Essentials of Catholic Theology - Lesson 7

Roman Catholic Mariology

Why is Mary mentioned throughout Roman Catholic liturgy and theology? What is Dr. Allison referring to when he says that Mary is not just a tangent of Roman Catholic faith, but that Mariology epitomizes the core of their theological system? Why is this the case? How does this affect how people worship God and practice their faith? How does this compare with a Protestant view of Mary? As you listen, consider why Mary was important and what her role was in the life and ministry of Jesus. 

Gregg Allison
Essentials of Catholic Theology
Lesson 7
Watching Now
Roman Catholic Mariology



A. Mary’s personal history

B. Mary’s titles and honors


A. Scripture and tradition

B. Interpretation of Marian texts

C. Mary as the sinless mother of God provides no hope for sinless people


  • Have you stopped to consider what Protestants and Roman Catholics have in common theologically and in practice? Thre are quite a few areas of agreement that can create opportunities for dialogue and fellowship. There are also significant differences in core principles and even differences in the way theological terms are defined. Key theological terms like grace, mercy, justification and sacraments have different meanings for each group. Listening to this lecture is a great opportunity for you to see the main similarities and differences between Protestants and Roman Catholics. It will also provide context for the other lectures in this course. 

  • The relationship between nature and grace, and also the interconnection of Christ and the church are the two foundational axioms on which everything in the Roman Catholic Church is structured. Everything from the nature of God to how creation works to salvation to church services to what happens after you die depends on these two ideas. Everything in Roman Catholic theology and practice is consistent with and determined by these two principles. 

  • On what authority does the Roman Catholic Church base their teachings and beliefs? What do they mean by general revelation and divine revelation? How and by whom is revelation transmitted and interpreted? What role does the Bible play in this process? Who makes up the Magisterium and what is their role? Why is the Catholic Bible different from the Protestant Bible? Understanding what the sources of revelation for the Roman Catholic Church are and how they transmit and interpret them will give you insight into their theology and practice. 

  • What is a sacrament in the Roman Catholic Church? How are they celebrated? Why are there seven sacraments in the Roman Catholic Church? What is their significance? What does, "Christ's Pascal mystery" refer to? This course gives you the opportunity to understand more about what the sacraments are, how you celebrate them and why they are a central element of Roman Catholic theology.

  • In Roman Catholic doctrine and practice, the Eucharist is the source and summit of the Christian life. Why is this true? What are the elements of the Eucharist and what takes place with the elements when the Eucharist is celebrated? What effect does it have on the people that participate? How is the Protestant view of the Eucharist different? What difference does it make? Take some time to consider the meaning of the Lord's Supper and why it is important to you.

  • In Roman Catholic theology, what is required for salvation and how do you accomplish it? Part of the answer lies in understanding the interface of law, grace, justification and merit. Also law, remission of sins, regeneration and sanctification are involved, all within the context of the Roman Catholic Churchas both mother and teacher. Listen further to understand how these parts are connected and intertwined. Then compare Protestant theology? Which position is Biblical? 

  • Why is Mary mentioned throughout Roman Catholic liturgy and theology? What is Dr. Allison referring to when he says that Mary is not just a tangent of Roman Catholic faith, but that Mariology epitomizes the core of their theological system? Why is this the case? How does this affect how people worship God and practice their faith? How does this compare with a Protestant view of Mary? As you listen, consider why Mary was important and what her role was in the life and ministry of Jesus. 

This course takes a systemic approach to explain the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and gives a comparative assessment to evangelical theology in the areas of salvation, Jesus, the church, eucharist, baptism, and Mariology.

The quotes that Dr. Allison is reading are from the Catechism of the Catholic Church, an official catechism approved by the Roman Catholic Church.

Recommended Books

Essentials of Catholic Theology - Student Guide

Essentials of Catholic Theology - Student Guide

This course takes a systemic approach to explain the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and gives a comparative assessment to evangelical theology in the areas of...

