Deuteronomy - Lesson 35

Death of Moses - Deut. 34.1-12

This is the last narrative story about Moses in the Old Testament. God tells him to go up on Mt. Nebo where he is able to see the land. Joshua takes over as the leader of the people. There is a eulogy for Moses at the end.  

Daniel Block
Lesson 35
Watching Now
Death of Moses - Deut. 34.1-12

Death of Moses (34:1-12)

I. Context

A. Literary: The death narrative

B. Account of his death

C. Promise remembered

D. Burial of Moses

II. Eulogy

III. Other Prophets

IV. Commissioning of Joshua

V. Conclusion

Class Resources
  • The book of Deuteronomy contains the gospel message. Even though there are some laws mentioned, the essence of the book is prophetic preaching. Your presuppositions and principles for interpretation that you use will make a difference in how you view the meaning and significance of the book of Deuteronomy.

  • Deuteronomy is primarily a collection of sermons but its structure is covenantal. The structure of the covenant was commonly used in other cultures in the Ancient Near East during this time period. God tells the people of Israel that he is their God and the people say that they are God’s treasured possession. (Note: Mt. Sinai and Mt. Horeb are referring to the same thing. They are used interchangeably)

  • God gave the Decalogue to Moses so they have authority as Scripture. The book of Deuteronomy as whole is also Scripture. It contains the speeches of Moses and narrative passages. It’s the lense through which we view the other books of the Pentateuch.

  • Moses begins by recalling events that happened during their wandering in the wilderness, then recent events as they have gotten closer to entering the promises land from the east. Moses is idealized in the Old and New Testaments and in the writings of historians. You get a different picture when you read his first address. It shows Moses as faithful but flawed.

  • The Law was given to the nation of Israel after they had been freed from Egypt as the way to respond to God’s grace. God gives them the boundaries for right and wrong and a process to restore relationship when it is broken.

  • With the privilege of salvation and covenant relationship comes the call for a righteous response, demonstrated in joyful obedience to the Savior and Lord. A covenant is a formally confirmed agreement between two or more parties that creates, formalizes, governs a relationship that does not exist naturally or a natural relationship that has disintegrated.

  • God’s people are a privileged people; they have been graciously redeemed, and set apart as his special treasure, his holy covenant people. God acts graciously to undeserving people and they respond joyfully with obedience. The is the end of the first speech of Moses, Deuteronomy 4:32-40.

  • The Decalogue is the bill of rights of the people of ancient Israel. It is the ten principles of covenant relationship. It creates a picture of covenant righteousness and provides a foundation for later revelation. The Decalogue contains the features of a typical covenant and conditional and unconditional laws. The addressee is the head of the household because they can be a threat to others.

  • When Moses recites the Decalogue in Deuteronomy 5, there are parts that are similar to the passage in Exodus, and there are some significant differences. He begins with getting the attention of the people of Israel and appealing for covenant fidelity, restates the Decalogue, then ends with a document clause, using covenant language.

  • The Shema is a call for whole-hearted, full-bodied commitment. This passage is a theological exposition and pastoral proclamation to impress on the minds of the people of Israel the special relationship they enjoyed with YHWH. The grace God showed them must be embraced with grateful and unreserved devotion to their redeemer and covenant Lord.

  • God chooses the covenant partner, sets the terms, declares the goal, identifies the sign and determines the consequences of disobedience of the covenant. After Moses explains the purpose of the Law, he explains to the children how the Law was given and that learning it and putting it into practice will bring them life.

  • Moses talks to the people of Israel as they are entering the land, about how they will respond to the external test of confronting and dispossessing the surrounding nations. He reminds them of their special status with God and the covenant that he offers them unconditionally. He challenges them with the theological, ethical and missional significance of the test.

  • How can you worship a God that asks the people of Israel to wipe out the Canaanites? The reason for Israel taking the land is so the people of Israel as a holy people will be preserved so the world will be preserved. God is fundamentally compassionate and gracious, he does what is right and God offers us grace and mercy.

