Hinduism - Lesson 5

Key Themes in the Upanishadic Vision (Part 1)

The Upanishads are one strand of the Vedas. Brahman refers to the all-pervading reality in the Upanishads, not the Brahmin caste. The question throughout the Upanishads is, “Who or what is Brahman?”

Lesson 5
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Key Themes in the Upanishadic Vision (Part 1)

I. Key Themes in the Upanishads

A. Introduction

B. Ten Key Themes

1. Brahman

a. nirguna Brahman – Brahman without qualities

b. saguna Brahman – Brahman with qualities (Isvara)

[Continued in Lecture 6]

Class Resources
  • Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world and one of the oldest. It is about 12% of the world population and about 95% are in India. Hinduism is difficult to define. There is evidence of civilization in the Indus valley as early as 2800 BC. The sacred literature that is the basis for Hinduism was created and developed over hundreds of years. It was originally transmitted orally and was eventually written down.

  • Introduction to fundamental ideas and literature that are basic to the Hindu religion. The first lecture given for this class is not available at this time. This lecture begins on the class outline at II, C.

  • Discussion of the influence that the Vedic tradition has on Hinduism. 

  • Mahavakyas is made up of two words meaning, “great utterances.” The creation stories are a collection of different stories with various themes. The world is created by a divine figure dismembering themself and their body becomes the world. The caste system has a racial element to it based on some of the creation narratives in the RgVeda.

  • The Upanishads are one strand of the Vedas. Brahman refers to the all-pervading reality in the Upanishads, not the Brahmin caste. The question throughout the Upanishads is, “Who or what is Brahman?”

  • Brahman is the ultimate reality of the universe. Our atman is encrusted with karma and stuck on the wheel of Samsara. A Hindu's goal, in the process of being reincarnated through thousands of lifetimes, is to rid themselves of karma so they can achieve moksa, oneness with Brahman.

  • Maya is the ability of the gods to create the world and give it the appearance they choose, thereby concealing the true nature of Brahman. Karma is the principle that what you sow, you alone reap.

  • A Hindu must work off their karma to be released from the wheel of Samsara and achieve moksa when their atman becomes one with Brahman. Yoga was developed as a way to achieve the goals of the Samkhya philosophy. Hindus see God as a material cause of the universe, not an efficient cause.

  • The Mahavakyas are “great sayings” that give you insights into core teachings of Hinduism. The Brehed Aranyaka Upanishad shows that Hindus believe that diversity can come through oneness and not be an “other.”

  • Sankara says that Brahman is unknowable and we can't perceive any of his qualities. The rope-snake metaphor is often used by Hindus to discuss the difference between perception and reality.

  • Hindu writers often use metaphors to illustrate and teach the essentials of the Hindu philosophy. In their writings, they refer to these metaphors in a way that assumes that you know and understand them.

  • The purpose of this lecture is to see the structure of Hinduism at a glance. Hinduism operates and a philosophical level and a popular level. Hinduism attempts to resolve the relationship between knowledge, works and devotion. The four stages of life and the caste system determine much of cultural structure of Hinduism. Hindus worship many Gods.

  • The three major dissent movements that area a challenge Hinduism are Buddhism, Janism and materialism. Hinduism is adept at absorbing other movements. Buddhism claims that there is a teaching that makes it possible for you to reach the state of Nirvana which is liberation from all suffering. The founder of Buddhism is Siddhartha Gautama. The content of his teaching is the four noble truths and the eight-fold path.

  • The key insight of the Upanishads is the identification of atman with Brahman. Buddhists deny both atman and Brahman.

  • The Bhakti marga is branch of Hinduism that emphasizes a spiritual journey undertaken by a devotee that will culminate in a state of union with God or mutual indwelling of the deity and the bhakta.

  • The Hindu gods have identifying characteristics that make them easy to recognize when you see them in temples or other settings. The Trimrti are the three major gods of India which are Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu. Brahma is not often visually represented, so Vishnu and Shiva are seen the most. Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, Shiva the destroyer. Vishnu has 10 incarnations or avatars. These are partial incarnations and don’t represent the fullness of Vishnu.