Essentials of Catholic Theology - Student Guide

Essentials of Catholic Theology

Dr. Gregg Allison


Roman Catholic Mariology

Lesson Transcript


Roman Catholic Mariology The Roman Catholic Doctrine of Mary is not a devotional accident or tangent of the Roman faith. Rather, it is an essential part of it. Actually, Mariology epitomizes the core of the Roman Catholic system. For example, the non tragic view of sin and the possibility of nature being elevated by grace. What is at stake theologically in Mariology? How did it come about? How is it that it is a major feature in both traditional and present day Roman Catholicism? By way of introduction, we return to the point that we have made consistently that we take a systemic approach to Roman Catholic theology. We're not just looking at the doctrine of Mary in an isolated way, but we're trying to relate it to other doctrines of the Catholic faith. And again, this Roman Catholic theological system is grounded on two foundational principles or axioms the nature, grace, interdependence and the Christ Church interconnection. The doctrine of Mary, as we will see, really is the outworking of these two axioms. Several decades ago. Pope John Paul, the second, wrote a biblical theology of Mary. According to Roman Catholic theology, this document is called Redemptorist Mater, the Mother of the Redeemer. And so I'm going to trace Pope John Paul, the second's biblical theology of Mary, and presented as the core of Roman Catholic theology with regard to this very important person. We begin with Mary's personal history, especially as that is interlinked with Christology. Roman Catholic theology points to number one Mary's predestination. Mary's predestination to her role as the mother of Jesus is foreshadowed in Genesis 315. I will put enmity between you and a woman and between your offspring and her offspring. He shall bruise your head and you shall bruise his heel. God's curse upon the serpent.


God's curse upon Satan is a prophecy of the Messiah who will come through a woman to rescue God's people. Thus, from the beginning of the Bible, Mary's role is set forth as the essential to the plan of salvation, a plan that God had predestined from all eternity. Additionally, Isaiah predicted the virgin birth. Isaiah 714. Behold, the Virgin shall conceive and bear a son and you shall call his name. Emmanuel Matthew's Gospel quotes this prophecy and applies it to Mary and to her son, Jesus. When his mother, Mary, had been betrothed to Joseph before they came together, she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit. All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the Prophet. This is Matthew 118 and 22 with a reference to Isaiah 714. Together, Isaiah's prophecy and Matthew's note of fulfillment highlights Mary's role in the eternal plan of Salvation to Mary's Immaculate Conception. On God's part, he had predestined that Mary would play this essential role in salvation on Mary's part. She would need to cooperate willingly with this eternal plan, being free to say yes to it. Let's think of that as option number one, but also being free to say no to it. Let's call that option number two. Mary needed to be prepared to choose option number one and not option number two. Amid imagine the chaos that would have resulted if she had chosen. Option number two said no to the announcement that she was going to be the predestined mother of God. But if she chose option number one, Mary's obedience as the second Eve would reverse the curse that followed from the disobedience of the first Eve. By her immaculate conception, Mary was well prepared to assent freely to her role in the incarnation of her son.


This is what the Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception confesses. As Pope Pius the ninth proclaimed in in the Fabulous debuts December 8th, 1854. The most blessed Virgin Mary was from the first moment of her conception by a singular grace and privilege of Almighty God and by virtue of the merits of Jesus Christ, Savior of the human race, preserved, immune from all stain of original sin. Just to be clear, this papal proclamation has nothing to do with the conception of Jesus Christ. Rather, it decrees that at the conception of Mary, the one who would become the mother of Jesus Christ, Mary did not inherit the devastating taint of original sin, which includes guilt before God and a fall in human nature. Therefore, Mary was well prepared to be a worthy vessel for the incarnation of her son. At the same time. Vatican Council two, 1962 to 1965, Vatican Council two affirmed that the splendor of an entirely unique holiness by which Mary is enriched from the first instant of her conception comes wholly from Christ. Indeed, Vatican Council two affirms Mary is redeemed in a more exalted fashion by reason of the merits of her son. Protestants wonder how it is appropriate to speak of Mary as being redeemed when, according to the Immaculate Conception, she was preserved free from an original sin. If such were true, she did not stand in need of redemption. Furthermore, this doctrine, while supported by tradition, has no biblical basis. Third, the Annunciation. Luke 126 to 38. And the Virginal Conception of Jesus. Mary was made aware of God's eternal, divine plan for her through an angelic visitation. Gabriel greeted her hail full of grace. The Lord is with you. Luke 128 According to Redemptorist martyrs interpretation, the angel does not call Mary by her proper earthly name, but by this new name full of grace, as if it were her real name specifically, and I quote from a temptress mater full of grace refers to the election of Mary as mother of the Son of God, as well as to the supernatural lavish gift from which Mary benefits by being chosen to be the mother of Christ.