  • When everything goes right, what do you do then? The message of this passage is, “don’t forget.” YHWH provided manna in the wilderness to feed the people of Israel. God was also teaching them in the wilderness that life comes from every word of the mouth of God, not just by eating physical food. Moses challenges the people to respond to prosperity by praising God, not by taking the credit themselves.

  • The enemies in the Promised Land are formidable. God promises to defeat them. Moses warns that people to acknowledge that God is responsible. Even though the Canaanites do not follow God, the reason God chose the people is not because they are morally superior to the Canaanites.

  • Israel’s covenant with YHWH is based entirely on his grace and they don’t deserve it. Moses interceded on behalf the of people of Israel to ask God to not judge them and God is described as, “changing his mind” and renewing his covenant with them.

  • “What does YHWH ask of you?” Moses answers this question, then gives a doxology to confirm it and an application to illustrate it. God wants you to have a soft heart toward him, to live in an attitude of trusting awe and to act in a way that honors the covenant that God has established with you.

  • Moses has given a profound theology of land. He gives the people of Israel instructions for what God wants them to do when they enter the land to confirm their covenant with God. This included using uncut stones and plastering them and writing the Torah on them and then praising God. The land is an integral part of the covenant. The people shout blessings on Mount Gerizim and curses on Mount Ebal.

  • As the people of Israel enter the land, God has instructions for them on how to live in relationship with him and worship him so that it may go well with them and their children. They are to reject the false worship practices of the surrounding nations and accept God’s invitation to come and worship him in the place and in the way he has designed for them.

  • The Levites represent a barometer on where the people of Israel are in their ethical religion. They are not given land as an inheritance so it is the responsibility of people in the other tribes to support them. Moses presents a theology of worship but doesn’t go into detail.

  • This is a warning to the people of Israel to not imitate the materialistic preoccupation and the brutal rituals associated with the worship practices of the surrounding nations when they worship YHWH. There are warnings against following false prophets, someone in your family or people in your community if they are promoting seditious religious practices. The apostle Paul uses similar language in the New Testament when warning people about following people who teach heresies.

  • In contrast to worship with the purpose of satisfying the gods, YHWH delights in fellowship with his people and for them to celebrate in his presence. YHWH encourages his people to eat in his presence and with other people. His guidelines about which foods are acceptable to eat set the people of Israel apart from other nations.

  • A main purpose of the national festivals was to keep alive the memory of God’s grace and maintain their faith in god and their covenant with him.

  • Moses describes the key offices and roles that keep the society going by providing political and spiritual structure. The primary concern is righteousness. The king is to be the embodiment of Torah righteousness. Moses outlines specific steps to achieve this and describes what it will look like.

  • Moses, in his role as prophet, is the commissioned envoy of righteousness to the people of Israel. Moses was a mediator between God and the people of Israel. He warned the people of Israel about false prophets and the danger of adopting the worship practices of the surrounding nations.

  • Moses provides a picture of covenant life and godliness in a way that you can apply it to every situation in life. It’s important to care for the poor and the resident alien and to show justice to them. The resident aliens were invited to participate in the feasts and covenant life.

  • The ideal for the people of Israel was a patricentric society but in often the reality was a patriarchal society. In a patricentric society, the male head of the clan will provide resources and security in a way that gives his family and the community opportunities to flourish. The vision for women in Deuteronomy is different than the world that is described in Israelite narratives.

  • Celebrating God’s goodness and grace in the Land. Bringing an offering from the firsfruits of the harvest is a time to remember how God has provided for the people of Israel in the past, both as individuals and as a community. There are lessons we can learn about worhship and living faithfully. This is the Deuteronomic creed.

  • Some people view the curses in Deuteronomy 28 as a stumbling block to accepting the Old Testament as Christian Scripture because they say it represents God as vengeful. However, this was a common way of writing covenants in the Ancient Near East, they follow a list of extraordinary blessings, they serve a pastoral function and there are similar curses articulated in the New Testament.

