Romans - Lesson 42

Romans 10:5-13

In studying Romans 10:5-13, you'll evaluate contrast themes of righteousness by the law versus righteousness by faith. The text discusses Moses' writings about the law, emphasizing the importance of action. However, it also highlights the accessibility of faith, emphasizing that salvation comes through belief in Jesus Christ, accessible to both Jews and Gentiles. Paul draws parallels between Old Testament teachings and the gospel, emphasizing the unity and continuity between the two. Through this lesson, you'll gain insight into the accessibility of salvation through faith in Christ, bridging the gap between Old and New Testament teachings.

Lesson 42
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Romans 10:5-13

IV. The Defense of the Gospel: the Problem of Israel (9:1–11:36)

A. Introduction: The Tension Between God's Promises and Israel's Plight (9:1-5)

B. Defining the Promise (1): God's Sovereign Election (9:6-29)

C. Understanding Israel's Plight: Christ as the Climax of Salvation History (9:30–10:21)

1. Israel, the Gentiles, and the Righteousness of God (9:30–10:13)

a. The Righteousness of God and the "Law of Righteousness" (9:30-33)

b. The Righteousness of God and "Their Own Righteousness" (10:1-4)

c. Gospel and Law (10:5-13)

2. Israel's Accountability (10:14-21)

D. Summary: Israel, the "Elect," and the "Hardened" (11:1-10)

E. Defining the Promise (2): The Future of Israel (11:11-32)

F. Conclusion: Praise to God in Light of His Awesome Plan (11:33-36)

  • This lesson offers a deep dive into Paul's Letter to the Romans, revealing its pastoral aims, Paul's intentions to visit Spain, Jerusalem, and Rome, and its relevance to early Christian dynamics and theological inquiries about the Law in Christ's time.
  • This lesson offers a fresh view of Paul's theology, focusing on Romans. It emphasizes the first-century context, highlighting Gentile inclusion and unity in Christ, challenging traditional views. Gain insights into Paul's message and its relevance today.
  • Explore the book of Romans for modern faith conflicts: balance tradition with contemporary practices, learn from history, and grasp Paul's ministry and Gospel's complexities.
  • Follow along with Dr. Moo as he begins a thorough review of Romans 1:2-5. You will learn how Paul emphasizes Jesus' earthly life, resurrection, and his appointment as the Son of God in power. This lesson examines the interconnectedness of faith and obedience, underscoring that while faith initiates salvation, genuine faith inherently entails obedience to Christ as Lord, maintaining a balanced Christian life.
  • By delving into Romans 1:16-17, you'll understand the Gospel extends beyond individual salvation, encompassing God's reign over creation and His establishment of justice. The Gospel challenges worldly powers, offering hope and transformation to all who embrace it.
  • Listen along as the class discusses questions and answers revolving around Romans 1:16-17.
  • In Romans 1:18-28, you learn that all people are held accountable by God, having knowledge of Him through natural revelation but some turn away. This passage highlights the manifestation of God's wrath against sin, the exchange of truth for falsehoods, and the absence of excuses for humanity's actions, ultimately emphasizing God's fair judgment.
  • Listen in as the class and Dr. Moo discuss aspects of Romans 1:18-28.
  • The lesson discusses Romans 2:1-11, it highlights the use of the diatribe device and the transition from focusing on Gentiles to Jews. It underscores the Jewish belief in their special status and their potential misunderstanding of God's judgment. The lesson reviews the focus of the text on key themes such as judgment, righteousness, and the relationship between faith and good deeds.
  • In this lesson, you'll review the significance of the Law, notably the Law of Moses, in God's judgment. Paul stresses that mere knowledge of the Law isn't sufficient for righteousness; obedience is key. The primary message is that salvation ultimately relies on God's grace and the Gospel of Jesus Christ, as human efforts and consciences alone cannot secure salvation. This lesson highlights the importance of understanding these concepts in interactions with people of different religious beliefs.
  • The key takeaway in this lesson is that while being a Jew comes with a great heritage, it doesn't guarantee salvation. Obedience to God's law is crucial, and reliance on religious heritage or rituals won't save you. The lesson emphasizes the universal human condition of being under the power of sin, and people cannot be declared righteous in God’s sight by observing the Law or by the works of the Law. Only through faith in Christ are we made righteous.
  • This lesson explores the New Perspective on Paul, emphasizing that the Law was for Jewish covenant status, not just salvation. It promotes a holistic faith view, balancing vertical and horizontal aspects, Spirit-led obedience, and 1st-century Judaism diversity, enriching Pauline teachings in the church.
  • In exploring Romans 3:21-26, you'll gain insights into the relationship between righteousness, faith, and salvation. Paul highlights God's righteousness, which is accessible to all through faith in Jesus Christ. By weaving together themes of righteousness, faith, and inclusivity, Paul challenges conventional Jewish and Gentile perspectives, emphasizing the continuity of God's salvation plan while underscoring the centrality of faith in Christ for all believers.
  • In this lesson, you will gain insights into the potential challenge in translating Romans 3:23-24, particularly the term "all" and its connection to the debate on universalism in evangelicalism. Dr. Moo stresses the importance of coherence in biblical interpretation and explores the themes of God's righteousness, faith, and grace in justification. The lesson reviews the cultural background of redemption, drawing parallels with the Greco-Roman slave market and emphasizing the need to understand both the problem of sin and the Gospel solution.
  • Embarking on this lesson, you'll gain insight into the historical development and contemporary challenges surrounding the doctrine of justification. Through exploring classic Reformation principles and contemporary reassessments, you'll understand the tensions between Protestant and Roman Catholic perspectives, particularly regarding the infusion of righteousness and the role of grace.
  • The lesson explores the intricate connection between faith and works, justification, and sanctification in contemporary theological discourse. It delineates divergent views on justification, with scholars like Piper advocating for the preservation of biblical distinctions amidst modern theological trends. The lesson examines key questions regarding the meaning, basis, time, and means of justification.