Mary responded to Gabriel, Behold, I am the servant of the Lord. Let it be done to me. According to your word. Verse 38, according to Redemptorist martyrs, understanding the expression. Let it be to me. According to your word, was Mary's feared or authoritative command uttered in faith without reserve and with total devotion. It was, quote, decisive on the human level for the accomplishment of the Eternal Divine plan. Mary co-operated, and as far as it depended on her collaboration, the Incarnation became a reality. As he Protestant critique. This expression full of grace is not a new name for Mary. Rather, it is a commendation of God's undeserved favor which is extended to Mary. Apart from any preparation or any status on her part earlier in the narrative of the Annunciation, the angel had said, Do not be afraid, Mary. For you have found favor Grace with God. Luke 130. There is nothing about Mary that prepares her for or merits the reception of such grace. Rather, she found God's favor. Moreover, full of grace is open to misunderstanding that grace is some kind of substance infused to a supreme degree into Mary, such that she is unique in her cooperation with the Divine Plan. Additionally, it is not true that Mary's response to Gabriel is a fiat or authoritative decree. Rather, let it be done to me, according to your word, expresses Mary's wish. Mary's desire as a servant of the Lord to submit to his will. This obedience has special reference to God's will as it was communicated to her by Gabriel's final words. Nothing will be impossible with God acknowledging such impossibility with faith. Mary yields to the Lord. Let what seems impossible with human beings happen to me as God Himself makes it possible.


This cannot be decisive on the human level for the fulfillment of the Divine Plan, because what is about to take place within Mary's womb is impossible with her. Her decision adds nothing to the supernatural and gracious work of God. Fourth, continuing our Biblical Theology of the Doctrine of Mary from Redemptorist martyr forth. Mary's Senselessness Flowing from the Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. Catholicism Embraces Mary's Senselessness According to Redemptorist Martyr. By the grace of God, Mary remained free of every personal sin her whole life long. She exemplified this sinful senselessness in her response to Gabriel's announcement. Let it be done to me, according to your word, as in the case of Mary's Immaculate Conception, the church's belief in her senselessness is supported by tradition, but contradicts Scripture. Therefore, Protestants reject belief in Mary's senselessness throughout her whole life. Five. Mary's perpetual virginity, according to Redemptorist mater. Further evidence of Mary's total and uninterrupted holiness is her perpetual virginity. The church celebrates Mary as a Parthian horse, the ever virgin. Certainly Scripture supports the truth that Mary was a virgin when she conceived Jesus. The narrative in Matthew's Gospel Chapter one verses 18 to 25 begins with an affirmation of her virginity. When his mother, Mary, Jesus's mother, Mary, had been betrothed to Joseph before they came together. She was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit. Verse 18 It concludes with the assurance that Joseph knew her not until she had given birth to a son. Verse 25. Moreover, Catholic Mariology believes that even in the act of giving birth, Mary remained a virgin. In fact, Christ's birth, quoting from Redemptorist Mater Christ's birth did not diminish his mother's virginal integrity, but sanctified it even more. The deepening of faith in the virginal motherhood led the church to confess Mary's real and perpetual virginity.


There are three Protestant or evangelical objections to this notion. The first appeals to the lack of biblical evidence for any kind of miraculous event that preserved Mary's virginity as she went through childbirth. The second objection focuses on Matthew statement that Joseph knew her not until she had given birth to a son. Matthew 125. The word until indicates that Mary's state of virginity concluded sometime after Jesus's birth. She did indeed engage in sexual intercourse with her husband, Joseph. The third objection ties in with the second sexual intercourse between Joseph and Mary resulted in brothers and sisters of Jesus. Thus Jesus as Mary's firstborn son, Matthew two seven had siblings. Dissenting from this position, The Catholic Church has always understood these passages as not referring to other children of the Virgin Mary, but to other close relations of Jesus. But this interpretation misidentified these people. They are instead truly Jesus's brothers and sisters. Thus, the perpetual virginity of Mary lacks a biblical basis. Six. Mary's union with her son in his sufferings on the cross. The Gospel of John narrates Mary's presence at the crucifixion of her son. Standing by the cross of Jesus, where his mother and other women, when Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved, who is John standing nearby, Jesus said to his mother, Woman, Behold your son. Then he said to the disciple, Behold your mother. And from that hour, the disciple took her Mary into his own home. John 1925 227. Redemptorist matter underscores two points. The first is the horrific yet salvific ordeal that Mary experienced at Jesus's crucifixion. Quote by suffering deeply with her only begotten son and joining herself with her maternal spirit to his sacrifice. Mary lovingly consented to the immolation, the sacrifice of the victim to whom she had given birth.