  • The Siva icon always has the presence of the Trishal, which is a sacred weapon of destruction. There is also the nag (cobra), damaru (drum), third eye, Ganges river flowing out of his head. The dancing Siva has a damaru in one hand and a flame of fire in the other that represents creation and destruction of the world. He also has dreadlocks and the trunk of an elephant.  The third eye of siva is what Hindu women have on their forehead. The Siva Lingum is the most dominant icon in north India.

  • The Brahminical branch teaches that works and devotion lead to true knowledge (Upanishadic vision, tat twam asi). Bhaktis say that knowledge and works should lead to devotion.

  • The Ramayana is an epic account of India. It is the story or epic of Rama and Sita, and is the origin of the tradition of Suti. Mahabharata is the epic of India. It’s the longest collection of poems in the world. The Bhagavad-Gita  is the most important part of the Mahabharata. It talks about both the dharma of caste and the dharma of denial and renunciation.

  • Gurus integrate different parts of the marga system. Paramahamsa Ramakrishna declared the unity of all religions. He claimed to have visions of Hindu gods and Jesus Christ and Mohammed and that all religions lead to the same ultimate reality, sat chit ananda. Swami Vivekananda was the most well-known follower of Ramadrishna and brought his message to the western world. He accepts tat twam asi, the great insight of the Upanishads, but thinks that everyone, not just Brahmans can perceive that unity. (The last point of the lecture was cut short due to a technical limitation.)

    You may download the text of Vivekananda's speech by clicking on the Handouts link in the upper left corner.

  • These are nine of the major holidays celebrated in India. Sankara has been called India’s greatest philosopher. Sankara emphasized universals and Ramanuja emphasized the particulars, similar to Plato and Aristotle in Western thought. Sankara has greater status as a philosopher, but Ramanuja has had a great influence on how the masses practice Hinduism.

    The chart Dr. Tennent refers to near the end of the lecture is the “Three Vehicle Structure of Hinduism,” which is labeled Lecture 6 in the complete class outline pdf document on the class page.

  • Brahmabandhav Upadhyay was an upper jati Brahman teacher who converted to Catholicism. He attempts to explain Christianity by using Advadic motifs. Brahmabandhav is an example of how a Brahman can address the Brahminical community using a Brahminical line of reasoning.

  • There are opportunities for preaching the gospel and planting churches, but there are significant challenges. There is a difference between being unreached and being unevangelized. Homogenus unit principle is one factor that makes it difficult for the gospel to spread in India. It’s important to send people to unreached groups and use a strategy that is effective for those groups.

In-depth survey of philosophical and popular Hinduism’s historical and theological themes. Exposure to current strategies being used to bring the gospel to Hindus and how Christian theology is being formulated in the Indian context.

Dr. Tennent occasionally uses pictures of Hindu gods or other visual resources in his lectures. You can download a document with these pictures by clicking on the Hindu Deity Pictures link. 



Dr. Timothy Tennent
Key Themes in the Upanishadic Vision (Part 1)
Lesson Transcript


It was not my attention that the library does not have the book by Herbert Ellinger entitled Hinduism The Basics. If a lot of you would like to look at this. This person tries to cover the whole of Hinduism in 86 pages. What a remarkable thing he's done here. In fact, amazingly, the opening chapter is the world of the center town of Dharma, the Eternal Truth. So he opens up with that very point that we've talked about so much. Just to give you a feel for his chapters. Chapter one is called The World of the Senate and Dharma to the Wheel of Rebirth, which is Samsara, which we'll look at today. Three The World of the Hindu Gods. He talks about Brahman, the quote, aspects of Brahman, referring to the goodness of Guna. Then he goes to Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, the Brahma Brahman. Other gods, the Hindu pantheon. Also two, three, two, two, four. The Hindu scriptures, the four Vedas rig Salmiya. Sarva Shruti Smriti. Chapter five The Castes. Chapter six Death and Rebirth. Chapter seven Monks Saints and Ascetics. Today, The Hindu Temple. A mystical, three dimensional diagram deals with the whole concept of cosmic cosmology. And then non Hinduism, a complex form of life. It's very simple, straightforward, but it's not required. But some people just like to kind of get a little overview so you know where to hang things. And there it is. I think we're ready to begin. So the only purpose and prayer we should learn. We love to. That's exactly why we're here. Help us to understand. Hinduism. Issues that are related to safety might be more effective for your cause as well as these things. Yeah. Okay. At this point, we are actually seeking to construct the basic worldview of the opponent shot vision.