  • Students in Dr. Moo's class ask multiple questions about justification.
  • By studying Romans 3:27-4:25, you gain insight into Paul's theology, where faith, exemplified by Abraham's righteousness, transcends works and ethnicity, emphasizing the universal scope of salvation through Christ.
  • Hear the questions the students ask regarding Romans 3:27–4:25. And discover Dr. Moo's answers to the questions posed.
  • In Romans 5 – 8, you gain insights into profound theological concepts like justification, identity in Christ, and the tension between present reality and future hope, guiding you to embrace your changed identity and hope for future transformation amidst life's trials.
  • Students as deep questions about Romans 5-8. Hear what Dr. Moo presents as answers to their questions.
  • Through Romans 5:1-11, you'll review the contrast between the Old and New Realms, understanding the essence of living in grace, finding hope amid suffering, and experiencing the assurance of eternal security rooted in Christ's sacrifice and God's love poured into believers' hearts by the Holy Spirit.
  • In Romans 5:12-21, Paul contrasts Adam's sin with Christ's redemptive grace, emphasizing humanity's hope and victory over death through union with Christ, while various interpretations of original sin underscore the universal need for redemption and Christ's pivotal role in restoring humanity to God.
  • Listen to the thorough questions the students ask regarding Romans 5:12-21.
  • The students ask excellent questions of Dr. Moo in this insightful discussion on Romans 6:1-14.
  • Through this lesson, you will gain a deeper understanding of the theological implications of Christ's death and resurrection as explained in Romans 6. You will explore different interpretations of Paul's language regarding the old self and the new self, considering the implications for the Christian life. Ultimately, you will be challenged to recognize your identity in Christ and to actively live according to that identity, rejecting the slavery of sin and embracing servitude to God.
  • Hear the questions the students ask of Dr. Moo regarding Romans 6:1-23.
  • In diving into Romans 7, you'll explore the Law's role in Christian life. Paul's discourse clarifies the distinction between law and gospel, emphasizing the Torah's significance in understanding divine commandments.
  • Class discussion on Romans 7:1-6
  • In Romans 7:7-12, Paul explores the Law's role in intensifying sin and contrasts it with Christ's liberation. His narrative prompts reflection on individual experience and collective identity, enriching understanding of Christian faith.
  • The class discusses the previous lesson on Romans 7:7-12.
  • This lesson covers interpretations of Romans 7:13-25; whether Paul's description is of pre- or post-conversion struggle with the Law.
  • In Romans 8:1-22, discover the Spirit's transformative power over sin, leading to a life free from condemnation, intimacy with God, and anticipation of future glory amid present sufferings.
  • Explore the theological insights on environmental stewardship, emphasizing Christian responsibility in light of Romans 8:19-22.
  • Gain insights into Romans 8:23-27, understanding destined glory despite present suffering. The Spirit intercedes, bridging current and promised futures, offering assurance amid weakness.
  • Romans 8:28 offers profound insights into the nature of God's providence and the believer's journey of faith. Beyond its surface meaning, the verse challenges misconceptions about 'good' and underscores the transformative power of God's grace. It invites believers to trust in God's unfailing love amidst life's trials, anchoring their hope in the assurance of His sovereign care and redemptive purposes.
  • Romans 9:1-5 highlights Paul's profound concern for Israel's salvation and the theological complexities surrounding God's promises. Reviewing salvation history, you'll learn that God's offer of salvation for both Jew and Gentile, fits within the Old Testament narrative.
  • Paul discusses Israel's role in God's plan, emphasizing grace over race. He illustrates divine choices and sovereignty, sparking debates on salvation.
  • Discover diverse views on election, Israel's struggle with faith, and the significance of overcoming theological narrowness in Romans 9:30-10:21. Gain insights into law versus faith in attaining righteousness and the importance of engaging deeply with Scripture for a comprehensive understanding.
  • Gain insights into faith versus works, Christ as the culmination of the Law, and the inclusivity of righteousness through Him. Embrace unity in Christ, transcending cultural divisions, and embodying love and holiness.
  • Gain insight into contrasting righteousness by law vs. faith in Romans 10:5-13. Accessibility of salvation through Christ bridges Old and New Testament teachings, emphasizing unity and continuity.
  • Gain insights into Romans 10:14-21, emphasizing faith, preaching, and Israel's reception of the message. Dr. Moo highlights Paul's use of Old Testament quotes and God's ongoing relationship with Israel, revealing the significance of faith and salvation.
  • Gain insight into Romans 11:11-15. Paul discusses Jewish rejection, Gentile salvation, and Jewish inclusion, aiming to provoke Jewish envy. The phrase "life from the dead" hints at spiritual renewal or future resurrection.
  • Gain insights into the Olive Tree analogy in Romans 11:16-24. Understand humility, faithfulness, and the purpose of warning passages in Scripture.
  • Discover the mystery of Israel's salvation in Romans 11:25-32. Paul reveals unity of Jews and Gentiles, challenging arrogance and emphasizing God's inclusive love.
  • Gain deeper understanding of Christian-Jewish ties, navigate theological challenges, address Israel-Palestine tensions, and embrace God's inclusive grace.
  • Gain deep insights into Romans 12:1-2: True worship extends beyond rituals, urging sacrificial living and transformation in response to God's mercy.
  • In Romans 12:3-8, Paul stresses humility, unity, and diverse gifts within the body of Christ, urging faithful stewardship for the edification of the body of Christ.
  • Gain insights into love's complexity in Romans 12:9-21. Paul urges sincere affection, alludes to Jesus' teachings, and prompts contemplation on love and judgment.
  • Gain insights into balancing submission to authorities with obedience to God. Understand the context of Paul's exhortation to Roman Christians and the complexities of submission, emphasizing humility, unity, and love in the Christian life within God's sovereignty.