In so doing, Mary continued in her perfect submission to the Eternal Plan. Again, quoting Redemptorist martyr. How great, how heroic then, is the obedience of faith shown by Mary in the face of God's un searchable judgments? How completely she abandons herself to God without reserve offering the full assent of the intellect in the will. Still more according to Redemptorist martyr. Through faith, the mother shares in the death of her son in his redeeming death. So Mary plays a central role in the saving death of her son for the redemption of the world. Protestants abject. It was Jesus's suffering, not that of Mary that the text underscores. It was his hour, the time of Jesus's death. It was his crucifixion that meant all was now finished in fulfillment of Scripture. John 1928. It was his cry. It is finished. That meant his sacrifice was once and for all. John 1930. The narrative is all about Jesus. It is not about Mary. Even though we could possibly extrapolate and empathize with her horrific suffering. But it was Jesus who manifested heroic obedience of faith. It was Jesus who abandoned himself to God without reserve. It was Jesus who offered the full ascent of the intellect and the will to the divine plan of salvation. This was true of Jesus. Not of Mary. Seven. Mary Given as mother to the church. John 1925 to 27. Continuing our discussion of that passage from that same narrative about Mary's presence at the Cross Redemptorist mother underscores a second point Jesus's action in directing John toward Mary in a new, motherly manner. Redemptorist Marta interprets the figure of John the Apostle John as each and every human being, as well as the model of all true disciples in the church. Quoting the Redemptorist martyr, the mother of Christ, who stands at the very center of this mystery that is the son's redemptive work, is given as mother to every single individual and all mankind.


The man at the foot of the cross is John, but it is not he alone. Thus, Mary becomes the mother of both the entire human race and the church. Protestants offer a criticism. Redemptorist Martyr emphasizes that John comes under the care of Mary, but the text also notes that John took Mary into his own home as one of his final acts before dying. Jesus simply and lovingly displayed his concern for his mother by giving her into the care of his beloved disciple. Jesus does not symbolically establish his mother as the mother of all humanity and as mother of the church. Eight. Mary's aiding the beginning of the church, Acts 112 to 14. In the final narrative about Mary, the Book of Acts recounts Mary's presence in the upper room prior to the day of Pentecost, Acts 112 to 14. In this account, Luke names the 11 Apostles. That is the 12 minus Judas Iscariot, the the 11 Apostles who were gathered together. Then Luke adds, All these with one accord were devoting themselves to prayer together with the women and Mary, the mother of Jesus and his brothers. X one verse 14 Redemptorist Martyr explains We see Mary powerfully imploring the gift of the Holy Spirit, who had already overshadowed her in the Annunciation. So as Mary gave birth to the Incarnate Son, so she gave birth to the church. Accordingly, she is both the mother of Jesus and the mother of the church. Indeed, though not chosen as one of the 12 apostles, Mary received the type of apostolic mission. This is the view of Redemptorist mater. In terms of Mary at the beginning of the church, but Protestants consider this Catholic interpretation to stray far from the narrative, and thus it lacks a biblical basis.


Nine. Mary's bodily assumption, The doctrine of the bodily assumption of Mary proclaimed by Pope Pius the 12th in Moony and she Simos debuts November 1st, 1950. This proclamation affirms the following in relationship to the end of her life the immaculate virgin preserved free from all stain of original sin. When the course of her earthly life was finished, was taken up body and soul into heavenly glory and exalted by the Lord as Queen over all things, so that she might be more fully conformed to her Son, the Lord of Lords and conquer of sin and death. This doctrine flows from the belief in Mary's Immaculate Conception and seamlessness. She was preserved free from original sin at her conception, and she lived a life of thoroughgoing holiness. Thus, there was no need for Mary to suffer the usual penalty assessed to sinful human beings. The separation of their body, which is laid in a tomb or grave from their soul, which then enters immediately into the presence of the Lord. Rather, according to Catholic theology in the integrity of body and soul, Mary was assumed into heaven. Protestants. Evangelicals disagree with this doctrine. As with the Immaculate Conception, the bodily assumption of Mary is not part of a biblical theology of Mary, as no scripture supports it. Rather, the doctrine is tradition and of recent vintage proclaimed in 1950. Though the church insists that it has acknowledged this doctrine for many centuries. So this is a biblical theology of Mary. According to Pope John Paul, this second and Redemptorist matter, I think it's an excellent explanation and outline of what Catholic beliefs are about this doctrine of Mary. But there's a bit more. We also have, according to Roman Catholic theology, very tight some titles and honors that are associated with Mary.