What are the key themes that emerge out of the opponent Shots. We begin this process by kind of exploring the ten themes, and then you'll be given a handout at the end of the day today, which actually has photocopied off certain key passages, which we will look at more carefully from the upon shards. And with that as a basis, you should be able to read the upon shards more effectively. So it's like constructing a space station, You know, you've got to do it one block at a time. We have talked about Brahman, the two aspects of Brahman, they're gonna go we talked about Atman and I don't believe we really mentioned the Anti-human, did we? Okay, so we're at that point in the discussion, all right? The Ottoman, essentially, you should view as the ground of being the universal self. The anti-human comes into some later discussions. I want to just kind of have this on the table in terms of another development of this. There is a movement in Hinduism that does not like the idea of an impersonal Brahman or I should I should say they're okay with impersonal Brahman, but they want to create the possibility that Brahman can act in a way that is received at least as personal in the lives of some people. There are certain places in the upon us where the expression in fact actually quite frequently in the Punisher just comes up. But it's not necessary developed theologically, but the term anti-human. One who dwells within sometimes transcended the internal controller. Now, this has raised a lot of discussion in the opponent shot and in later Hindu discussion. Who is this one who dwells within us? So there is a tendency in some strands of the upon us shards to personify the ultimate being, the ultimate reality of the universe so that Brahman can act or cause you to act in some way.


Well, if you have an acting Brahman, then that creates some possibility interaction, some possibility of an internal controller. And there are some philosophers, particularly Ramanujan. I will look at later in the course who make a lot of this and try to develop a pretty substantial theology that creates a much more personal conception of God. And so the anti-human is often used almost interchange with Ottman to be not just a self or an essence, but actually the launching pad or the point of contact through which Brahman can actually contact you, direct, you work through, you speak through, you worship through, you be devotion and devotional experiences through you, whatever. So the idea is that someone is there worshiping an idol. Some philosophers would say, even though this idol is nothing. Brahman himself is acting through this person and through the anti-human. He is controlling this person and that devotion is being actually ultimate received by Brahman. It's almost like a Carl Rainer's inclusive, his Indian style. And you don't know who Carl Reiner is. Forget that comment. But anyway, it's it's that kind of thing. That's just a term that we may come back to later on the course. I want to have it on the table, but doesn't substantially change at this point what we said about either Brahman or Atman, the two eternal realities that form the essence of all things. The third component is this term tort Tom AC, which can be translated as thou art that and is quite important, particularly in the Chien Doga Upanishad. I have that quote there. You also see a quotation there from the book here that in Yaka thou art thou, what does this mean? Well, essentially in the Upon Shards, you have several examples where a guru is meeting with his disciple and he's trying to get the disciple to understand the meaning of the universe.


And so through several different metaphors and conversations he does this. One of those important is where he is talking to this disciple. And they go and look at various things. They look at trees, they look at people, they look at whatever. And the guru always ends by saying top to bottom. I say, Thou art that. So the idea is he's trying to help the disciple to see that beyond all of the phenomenological differences, all the observed differences that you observe, that I look different than you. I have a different shape than you. I have different whatever than you, that those aren't very merely phenomenal. And at the root of everything, there is the same essence. And so taht Tomasi is ultimately used to demonstrate that there is no fundamental difference between Atman and Brahman. This is the great insight of the upon the shards. By all accounts, there's not really a lot of dissent on this point. The Punishers teaches many things. The Punisher has been used for a jillion different kind of teachings, but most everyone agrees that the great insight, if you want to call it that of the Punisher gods, is the identification of Ottoman with Brahman. So if you recognize that your essence is the same as the essence of the universe, this is a form of identification. This is the ultimate and most important cosmic homology. Because if you recognize that my essence is identical to the essence of the entire universe, then you're finally realizing what all this cosmic cosmology is are all about. Because ultimately it comes down to this one. This is the paradigm which everything else is a reflection are rippling out from, because this is the ultimate one. Once you realize that your essence is identical to the essence of the whole universe and there's no distinction in the universe and you everything ultimately is identified in as one.