  • Deuteronomy 29 begins with Moses recounting how YHWH brought the people out of Egypt and gave them victory in the land east of the Jordan River. Then he describes the curses they will experience when they turn away from the Lord. Chapter 30 describes the eschatological restoration. Deuteronomy 29:29 refers to the mystery of divine grace. (The movie and book series that Dr. Block is referring to is Lord of the Rings by J.R.R Tolkien. The prequel to this series is The Hobbit.)

  • This is the final altar call of Moses to the people of Israel to appeal to them to choose life by living in covenant relationship with YHWH. The revelation of YHWH given through Moses is to be memorized, recited and used as a guide for conduct. It is understandable and doable.

  • The Torah that Moses has been preaching was written down. This is the introduction to the song of Moses and contains the commissioning of Joshua, who will take over after Moses dies. Part of the book of Deuteronomy is the death narrative of Moses.

  • This passage is a poetic witness to the people of Israel of the faithfulness of YHWH and the faithlessness of Israel. Moses was told to teach it to the people of Israel so they could pass it on to their descendants. People could sing it throughout the day and it could be presented as a musical drama at national celebrations.

  • At the end of the sermons of Moses, he pronounces a benediction by saying something specific for each tribe. Deuteronomy 33 and Genesis 49 have some similarities and differences in the way the sons of Jacob and their descendants are blessed. The exordium and the coda frame the blessings by describing YHWH’s care and provision for the people of Israel as their king.

  • This is the last narrative story about Moses in the Old Testament. God tells him to go up on Mt. Nebo where he is able to see the land. Joshua takes over as the leader of the people. There is a eulogy for Moses at the end.  

The Gospel according to Moses. This is a collection of sermons of Moses as the people of Israel are poised to enter the promised land after being in the wilderness for 40 years. Deuteronomy is a special book, calling God’s people to celebrate his grace and demonstrate covenant love for him with action that glorifies his name. Until we recognize the gospel in this book, we will not read this book. (Note: Mt. Sinai and Mt. Horeb are referring to the same mountain. They are used interchangeably)

Recommended Books

The Gospel according to Moses

The Gospel according to Moses

To many people the law stands in opposition to the gospel. While it may be possible to read Paul's epistles this way, the book of Deuteronomy will not allow this reading. Like the book of Romans in the New Testament, Deuteronomy provides the most systemat

The Gospel according to Moses
The Triumph of Grace: Literary and Theological Studies in Deuteronomy and Deuteronomic Themes

The Triumph of Grace: Literary and Theological Studies in Deuteronomy and Deuteronomic Themes

The Apostle Paul's negative statements about the law have deafened the ears of many to the grace that Moses proclaims in Deuteronomy. Most Christians have a dim view of...

The Triumph of Grace: Literary and Theological Studies in Deuteronomy and Deuteronomic Themes
How I Love Your Torah, O Lord!: Literary And Theological Explorations On The Book Of Deuteronomy

How I Love Your Torah, O Lord!: Literary And Theological Explorations On The Book Of Deuteronomy

Like the book of Romans in the New Testament, the book of Deuteronomy provides the most systematic and sustained presentation of theology in the Old Testament. And like the...

How I Love Your Torah, O Lord!: Literary And Theological Explorations On The Book Of Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy (The NIV Application Commentary)

Deuteronomy (The NIV Application Commentary)

Arranged as a series of sermons, the book of Deuteronomy represents the final major segment of the biography of Moses. The sermons review events described in earlier books...

Deuteronomy (The NIV Application Commentary)
Sepher Torath Mosheh: Studies in the Composition and Interpretation of Deuteronomy

Sepher Torath Mosheh: Studies in the Composition and Interpretation of Deuteronomy

When it comes to discussions related to the composition and interpretation of the books in the Old Testament, few other books are more contested than Deuteronomy. Even among...

