.
  • In Romans 12:3-8, Paul stresses humility, unity, and diverse gifts within the body of Christ, urging faithful stewardship for the edification of the body of Christ.
  • Gain insights into love's complexity in Romans 12:9-21. Paul urges sincere affection, alludes to Jesus' teachings, and prompts contemplation on love and judgment.
  • Gain insights into balancing submission to authorities with obedience to God. Understand the context of Paul's exhortation to Roman Christians and the complexities of submission, emphasizing humility, unity, and love in the Christian life within God's sovereignty.
  • In Romans 14:1-15:13, you learn about the division in the Roman Christian community, the concept of adiaphora, the balance between liberty and love, and Paul's emphasis on mutual acceptance and avoiding spiritual harm through personal conviction and respect for others' practices.
  • In Romans 15:14-16:27, you explore Paul's extended conclusion, his ministry to the Gentiles, his request for prayers regarding his journey to Jerusalem, the roles of Phoebe and Junias in ministry, and the diversity of the early Christian community.

Dr. Douglas Moo, from Wheaton College Graduate School, offers an exegetical examination of the book of Romans. This course was recorded during a D.Min. seminar at the Carolina Graduate School of Divinity in May 2012.

Please note that the audio mp3 file numbers on downloaded files are two greater than each lecture number beginning with number 15.

Dr. Douglas Moo 
Romans 10:14-21  
Lesson Transcript


Romans 10:14-21 

How, then, can they call on the one they have not believed in? And how can they believe in the one of whom they have not heard? And how can they hear without someone preaching to them? And how can anyone preach unless they are sent? As it is written: “How beautiful are the feet of those who bring good news!” But not all the Israelites accepted the good news. For Isaiah says, “Lord, who has believed our message?” Consequently, faith comes from hearing the message, and the message is heard through the word about Christ. But I ask: Did they not hear? Of course they did: “Their voice has gone out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world.” Again, I ask: “Did Israel not understand?” First, Moses says, “I will make you envious by those who are not a nation; I will make you angry by a nation that has no understanding.” And Isaiah boldly says, “I was found by those who did not seek me; I revealed myself to those who did not ask for me.” But concerning Israel he says, “All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and obstinate people.”


A. Approaches in Quoting the Old Testament:  

Romans 10:14-21 is another passage dense in Old Testament quotes. Paul comes back to the issue of Israel and their lack of knowledge. He quotes Isaiah, “Lord who has believed our message. Faith comes from hearing and the message, and the message is heard through the word about Christ.” Obviously, you can’t believe unless you have heard. Did Israel hear? “Yes, indeed,” Paul says, “Their voice has gone out into all the earth, their words to the end of the world.”  Where does that quote come from?

Psalm 19

Dr. Moo:  
This quote comes from Psalm 19, exactly. It is a famous Psalm about the revelation of God in nature to the world. The question is how can Paul quote it in reference to the gospel? This is another Old Testament quotation in reference to the New. 

Here I would suggest something a little different is going on. Let me back up and remind us that we use quotations to function in different ways. Let me illustrate. One of the things I enjoyed doing because I was a basketball player myself back in the day, I enjoyed playing basketball with my three sons as they were growing up. Used to be when they were pretty small, I would play basketball with them, three against one, and occasionally I would let them make a basket. And then they grew and at a certain point I said, maybe it better be a two-on-one now, just two of you play against me at once, that was a fairly even match. That didn’t become very interesting after a while, and I eventually said I’ll just play each of you one-on-one, pretty evenly. 

It got to the point where my third son was my height (he was in fact an All American DIII basketball player when he was at Wheaton) and I would still foolishly go out and say, Let’s play some one-on-one, Luke, out here in the driveway. 

I remember one occasion, I was dribbling around out beyond the free throw line and I looked Luke in the eye and said, Okay Luke, get ready for it, I’m taking the ball to the basket on you. Luke just looked right back at me and said, Go ahead, Dad, make my day. 

Most of us will be familiar with the context of those words, Dirty Harry, Clint Eastwood with a revolver with a long barrel, telling the bad guy, “Go ahead, make my day.” Now you see what Luke was doing there; he was not quoting the words in the same way that Clint Eastwood used them. But he was conveying that basic sense that those words conveyed in the movie. “You are engaged in an action that is going to end in unfortunate violence for you.” And I recall that is exactly what happened as I tried to take the ball to the basket on my son. 

My point is we use quotations that way quite a lot, we’re never intending to say, I’m quoting the words exactly in the way that the film writer intended them in the Dirty Harry movie; I’m using the words to convey a certain idea, to create a certain atmosphere. I think the New Testament writers used the Old Testament that way sometimes. 