And this, of course, is why the key philosophy that teaches this doctrine a key school, and we'll explore this later in more detail. But there are six schools of Indian philosophy. The most important schools, a school called Vedanta. VEDANTAM means the end of the Vedas. What is it? The innovators? The Upanishads. So this is a group that specializes in what they say is the proper interpretation of the upon of shards. This is the word for end of the Veda. There's several schools of Vedanta, but the most important one is a school called Advaita. Advaita is this is the private of a. Like we use the word theism atheism. They the same thing in Sanskrit and this is the word for the war is word for two. You can even see it because Sanskrit is Indo-European. So you can see the DUA is obviously too in many European languages. So not to say that is it is monism. Or non dualism. They usually say it in the negative in the Indian context, but this is an affirmation statement. This is a negative statement. The Indians prefer to say things through negation, so they'll say we're non dualist. So ultimately talk to us see is about non dualism and that is this is a extremely influential school Hindu philosophy. This whole school is massively influential there. There's a very minor in of all the schools this is the most dominant one. We'll look at some different ways that groups try to tweak this basic insight, but that insight is there. In fact, all the skills of a dentist basically agree with that insight. So taught to us See, thou art that. The transmission makes even more evident in Brett Aaron Yakub. That transmission refers to what a father says to his son prior to the departure of his in his life.


The whole thing is based on father son. There's no reference to daughters here, but there's no. It's just the way the culture was done. So the idea was when the father died, he would pass on a transmission of his insight to the son. So he would say to the. The son. Twan. Brahman, you are Brahman. And the son responds, A hum, Brahman. I am Brahman. Twan. Brahman. Ahum, Brahman. Okay, so this becomes the kind of the statement that symbolizes the key insight of the eponymous shards is for a young person to recognize that he is Brahman. In fact, in the Brigadier in York, I'm going to quote this now, this is an intimate moment with the father or with a guru, with his disciple before he dies. Now, therefore, the transmission, when a man thinks that he's about to depart, he says to his son, you are Brahman. You are the sacrifice. You are the world. The son answers, I am Brahman. I am the sacrifice. I am the world. And then the guru usually says, from Brahman or cameraman, You are Brahman. I am from the reprieve with that. So this becomes the key insight of the Punjab that you are the sacrifice. You are the world, you are Brahman. You are identifying your essence with the essence of the entire universe. I'm quoting from Chen Doji upon a shard where he says that which is the subtle essence of all this world, this whole world has for itself. That is the true. That is the self taught trauma. See, say, dictators with dictators, persons named thou art that with decay do. He goes to him, he says, one day he comes, the pupil comes to the master, and he says he says to the people, he says, Bring me a bowl of water.


He brings a bottle of water. He's bring me some salt to make some salt. He says, Put the salt in the water because the salt in the water, okay? And then the next day he comes back. He says, Oh, by the way, bring me the the bowl With the images in the bowl. He says, I want the salt back. And the people says, you can't, you can't. That's not already gone, is dissolved. You can't get it back. And so the man's will says, taste it and see if it's salty. He tasted it. Salty. How about on this side? He had salty Heller taste in the middle. Salty? Yeah, it's salty everywhere. And so his point is, by looking at the water, you cannot perceive the subtle essence within it. You taste it salt. If you can't see, the salt is completely dissolved in the same way. The ottoman is completely diffused in the whole universe. You can't separate the almond out, but it's there. It's there. It is the essence that lies behind everything he tells him. Talk to us. See that, art? That you are? That salt in the water. Another passage says, Just as bees prepare honey by collecting the essence of different trees and flowers. And yet, even though they go to different trees and different flowers, they reduce them to one essence. Honey. And as these possess no discrimination, if you once you have honey, there's no little parts of the honey say I am part of a tree as though I'm part of this flower. I'm part of this flowering bush. No, no. He's the one that once they're made into honey, it's all honey. None says I am the essence of the tree. And this is the that flower.