Sepher Torath Mosheh: Studies in the Composition and Interpretation of Deuteronomy

Dr. Daniel Block



Death of Moses - Deut. 34.1-12

Lesson Transcript


[00:00:01] We come now to Moses Swan song? Or is it the narrator's swan song for Moses? The rest of the story. And with this it's over. Moses name relatively rarely appears in the First Testament After the Book of Joshua, it's there in George Joshua repeatedly, because we are right after this, but after that, and usually when the texts refer to Moses, it's in the formulas, the Torah of Moses, or you call it the law of Moses allusions to the Torah. That's where you get names. But other than that, the character of Moses doesn't appear very much in the story. This is so different from David, there's no doubt. But in the overall story of the First Testament, God's revelation, God's plan of redemption through Israel, David is the most important character. It is about David. And when you come to the New Testament, you recognize that too, because the Davidic Covenant is all over the place. The rest of the story, the death of Moses on Mt. Nebo. Again, back to our context. Here we are in chapter 34. This is the Eschaton, the end times Moses in time. Let's talk quickly about his death, the death narrative. Moses has been working hard to secure Israel's future in the ancient world when rulers were about to die. They were always concerned about legacy. But how did they work on that? They worked on that quite differently from what Moses said. They would begin build massive monuments to themselves and their accomplishments so that the world never forgets them. There's none of that in this. There is no effort in Moses, to be sure. You never forget me. He is replaced by the Torah. His passion is. Don't look at me. Look at the Torah. The Word of God, the revelation of God.


[00:02:23] I've only been here. So in his actions to secure Israel's well-being, it's not about a memorial to himself. It's about commissioning Joshua, transcribing his farewell addresses in the form of the Torah, teaching the people the national anthem, blessing the tribes. Which is so different from this. This is from 2200 B.C. No rooms in King of Arc. Look at that victory seal. Look how he paints himself. He's the big boy at the top, twice the size of all the people underneath his feet. This is the legacy. Or we could see Ramses the second obelisk. Massive thing. And then, of course, the massive sculptures at the end, or Sennacherib King, the Sennacherib's Stela. Now, he is been portrayed in this, but the whole thing is about I am the great snacker of the text on there in Cuneiform is singing the praises of Sennacherib and cursed is anybody who who crosses out anything and replaces my name with your own. That is what he has in mind. He is the Moses. There's none of this. There is no memorial. We don't know where Mount Sinai is. As if that should be a memorial to Moses. The Catholics have put a memorial up on top of Mount Nemo. So they think they've done something with Moses Roads. I'm sure Moses would be quite embarrassed about. No, it's not about me. The account of Moses death comes in chapter A. Chapter 24 versus 1 to 6 is his death itself. The rest is the narrator's eulogy. And it's an amazing story. So let's look quickly at his death in Deuteronomy 32. The Lord has said go up to Mount Albury, Mount Nebo, which is the land of Moab. Well, now he is obedient to the Lord to the end, having blessed the people.


[00:04:33] Then he went up from the plains of more to Mount Nebo to the top of Pisgah, which is opposite Jericho. And yea we showed him all the land. He asked to see the land earlier. He meant experience it but God says I'll, I'll take you literally, I'll put my meaning into that. And he showed them all the land delivered. That's the east of the Jordan as far as Dan. Well that's interesting Dan. That's way up north. This isn't Moses time the tribes have in the tribal territories haven't even been allotted yet. Let alone the Denyse. Having moved there, according to the original allotment den was exactly straight west of there where they're standing on the Mediterranean. So you can tell When does the narrator live? Who's writing this? Moses isn't writing this. He would have no idea. Of course, God could inspire him to see this. But that's not a natural reading. It's natural in ancient texts, in autobiography. For somebody without compromising the integrity of the text, to add the final words, the rest of the story. And that's what we've got here. The narrator fills in the rest of the story, and it's all according to his time in the narrative and in my interpretation. The dark nights are up north. They're associated with Naftali in fact then stole land from the and then he goes to Ephraim and Manasa, the land of Judah. As far as the Western Sea and the Negev, notice he's going in a counter-clockwise direction, starting immediately north, and then working his way all around and ending up across the river here, the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees. That's the other epithet for the city. Well, and Yahweh said to him, This is the land that I swore.