I don’t think Paul is saying that I have sat down and exegeted the Hebrew of Psalm 19 and I think Psalm 19 is talking about my preaching of the Gospel. I don’t think that is even in the ballpark here. He is simply saying that he is trying to make a point about the way God has made His word known widely. It is just like the psalm verse talks about when God spreads the knowledge of His name and His law around the world. 

Sometimes, we need to loosen up in the way we view the Old Testament in the New because often we think it has to have an exact lock step similar meaning in that the New Testament author is exegeting the Old Testament saying that this is exactly what the verse means. I think sometimes that a quotation is being used in this broader sense to create a certain atmosphere, connote a certain idea which might be what is going on here as well.

When I was going through 9 through 11, there were times where things had quotations around them and Paul hadn’t said, I’m now quoting Isaiah, or I’m now quoting David. My honest thought was, are we assuming he is quoting or are we just noting that the words he is saying are the same as the Old Testament words?

Dr. Moo:  
I think the scenario back in my driveway all those years ago when Luke said, “Go ahead, Dad, make my day,” the whole point – he didn’t say, “As Dirty Harry said” – the whole point was that he and I both knew where those words were from. He intended to connote that original scene. I think Paul is usually doing that. Paul is writing to Christians that are fairly literate about the Bible. So, he doesn’t always have to say, “as scripture says” or “as this biblical author says.” He can simply use the words knowing that his readers are going to pick his intention to direct them to that passage of scripture.


B. Old Testament Quotes in Romans: 

Paul goes on then and makes clear that again in the Old Testament itself, God shows how He is working with His people, Israel in verse 19 quoting again from Deuteronomy, he introduces the idea of envy or jealousy which will play an important role in the argument of Romans 11. 

He concludes by quoting a text from Isaiah again, Paul’s favorite Old Testament author, “I was found by those who did not seek me, I revealed myself to those who did not ask for me.” Who was that? Who does Paul have in mind here?  

The Gentiles. 

Dr. Moo:  
The Gentiles again. It reminds us of where this passage begins in 9:30, “Gentiles who did not pursue righteousness have obtained it.” 

The second quotation from the same part of Isaiah in verse 21 applies to Israel. “All day long, I have held out My hands to a disobedient and obstinate people.” Paul here has cleverly chosen an Old Testament text that makes two points: one is that Israel is obstinate and disobedient, but God is still holding out His hands to them. I think that prepares the way then for what Paul is going to do in Romans 11 where he is going to make clear that despite Israel’s sin, obstinacy, disobedience, God hasn’t abandoned them. He still holds out His hands to His people despite their faithlessness, despite their disobedience.


C. God is Saving a Remnant Now: 

The third part of the argument comes at the beginning of Romans 11 in verses 1-10 where Paul reminds his readers, that the situation isn’t as bleak as he might have implied earlier on. In chapters 9 and 10, Paul talks broadly about Israel, Israel did not find it, Israel is obstinate, Israel has missed the righteousness of Christ. But now he wants to come around and say, let me correct what I’ve said there a little bit. Of course, it is not all Israel, because there are Jews like Paul himself who are believers in Jesus, the Messiah. So, God is saving a remnant even now is the basic point Paul is making in 11:1-10. 

Did God reject his people? No, not at all; this is going to be the theme of all of Romans 11 as he puts it positively in verse 2, “God did not reject His people whom He foreknew.” God has not rejected Israel; He isn’t done with Israel. The first evidence for that is the remnant that now exists. I am an Israelite myself in verse 1, a descendent of Abraham, from the tribe of Benjamin. Paul’s point here, I’m a believer. This shows that God hasn’t totally rejected Israel. It is not as if he said now it’s only going to be the Gentiles who will be saved, no more Jews will be saved; no, God is continuing to bring Jews into the kingdom. 

The situation, Paul says, is a little like it was in the days of Elijah. Remember the context that Paul is quoting from here, the dark days in Israel when Elijah found himself almost to be alone, trying to maintain a godly perspective against Ahab and against all of the idolatry rampant in Israel at that time. God reassures him there were seven thousand that hadn’t bowed the knees to Baal; you are not the only one, Elijah, God said. 

So in Paul’s day, Paul isn’t alone either. In verse 5, there is a remnant chosen by grace. Verse 7 puts the matter nicely and summarizes the issue; what the people of Israel sought, they didn’t obtain. Paul repeats the idea we have heard earlier in Romans 9-11; Israel, in general, has not obtained the promise God gave them. But the elect among them have. God has continued to choose particular Jews to be His people; the others were hardened. This is language Paul used in Romans 9 where the focus is on God’s choice of some to be His people constituting a remnant and not choosing others who then he says were hardened. This then sets up the climatic argument of 11 and following.