Dr. Douglas Moo, from Wheaton College Graduate School, offers an exegetical examination of the book of Romans. This course was recorded during a D.Min. seminar at the Carolina Graduate School of Divinity in May 2012.

Please note that the audio mp3 file numbers on downloaded files are two greater than each lecture number beginning with number 15.

Dr. Douglas Moo 
Romans 10:5-13  
Lesson Transcript


Romans 10:5-13 

Moses writes this about the righteousness that is by the law: “The person who does these things will live by them.” But the righteousness that is by faith says: “Do not say in your heart, ‘Who will ascend into heaven?’” (that is, to bring Christ down) “or ‘Who will descend into the deep?’” (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). But what does it say? “The word is near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart,” that is, the message concerning faith that we proclaim: If you declare with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved. As Scripture says, “Anyone who believes in him will never be put to shame.” For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile—the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him, for, “Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”


A. Moses and the Righteousness from the Law: 

Paul comes back to the contrast one more time in verses 5-8. This time he uses the Old Testament to make his contrast. In verse 5, Paul says Moses himself talks about the righteousness that is by the Law; the person who does these things will live by them. This is in Leviticus 18:5 which probably the footnotes in your Bible will indicate. 

I mention footnotes; we spent a lot of work in our translation committee to craft footnotes that we realize nobody will ever read.