[00:06:49] I love this announcement. This is fabulous. This is it. And if I were Moses. Oh, we're so close. So close up. But it's okay. It's okay. He said to your offspring, I will give it. I have let you see it with your eyes, but you're not crossing over. Sorry. Well, by now, he's already at the top of the mountain, so it's okay. So Moses, the servant of Yahweh, died. In chapter 32. Go up the mountain and die. And even in this, Moses is the servant of the Lord. He obeys. Have you ever heard anybody command anybody to die or then fulfilling that command? He died there. The servant of Lord. Notice how the author of the book is talking. He loves this guy, Moses. I am convinced he is a prophet in the train of Moses and inspired prophetic mind eyes. Hand is writing this. He is one of those in that train because he has caught the spirit of Moses in the way in which he preserves it. And he preached. He preserves the legacy of Moses. This is the way it should be. Let others praise you. Don't praise yourself. And the narrator had done this earlier, where as a passing comment is, Oh, by the way, Moses was the humblest man in all the earth. Would. I mean, who would say that other than an admirer there in the land of Moab? Ouch. But why doesn't he say in the land of Rubin? Because by now this has been allocated to Ruben. Later on, the more boats would come and claim this territory. The land of Moore used to be up this far, and it would again be until the Amiright Seehorn of Hesh Von had claimed it from the mole bites.


[00:09:09] And it's given now to Rubin. But is this the author's way of dissing Rubin? And these guys on the other side of the Jordan, you should never have asked for this territory. Not quite legitimate in the land of Moab, according to the word of the Lord. I love that. Again, this is Moses, according to the word of the Lord. He died in the land as predicted, and he buried him in the valley, in the land of Moab, opposite Beth. But no one knows the place of his burial to this day. The author is talking 200 years later. 300 years later, we are not sure. But in any case, if it is in the at the tail end of David's reign possibility, then we're about 1080 B.C.. So to that point, it's an unknown spot. Of course, the account of Moses death here is interesting. Moses went up and he died. Who saw the whole thing? As far as Nebo, the topographical markers, we've already talked about plains of Moab, Mount Nebo, Jebel and NEP and NABU. So even to this day, the Arabic name for this is is this in Jebel, in Nabu, the Mount Nebo in Arabic 20 C 700. I've never been here. We have seen it looking out the window from the bus as we're driving by on the other side. But it's rarely clear enough that you can see it clearly. But in any case, one of these days on the top of Mount Pisgah, is Pisgah a single peak there, or is it a mountain range? Is Mount Nebo the peak of Pisco or Pisco? The peak? It's hard to tell. Doesn't really matter. Opposite Jericho. Here's what the Catholics have put up there. Mount Naval Memorial of Moses. A Christian holy place.


[00:11:19] Well, really? Then why are we so anti Mosaic? But then the Catholics aren't nearly as anti mosaic as Protestants are. This is Luther. Who made us antique mosaic, antique Deuteronomy and I Law or whatever else. So, yeah, they'll go with it. Well, again, we've seen this before. We have we have come the the Israelites have come up here. The more bites down here. This is the border of sea horns territory to the Arnon. So this much has been given to Reuben here. And then this much would have been given to Gadd and. And heft of Tribe. But Moses has come back up the mountain and on Mount Nebo, this where he is buried. Note the focus on Yahoo! His actions. The Lord shows Moses the land. The Lord speaks. The Lord buries Moses. Who's in charge? What a way to go. What a way to go. The Lord is the sexton, the grave digger. Who knows? But of course, all sorts of legendary stories have grown up around this. All the land delivered up to Dan Naftali from Mass Manasa. And if you look here, Gilad on the map first Gilad, then question mark, then Naftali, then Ephraim, then Judah and the Negev. And then the key car, the valley on the other side in the Jericho Valley. We've seen the whole land. His eyes have taken off. And from on Jabal Musa, you could see all that. So this is a great vantage point from which he would see the land and saw as far south whether or not that's the real saw associated with Sodom and Gomorrah. There is a debate now that Sodom and Gomorrah are not actually down here, which we've thought for a long time. But in this plane of Moab, if we go back to.