So that which is the subtle essence this whole world has for itself. This is the true. This is the self taught time. I see thou art that. So the key to this is the constant refrain over and over again. We'll be looking at these passages, some of these. In the end, though, I'll give you the handout. So essentially the third insight brings the first two together. It's recognizing that no ultimate distinction between Brahman and optimum, but identification of the two. Okay, questions. Yes. So whenever the son would say, Aha, Brahman, I am Brahman then is that so problem or are they speaking of the Buddha from. Well, there actually there is there's a lot of debate about the precise meaning of the phrase, what I see and what it means for someone to say, ahem, Brahman. And essentially this whole discussion is about introducing the Brahman. All right. So there's no real problem with the saying this is an illusion. But when you say I am Brahman, obviously that creates a and philosophically create a thing saying I equals Brahman. And so if you say AHAM Brahman, are you identifying your eye with Brahman? If so, in what way does your eye have a separate existence, which is impossible in Brahman? So this is creates a huge, huge mountain of discussion, which I'm sure you can't wait to read. So there is a lot of discussion about what is meant by the expression I in this whole discussion between in the Hindu philosophy. But essentially nobody is just really in a sense re I mention that because they often will say when he says I, he's speaking at the logical level, so he's speaking at the level of signal, but no one really denies the fact that this Brahman has been spoken of is the true essence of the universe, which obviously is no going to other thoughts.


Yes. With if everything essentially and in its essence, not its flummox. All right. So why then are temporal distinctions such as. Necessary. That's a good question. Even in the east, that basically is answered through number four on this list, the next one. Well, answer that question. I think I'll answer that question for you. If it doesn't. We can come back to it. But that little undercurrent is there. That is part of the potential doorway for a dissent movement. So, for example, when Ramanujan, who was the second greatest philosopher in Hindu Indian history, he goes through the whole process of the gurus. He's giving more and more sacred mantras. He is, of course, a Brahmin. He is going to the point where he's recognizing that the truth of Atman is Brahman. Okay. So finally, after two years of study, he is finally admitted into the presence of the Supreme Guru in this part of India, who, after years of study, is finally prepared to whisper into his ear a sacred mantra that really nobody else knows except this particular guru. And so it's a big moment for any disciple, because you've got your whole life up to that point of preparation, study, meditation, da da, da da, da. So the guru whispers this mantra into his ear. And that, of course, represents all kinds of power and insight and everything, as you already know. So Ramanujan goes out on the balcony after he sees as he shouts the mantra down to all the crowds below it, causing a huge stir because this was a very sacred mantra and it was not to be just like frivolously giving away. But he was making a statement about why can't this be accessible to everybody? Why do we make these distinctions? Why would only a Brahmin receive it? And he creates a big reaction because of this.


And what later on you'll see how his philosophy tries to incorporate some of your questions into his philosophy. But as a rule, that's not going to be permissible in India. They do very much, except the all these distinctions at a certain level. And only Brahmin males have this insight. Other comments that'll come more, I think, clear the next next key theme. Yeah that's I mean that's a choose to that's according to the tradition of India. Yes. That's a true story that happened. Well, he got into all kinds of trouble, but eventually he created a huge following of people that and he became the father of a whole new branch of philosophy that's now known as Vish is Ted. All right. This is the other great branch of Vedanta. This means he still has advait in it. So it's non dualism, but this is modified non dualism. So he creates a whole nother movement. And I actually believe in some ways this movement has been more influential on India than this movement, even though this is like your textbook Hinduism. If you go by a book on Hinduism, this is kind of what they're going to give you, the kind of company line. This is like standard Hindus, but actually on the ground in India, this is very, very powerful because it is more of a popular version of Hinduism. Well, with all that, we'll explore later on in the course, Yes. Wouldn't there have to be some point where they're going to going to Roman Intersect? When you say intersect, you mean intersect in reality or an experience in reality? There's no way they're in sectors. Brahmin they're going to is real. Sadhguru Brahma is unreal. It's illusory. If it's all the same, then there has to be some point where it touches.