Student: In preparing for messages, it gives you canonical content to scrutinize. 
Dr. Moo:  
So, somebody actually does read them? That is encouraging to hear. We spend a lot of time on these footnotes, we sort of feel sometimes like the mother who always puts an apple in their kid’s lunch, knowing that the kid is probably never going to eat the apple, but the parent feels better having put the apple there. So sometimes we on the translation committee may say, well, at least we have the footnote there.

I think pastors are a different lot.

Dr. Moo:  
I suppose so. I hope you read them.

You didn’t just carry those over from the 1984 version?

Dr. Moo  
No, we evaluated every one of them.

Verse 5, as your footnote should indicate, comes out of Leviticus 18:5. Interestingly that language in Leviticus 18:5 is picked up elsewhere in the Old Testament in Judaism. Ezekiel refers to it and Nehemiah refers to it, it is frequent among the Jews. It is a kind of slogan; what is the Law about? the Law is a matter of doing. The one who does these things shall find life and in the context of Leviticus that life is the life of Israel in the land that God is giving her. Paul uses it again to summarize this is what righteousness by the Law involves. It involves doing. 

The contrast with that is the righteousness by faith. Since you all are alert to your footnotes, where is Paul in the Old Testament getting these ideas in verses 6-8? 


Dr. Moo:  
Where in Deuteronomy?

Chapter 30

Dr. Moo:  
Chapter 30 is the main source. What does Deuteronomy 30 talk about? I hope you are in the habit of doing this, but any time you have a quotation or a clear reference in the New Testament to the Old Testament, go back and make sure you look at that reference in the Old Testament context. Figure out why the New Testament author would be using this passage. 

So, let’s go back to the passage in Deuteronomy that Paul is quoting from, what is the passage in Deuteronomy talking about? 

He is giving them a choice, I have set before you today life and prosperity, death and destruction in verse 15.

Dr. Moo:  
In verse 15, yes. This is where Moses is kind of bringing his sermon to an end; it is kind of the altar call. I’ve been laying out the Law for you, telling you what God has told you. Now you need to make a choice. You can choose to follow the Law and get life and blessing, or you can choose to ignore the Law and suffer death and get the curse. The particular verses that Paul is citing, what are they talking about?

That the word is not hard for you to keep.

Dr. Moo:  
And what is it that is not hard to keep?

He says the commandment, the command that I gave you.

Dr. Moo:  
Moses here is talking about the commandments of the Law of Moses, right? How then can Paul quote that language and apply it to Christ and the righteousness by faith in contrast to the Law? If you ever turned in an exegetical paper that did that, I’ll be on your case about it. What in the world is Paul doing here? Isn’t it arbitrary for him to quote this language from Deuteronomy 30 about the Law and apply it to righteousness by faith in contrast to the Law? You can make Scripture mean anything that you want if you do that. 

Are we dealing with the area that Christ is the fulfillment of the Law? 

Dr. Moo:  
That is part of it, yes. In verse 4 the whole Law points forward to Christ, who is the goal of the Law. Good point. 

It seems to me that Paul is saying, here is the Law, if you can keep it, you can be saved, but nobody can. 

Dr. Moo:  
I agree, I think verse 5 is implicitly making that point.

There is no way other than to believe. 

Dr. Moo:  
Right, I think that point is very clear here. The righteousness of the Law says the one who does it is the one who will live. Implicitly Paul is who is able to do it?


B. Christ and His Righteousness is Now Available: 

I’m not expecting you to come up with a neat answer – in fact I’d be surprised if you did – because this is a very tough passage. I’ve just written an article on it in fact, I went through the data again after I wrote the commentary years ago; I still found it a very tough passage to explain.

A couple of things might help here in terms of what Paul is doing. One is the point that (student) already made. In the context Paul is emphasizing how Christ is the goal of the Law; that to which it ultimately pointed. That gives him some basis to say Old Testament passages about the Law may have their ultimate significance in Christ. This is one basis here to understand and explain what Paul is doing. 

Another basis for that could be this passage in Deuteronomy 30 where Moses is finishing up this sermon that is in a sense Deuteronomy. In Deuteronomy 30 Moses is saying, I’ve spelled out the Law; God in His grace has brought that word of the Law near to you. He has graciously revealed Himself to you. He has stooped to you, in a sense. What Paul now claims is that God’s word and His grace now comes in the word of the gospel to the people. The principle is the same as what Moses has talked about but now, we have God’s new covenant word of the gospel. 