[00:13:39] Back to this other map. In geographic terms, this region here is called the kicker. The plate, the platter. And Sodom and Gomorrah are located in the kicker. And Abraham, from a place of Bethel over here. From Bethel, he and Lotte are standing somewhere near Bethel I somewhere in that region from here. Here they are looking across the Jordan and they see Sodom and Gomorrah. We're Sodom and Gomorrah. We've always thought its way down the southern end of the of the Dead Sea. And in all the books, it's there. But there is a group of archeologists digging here right now. And one of these guys is very convinced that that is the real Sodom and Gomorrah, because this was a lush, fertile region which you could see from the other side. And there are there are mounds representing a half a dozen big cities here. And so they're looking for. I actually have a jar of grain that they found there. The city was burned and this grain is dated to 1100 B.C. carbon carbon dating. So that that's not Sodom and Gomorrah yet. That's another 600 years earlier. That's a different event. But we don't know if the the mound they're digging is the Sodom or Gomorrah or what. But in any case, that's a little off track. But the key car in my mind, it makes far more sense to have Sodom right there. Then way down south. How could they see that from where Abraham and Lotte were standing? I have no idea. And when was that? A lush place and czar is a picture of E Dad? No, I don't know. In any case, where as far as czar, he is seeing the whole land. A couple of things to say about the.


[00:16:00] Yeah, his last words. He or the author's last words. His interpretation of what? What Moses sees revelation here in fulfillment. No. Where are we? This is the land that I swore to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob saying, I will give it to your two sons. I'll let you sit with your eyes, but you won't go over there. I swore to you it's an oath. Confirmed. Finally. It's a promise. Remembered. But of course, you can't go over there because you broke faith with me in the midst of the people of Israel at the waters of their cowardice in the wilderness. So to say that did it really well. One more day. That's exactly how I feel when I read it, David. But the interesting thing, we haven't heard it since the first address. We haven't heard it since the first address. Nope, not until now. We're at the end. You brought faith. You didn't treat me as holy. The actual story is in numbers. You can go there for further detail. So let's look at the burial of Moses. So Moses, a servant of the Lord, died there, according to. And he buried him. Nobody knows the place. What shall we do with this? All kinds of stories have risen about this. The Book of Jude. I mean, what are these New Testament writers doing? Where do they get their information? Not from Deuteronomy. When the Archangel Mikhail. Who is like, God. That's what the name means, which is what we have at the as the coda to the blessings, who is like God, who is like the Archangel Michael contending with the devil, was disputing the body of Moses. He did not presume to pronounce a blasphemous judgment, but said the Lord rebuke you. Or Josephus.


[00:18:14] Now, as soon as they'd come to the mountain called MRM, which is the high mountain situated over again circle, and one that affords to such as as are upon it, a prospect of the greatest part of the excellent land of Canaan. He dismissed the Senate. And as he was going to embrace Elijah and Joshua and was still discoursing with them, a cloud stood over him on the sudden and he disappeared in a certain valley. Although he wrote in the holy books that he died, which was done out of fear. Lest they should venture to say that because of his actual virtue, he went to God. He was transported up into heaven. In Josephus, they people are say he wasn't actually buried. But of course, if he was transported up into heaven, that would make sense of the mountain of transfiguration. He would match Elijah. You know all of these links. But it is interesting here. The testament of Moses touched a mental thing. The lost ending based on who was not injured, tested mental. This is fifth century. He quotes the Testament of Moses in the Book of the Assumption of Moses. The Archangel Michael, disputing with the devil, says We have all been created from His Holy Spirit. As elsewhere, Michael says, God's spirit went forth from his presence, and the Word came into being Moses. Spirit ascended to heaven, and it seems that Michael buried his body. Interesting. But what is the narrative say? His eulogy. Moses was 120 years old when he died, yet his eyes were not weak, nor his strength gone. He could have lived a lot longer. He was the ever ready battery. The Israelites grieved for Moses in the plains of Moab 30 days. I mentioned before that if you marry a captive woman, you let her grieve.