I would think. Right. Well, there's no question that in some understanding of their goona that they're goona who you cannot speak of. Is eventually manifested in Sedona to, for example, create the world as is very so that that definitely is there. So you can argue that and in this philosopher, for example, and you mentioned earlier, he is going to deny that this distinction is there. He says to go now and again, it's all the same. You can't separate the two. These are all totally identified in his mind. So that's a whole branch of thinking that does try to make a connection. One of the problems here is I'm trying to kind of give you the Panasonic view, the main view, and then we'll look at some of the ways this is like teased out and challenged by different people. But essentially, if you ask the question on a ultimate level, is there an intersection there? GOONA and so goona know the intersection only happens in the experience of a worshiper or someone who observes the creation. They have an intersection because they're the only way you can experience in Laguna is through some kind of phenomenological experience. As I'm in a creation, I'm in a human body, but the Brahman males are going to say ultimately that even that insight has to be proven to be false at an ultimate level. So you have to always keep that. The reality of your experience in the reality of ultimate reality in your mind. Was there another question or. Well, as long as the fellow's all about the same thing with angels, with the main focus on the classic why you can go out and chance it. You think it might help you get through the glass? No, I'm kidding.


No, I don't. I don't know what the answer was. I don't know that the story tells that what the mantra was. Okay, so Brahman Ottman talked to us, see? And now, finally fourthly, samsara. The word samsara literally means flow. You have a picture of a river that is flowing by. Or another. There's to remain images in Hindu writings about samsara. One is the image of a river flowing by, which naturally is important the Ganges River. The Indus River. You don't stop in the center of or twice. The whole idea is very important to Hindus. The other is the idea of a wheel that turns around and round and round. If you know the Indian flag, you'll know that the center symbol of the Indian flag is a wheel. That wheel is the wheel of samsara. It's not just a chariot wheel. It's the wheel of samsara. It's actually interestingly, it's a one that's on their flag is actually kind of a Buddhist version of it. But that's another another thing we'll go into in this class. But essentially, the wheel is a very important symbol in Hinduism for samsara. Now, the idea behind it obviously is a wheel. It goes around and around and around. This again, is another cosmic homology, because your life is constantly recycled. Your life is going through a migration, and so is the entire universe. So samsara from a macro perspective, let's just start with the macro. I think that would maybe maybe make more sense. On the macro level, you should picture the most basic picture of some Sahwa that look like this. All right. And this is the we'll. That is the wheel of samsara. Now this wheel is turning and we'll just say at this point in time, your attention is embedded into this wheel of samsara.


This is essentially a wheel of illusion. A wheel of suffering. All right. Because of karma, which we have not yet explored, but because of karma, you are trapped on to this wheel of samsara. You cannot escape this wheel of some sorrow. This is the wheel of life. This is the wheel of individual existence. This is the cycle of life and birth and rebirth. So this is the life that we all have. This is the life that we're experiencing right now. So at some point, you are born and you live and you go through various stages in your life and eventually you die. And when you die, your Atman will migrate to another place based on your karma. We haven't discussed karma yet, but based on your karma, your attention will migrate to a new place. This is often called transmigration. The full term for this is transmigration of souls. And when they say souls here, they're referring to the jive ottoman, your individual ottoman that is encrusted with various kinds of karmic debt. Basically, this is a little bit like I mean, this is not like in some ways it's totally unlike in some ways it's very much like the concept of sin in the sense that this is the dysfunctions in that way in the Hindu worldview. You are entrapped or enslaved in some way. This is what you're trying to get out of or away from. In that sense, it's theologically serves a similar purpose. So transmigration is probably the most it is the most important doctrine. It flows out of the theology of samsara. We often hear it called reincarnation. I think on the back I have here on term numbers eight Transmigration Reincarnation, Madame Psychosis. These are terms for the last ones a Western philosophical term, the reincarnations of popular kind of expression.