The first is Theotokos. The early church acknowledged Mary to be they are talk us literally the one who bears the one who is God. For more briefly, the mother of God as originally formulated theotokos indicates the one to whom Mary gave birth is fully God. It is a statement about the identity of the Son incarnate. He is God, not some exalted man or not some half God. He is God on this confession of the son's deity. Catholics and Protestants concur. However, Protestants deny Theotokos is an affirmation of some type of exalted status. For Mary, this idea is a common misperception at odds with its historical meaning. Other titles of Mary include advocate, helper benefactors and media tricks. Advocate. A term from the law courts is a promoter who pleads a case on behalf of another. According to Catholic theology, Mary's advocacy has particular reference to her prayers as Pope Pius the seventh proclaimed. While the prayers of those in heaven have, it is true, some claim on God's watchful eye. Mary's prayers place the assurance in a mother's right. Hoper apparently applies to Mary as a fierce and victorious warrior battling along side of her church against its enemies. As benefactors, she confers gifts and blessings, benefits upon her church as media tricks. Mary is the one through whom God the Son became incarnate as Jesus Christ. Moreover, she stands between Jesus and the fallen human race, interceding for people calling her son's attention to their needs and directing them to her son's saving work. Importantly to note also, 17 feast days in the Roman Catholic Church are devoted to Mary. 50 repetitions of Hail Mary are included in the Rosary. So these titles and these practices of devotion to Mary are very, very important in Roman Catholic theology and practice.


What about an evangelical assessment? First of all, we come to the point of scripture and tradition. Again, the formal principle of Protestantism. Scripture alone is our authority. This then stands in contrast with the Roman Catholic view that divine revelation comes through scripture and tradition. Much of what we've talked about in terms of the theology of Mary is based on tradition rather than Scripture, and at some points it blatantly contradicts Scripture. So this is a key reason why evangelicals and Roman Catholics diverge when it comes to Mariology. But there's also the interpretation of Mary and texts that would be passages in the New Testament that refer to Mary in particular in her relationship with Jesus. Redemptorist matter discusses several key passages that treat the Mary Jesus relationship for, for example, an unknown woman cries out to Jesus. Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breast that you sucked, Jesus replied. Blessed, rather, are those who hear the Word of God and obey it. Luke 1127 228 A second passage presents an actual encounter between Jesus and his family. Luke 819 221 Then Jesus's mother and his brothers came to him, but they could not reach him because of the crowd. And he was told, Your mother and your brothers are standing outside desiring to see you. But Jesus answered them. My mother and my brothers are those who hear the Word of God and do it again. Luke 819 221 A third example is Jesus and Mary at the wedding of Cana John 212 11. In these passages and several others, Redemptorist matter finds Jesus offering a positive affirmation and special treatment of Mary rather than a rebuke and a distancing of himself from her and her reliance on her maternal tie rather than a faith.


Last. Mary, as the sinless mother of God, provides no hope for sinful people. A third Protestant assessment of Mariology Mary as the sinless mother of God provides no hope for sinful people. Redemptorist Martyr is a Catholic. Biblical theology of Mary emphasizes Mary's ideal faith, her perfect obedience, her steadfast understanding. Mary's flawless suffering and sacrifice. We could say her perfection. But does Mary actually serve as a model for us who are wavering in faith? Inconsistent in our obedience, bumbling in our understanding and complaining suffers. Certainly imperfect in all our ways. Is she a true source of help for we who are so much unlike her? What about an evangelical biblical theology of Mary? Well, three points. First, they attack us again. They attack us literally. The one who bears the one who is God. Or more briefly, the mother of God. We Protestants do affirm that Mary is theotokos. It is a statement about the full deity of Mary's son. And so we agree Mary is theotokos. But it's a statement about the deity of Christ, the incarnate God. Rather than the statement about her. But we also bless Mary. Mary's faith brings great blessing both to her and to all humanity. She is rightly called Blessed. Luke 148. Because of God's mighty work in and through her on behalf of all people, to accomplish the promise of salvation through the death and resurrection of her son. And then we also hold up as a stellar example her obedience of faith. Mary is a stellar model of the obedience of faith. But remember, she believed that there would be a fulfillment of what was spoken to her from the Lord. Luke 145 She believed that God Himself would fulfill his promised word. So too should we.