He perhaps is trying to say particularly to his fellow Jews, don’t think that I am calling you to do something so difficult. This whole matter of Christ and faith is not all that hard in a sense. God has already brought Christ down from heaven; you don’t have to go up there to find Him. He has brought Him up from the dead; you don’t have to go down into the earth there seek Him out there. No, the word about Christ is near you. in your hearts and on your lips. It is something that is accessible, the word that we are preaching. As God in His grace told Israel how to live and to be His people, so God in His grace now reveals Himself to the people of Israel and the Gentiles in Christ. He is telling us how to respond to Him and how to live. 

Using that argument, isn’t it filled with irony because he has already shown in the chapters leading up to this that you couldn’t keep the Law? Yet he uses that reference to Moses saying, this is going to be easy, here it is. You know it, you don’t have to go find it or look for it, you know it. Yet it wasn’t easy. 

Dr. Moo:  
I’m not sure that Deuteronomy 30 is saying that it’s going to be easy. I think Moses is saying it is accessible, don’t claim you don’t know. Moses himself here at the end of Deuteronomy is pretty pessimistic. He holds out the options of life or death, but he says that he knows what they are going to choose. It is going to be death and they will go into exile. God will send them away because of their disobedience. So, I doubt that Moses is saying it’s easy. I think he is saying that it is possible because God has given them all the knowledge that they need, so don’t claim God never told us. But easy, I’m not sure. 

So, accessible?

Dr. Moo:  
Yes, accessible is a good word. 


C. The Unity of the Old and New Testaments: 

What we have here by the way is one of those really interesting moments in the way the New Testament uses the Old. It’s an issue I have been fascinated with all of my scholarly career. It’s really interesting the way the New Testament writers will interpret the Old. Many times it isn’t just picking up the obvious meaning of the Old Testament text, but they expand it and elaborate on it, even deepening it in some ways while wanting to maintain the unity of scripture in the way Old Testament and New Testament are ultimately a unity. Also seeing how the New Testament writers advance their understanding of the Old in light of God’s revelation in Christ. 

I sometimes compare it to the process of reading a good book. As you read, an author begins introducing certain words or ideas. You get an initial idea about what that author is saying but sometimes it’s not until you read a lot further along in the book that you can go back and say, ah, that’s what that meant. I think the Bible works like this. There are these a-ha moments where we read the New Testament interpretation of the Old and say, ah, that’s what that Old Testament text ultimately meant; I couldn’t see it until God brought Christ onto the scene and His New Testament word to us.

So, it appears that Paul quite often sees parallels or type and anti-type where the Old Testament was being fulfilled through Jesus where his previous biblical understanding is now building in Christ. Not disjointed between the two. He is seeing God as being faithful.

Dr. Moo:  
That is why you have all these quotations of scripture. Romans 9-11 contain thirty-three percent of all Old Testament quotes of Paul. Take all 13 letters of Paul and in these 3 chapters you have fully one-third of all his Old Testament quotes. Again, he is engaged in an argument trying to show his gospel matches what the Old Testament says. He is constantly bringing the Old Testament in to show the continuity of the two. 

Paul goes on from there in verses 9 and following emphasizing that this accessibility of the word is something that applies to both Jew and Gentile. Again, Paul goes back to the Isaiah passage in verse 11: anyone who believes in him will never be put to shame. Note the slight difference here; look at 9:33 at the very end where Paul is quoting from Isaiah: the one who believes in Him will never be put to shame. Now he comes back and quotes that same passage again, but says anyone who believes in Him will never be put to shame. 

Again, we have this key theme of Romans: opening the door to all humans, Gentiles as well as Jews. Paul makes this point explicit in verse 12, There is no difference between Jew and Gentile; the same Lord is Lord of all, richly blesses all who call on Him. Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved. Paul here is quoting Joel 2:32 as you can see in the footnotes of the NIV. In Joel the name is the divine tetragrammaton, Yahweh, and yet Paul implies that now that Lord is Jesus. 

As we mentioned a moment ago, you have these texts where the New Testament uses the title God to describe Jesus – those are significant obviously to talk about His deity – but here is another really important way Paul talks about the deity of Christ, quoting Old Testament verses about Yahweh, Jehovah God, and applying them to Jesus. This again is an important signal of the way our New Testament authors are implicitly viewing Jesus as part of the Godhead, one of the persons of the Godhead.