The other is the more precise way it's actually referred to in the Indian discussions. Transmigration. So as long as we remain trapped on the wheel of Samsara, we are continuing to affirm our individual existence. We'll continue to migrate to new forms of existence. Upon your death, your often will migrate to a new life and be reborn in rebirth. This is samsara. Is this constant state of of birth and rebirth. Now on a macro level, now we're trying to look at your own individual. Life is going through cycles of birth and rebirth. But on the huge macro level, the entire universe as we know it is going through various stages of existence. And these stages are divided into four different categories. The four parts are all called Uga's, so they're for uga's to the university system. The first is called the critter stage. The crypt stage. And this is kind of the golden age and it lasts 1.7 million years. So at the same as the sodomy that, you know, is probably I'm not sure what that is. There's probably a sub category of one of these four, but we're not in the critter states, probably a subcategory of the color age. The second is the threat that yoga the threat that yoga is 1.2 million years. The third is the dwarf para diva, APRA. That's 854,000 years. And then finally there is the Collie age. The word Kali in Sanskrit means black, the black age or dark age, 432,000 years. Exactly half the length of the other. So essentially, if you add all this together, it comes up to 4,320,000 years. So it takes 4 million, three and 20,000 years for the Wheel of Samsara to turn one time. Now, what they believe is that this is the golden age.


This is where Dharma is kept by everybody. And everybody is is working in their proper order and all that. And the karma gradually builds up and the whole universe gets under more and more karmic pressure because of bad karma, bad deeds, evil on and on and on. So finally, you get to the college age. This is the stage that we're in now. According to their belief, we're in the dark age, the college age, and this period there is a massive lack of dharma. And it's during this period that you have the Mahabharata composed, which is the what the Bhagavad Gita is. So this is a desperation attempt to bring people back and save them out of this Kali age. It's known for the loss of Dharma. Until finally Kalki returns. At the end of this cycle, there's a is a rebirth. At this point at the once you've turned one time around. Okay. So we're now we're going like this. We're now somewhere in this stage of the start of the turn. Once you get into this thing, then the whole thing will dissolve. The whole phenomenal world will dissolve. And you'll go into a period of rest where all of this is reabsorbed back into Brahma for another 4 million, three and 20,000 years. So this is a day and a night of Brahma. Now that is a what they call a minor dissolution, where it is basically absorbed into Brahma. But all of the karma stays latent in Brahma. This is why when the world is recreated, the poor people that had bad karma from the previous, you know, 4.3 million years ago, that bad karma and crustal assortment is re again emitted into the next creation. This is why even at creation, even at the dawn of creation, you have shudders because see that karmic that is continued that happens a thousand times and it amounts to 8.6 million years, happens a thousand times before there is a triple dissolution and things really get completely absorbed and you really get start all over again.


The problem with that is the people that get reabsorbed into Brahman and have the inside of Ottoman is Brahman. Then they actually get reinvented again and they have to start the process all over again. So even even if someone is, quote, saved. It is not. Absolutely. I mean, if you want to get 10:00 eternal salvation, because we're talking about the possibility of trillions of years later granted. A thousand of these 8 million other things. It will happen all over again. If you take all of these periods together, all of these day and night of Brahma, that together is known as a the term for this, the 4 million, which is the day, the 4 million rest minor dissolution night. That whole thing is one day in the life, day and night life of Brahma that's called a kalpa. And these philosopher refer to, you know, how many copies they'll say, Oh, after a thousand culpas, then there is a true dissolution or a thousand. That's a thousand times 8 million years. So I my current calculator and I could be wrong, but I think this comes out to 315 quadrillion human years. Now I know that is basically like almost like eternity, but in fact it does happen all over again. This is actually pictured as in popular literature. I mean, this is all like philosophical discussion about how many CalPERS and Hugos and all that, but in popular Hinduism is very, very well known by and they do it by a picture of a cow and they'll say a cow as four legs. So as you go through the different yoga's, then you lose one leg of the cow. So, you know, the cow is like, tottering, tottering. So now the poor cows on one leg to see we're in the cow here.