So we have traced a biblical theology of Mary, according to Redemptorist matter. We've talked a little bit about her titles and some of her roles. And then we have engaged in an evangelical assessment of this doctrine of Mary. Questions? Yeah, I have a couple. One is just it seems to be an equation between spinelessness and virginity. Yes. Yep. You got it. Okay. So is that based on a Catholic view that that sex is evil or wrong? Or where does that come from? Yeah. Roman Catholic theology, like a lot of Protestant theology, is deeply infected with Gnosticism. So the body is inherently evil. So there's always been a tendency in the church from early on to exalt the spirit or the soul and to minimize or even denigrate the body. And this is seen in the elevation of virginity because it is skewed sexual intercourse. It says, though, it would be legitimate to engage in sexual intercourse between a husband and wife. Right. There's there's a greater state, the state of celibacy or singleness of virginity. So it's interesting. The Catholic Church is the sacrament of matrimony. So it does indeed bless and provide grace for the new husband, a new wife. But even given that there's still something a higher status for virginity. And so for Mary, one of the proofs of her spinelessness is the fact that she is a perpetual virgin. So she never engaged in that body polluting event, which we would call sexual intercourse. Okay. Sorry about to follow that up. No, I understand. I understand it. But the other the other question was, was more of like as you've gone through all these different talks, and I can agree or disagree, but even when I disagree on a lot of these things, I'm still saying, well, that I could see how they could get that out of the decks when I go through the mariology.


So I just don't there's nothing there for me. I cannot imagine how this happened. And yet you said at the beginning of this is Mariology epitomizes the core of the Roman Catholic system. As a Protestant, I would see that it's not as a biblical position, it just is totally an issue of tradition. But in what sense is mariology the core of the Roman Catholic system? What's happening in their view of Mary that epitomizes what Roman Catholic theology is? Yeah. So one point would be these texts, which you as a Greek New Testament scholar, you would dissent from their interpretation shows forth the prerogative of the Magisterium to provide the authoritative official interpretation of Scripture, even when that interpretation is wrong. Catholics are bound to understand these Marian texts according to the way the Roman Catholic Magisterium understands it. And though could listen to your arguments, that's not what the biblical text means. We'd have to dismiss that. So it shows the importance of the Magisterium in terms of interpreting Scripture. It also shows the power and authority of the Magisterium to determine church tradition, the immaculate conception, the bodily assumption. These are promulgated as a dogmas of tradition without necessary scriptural warrant. But because the popes, the Magisterium proclaim them as doctrines, they are doctrines. So it proves that point. It proves the nature, grace, inter interdependence. Mary, being a human being in the realm of nature is capable of receiving the grace of God and transmitting the grace of God that is through the conception and birth of her son. And the Mariology also demonstrates the Christ Church interconnection, because Mary is right there associated with her son. But she's also the mother. So she's the mother of Jesus. She's also the mother of the church.


So we've got this close Christ Mary church interconnection. So we're almost adding a third element to that. So Mariology is, is exemplary of what we've been talking about. I just from my own reading, I had heard that it really paralleled the rise in the view of Mary, paralleled the rise of Methodism and the other mystery religions that that put women at the front. Is there a historical connection between that, or do you just think it really is the just natural theological progression of these different interrelatedness? I would probably say the latter, particularly in the Middle Ages medieval period when the church so emphasizes the deity of Jesus Christ that it minimizes, almost loses the humanity of Jesus Christ. And so the Son becomes the exalted God man, Right? But we're human beings, so we're going to need someone to go between us and a God man. Who better than his mother, who's one of us, but also is close to her son, So the super divine son who's a little human right we have. He's the mediator between us and God, but we have now a mediator between the son and us who has his ear and our ear as well. Okay. All right. That would probably be more of our. Historical theological development.