So the cow sticks in the fall. So we're in that kind of desperate stage now with the the yoga's. You don't need to know about all of this. I do have the development there. If you understand that there's four ages or you in samsara, that's fine. But I want to give you a feel for just the amount of time it takes for the will of samsara to turn around one time. And at the macro level, it's quite amazing. So a person has been reborn. You know, this is a microscopic period of time when you come at a lifetime of 100 years or 70 years or whatever is pretty small in the larger scheme of things. So you're kind of inching your way along the wheel of samsara through birth and rebirth. And of course, your goal is to escape this. To escape the will of samsara is the fundamental goal of Hinduism, which is called Moksha, which is the term that comes out number seven. But we're not quite there yet. We'll get there at some point. How are we on samsara or transmigration of souls? Do we feel okay with it? Yeah. All right. Does anybody know what year we're actually in? Nobody knows. Of course, since this is, we're not in any of these years. Right? From our point of view. But there are people who who speculate whether we're close to the end or whatever. But I've never seen any like someone put a number to it like that. But there are people who argue that because the Mahabharata is given fairly early on in this period, you know, we may be only not even halfway through this period. Yes. Stop it. Only if you achieve moksha. That only by escaping the will of samsara.


There's no way the ottoman ever exist in a disembodied state. So once the ottoman, once you die, it automatically migrates to some state. The laws of Manu, which I almost ask you to read. But I thought better of it. The laws and I knew you would find interesting because this is the main book that tells you what happens when you die. In terms of transmigration. So say, for example, if you eat meat, then you will migrate back as a meat eater. So if you were to break down and eat meat. Then you'll come back as a tiger, for example. That's the my name. If a Brahman has intercourse with a shoe drop, they both will come back as Dalits, you know, whatever. So they have very, very strict governing rules. Even things like what you'll do. I think there are certain things that actually if you steal from a Brahman, you'll come back as a spider. It's a pretty bad thing. I mean, the bomb is going to be stolen from. So they take make the penalty step to come back as a spider. And that's a long way down embedded in the will of some sort if you're deep down in the wheel of some. Sorry, I mean, at least a human existence, a human migration, you have the possibility of improving your karma if you come back as a lion or a tiger or something. That's a long process before your karmic debt is worked off and you can finally reemerge as a human. So, you know, that's a big penalty to come back as a spider. So the laws that I knew are very funny and very interesting. You'll enjoy reading them if you have time. Yes, I never read them. We're going to talk about how to get ahead.


Yes. Well, definitely about how you get out of it. Yes. I'm back in a follow up. Okay. So the whole world is going to be this will the whole universe, the universe, but individually, we're going to this well individual. You're not going to individual, you guys, but you're going through individual what's called stages of life. A person goes through four stages of life in your own personal journey. We haven't actually got this yet, but since you ask briefly mention it when you're born, you grow up in your first stage. The other two is called the student stage, and so you become a student, you're a learner. Then second stage is called the householder stage. This is where you have family and children and all that. Third stage is the forest dwellers stage, where you do on as far as there's a retirement period, you're going to meditate. It's fifth in the world. The fourth stage is called a son, Yasin son who renounces the world. So in essence, you are going through a cycle of stages in your own life as well as the whole universe, that cosmic homology is there, but it's not referred to as for you, because in this kind of way. Okay, so that's your life. But when you don't come back, where are you on this? We'll say we'll just say for argument's sake, that the that the universe is at this point. All right, So the whole human race of your Brahman should rise. Whatever. Are there being born and reborn at this point? Only you can't. There's no jumping around everybody. The whole universe is at this point. And we get to this point. The universe is dissolved. So your individual life is going through these four stages, but that in effect, this is all over with past history.


We can do anything about it. We're now in the color. It's color you go, yes, sensors increase. Population growth does happen because everyone's becoming better, not necessarily because that assumes that Ottman Joe Batman goes in the one individual, and that's simply not true. So your art and candy manifested in multiple individuals. In popular Hinduism, you often have gods that come down as like six or eight people, ten people. So you don't have that 1 to 1 correspondence, which would create that like a mathematical crisis. They prove that that actually happened in the universe. Right. There is absolutely no independent evidence that any of this is a fact. And obviously, as Christians, we will reject it. And we don't believe it's part of the true cosmology universe. But this is the Hindu cosmology. So people affirm it because they're taught it. But no, there is no independent evidence that we are in the college age or that the world has 4.3 million years before it goes through a dissolution, a minor dissolution. All that is just speculation. Hindus are great speculators and they're brilliant minds and they have developed a massive, complex philosophical scheme and work. We're looking at one little part of that.