[00:20:11] 30 days. That's how long you let a hair roll. Be mourned. Do that with a woman. That's extraordinary. Until the time the customer now Joshua, son of none, was filled with a spirit of wisdom because Moses had laid his hands on him. So the Israelites listened to him and did what Yahweh commanded Moses. Josh was authority is derived authority because Moses laid on his hands on him. They listen to Moses as it is written in the Torah, and now we have it. Since then, no prophet has risen in Israel, like Moses, whom we knew face to face, who did all those miraculous signs and wonders. Yeah, we sent him to do an Egypt. I think I may be wrong, but I think this is the only place where anybody attributes the signs and wonders to Moses. The book doesn't. All the signs and wonders that you might know that your way is God. There is no other remember? Chapter four. But here he says, Who did whom? Jacquie knew face to face. And again, it's from God's perspective. It's not. Moses knew Yahweh face to face, but God knew Moses directly, personally, one on one, who did those miraculous signs that God sent him to do in Egypt, to Pharaoh and to all his officials. For no one has ever shown the mighty power or performed the awesome deeds that Moses did. What Moses did. The awesome authorities. Really? Maybe this is why in later times people division ized Moses in the essay I'm working on, could that first address be sued epigraph? And given the negative portrait of Moses in that first address. But I have gathered all the evidence for what people in the later First Testament and in the Enter Testament period and in New Testament times did with Moses.


[00:22:45] File all calls say, my God, the Samaritan. Pentateuch calls him divine. Others, Josephus and others, call him a perfect man of perfect virtue. Maybe this is where they get it. Because here the author has so linked Moses with Yahweh that what Yahweh did, Moses did. And you have to ask about the validity of that. This. Whoever wrote this? Really had a high view of Moses, despite what he knew about him. And his view of Moses was such that when he preserved the negative images. He kept them. He didn't fix them for law and people afterwards, they would all have fixed that. We can't let Moses look this way. But this guy is honest and honest biographer who tells it like it is. On the one hand, he has feet of clay. But on the other hand, he is the agent of Yahweh. So that just as prophets speak with Yahweh, his voice, Moses acted with yahoos hand. This is an amazing moment. Well, it is an amazing story. He was 120 years old when he died. We talked about his his age and the symmetry of his age. But here is a guy who didn't die out of old age. He didn't die of cancer. He didn't die of any disease that. Gives us premature death. He died because his time was up. That's it. He could have had energy to live. Another 40 years of the problems led. I'm sorry. Your time's up. Come. But let me. Barry, you. We can only imagine. But of course, we have to ask about. There's not been a prophet like him since then. Not because he was perfect physically, but he. Because he was such a remarkable prophet. He was the founder of a long movement. By my interpretation, as you understand this now.


[00:25:34] The prophet like Moses, we've not had anybody since then. And of course, if this guy is offering this after Dan is up north. He's had 100 years, 200 years, 300 years, Jeff says. He talks about when the Ammonites want to claim their land. He says, We've owned this land for 300 years already. And the story of the damage comes after Jeff. So it could be two or three centuries. Since Moses. And there's lots of time in there. We don't know that we have a record of all the prophets from God. I have a feeling there were lots more than what we have. But. So there's no reason why we should Christology ize this character. There is no reason. And so I think the most natural explanation for this is to see that Moz, the guy who writes this and who compares Moses with a long history of prophecy, he knows we've had these people around us for a while, but none of them's like Moses. And that's his point. He's unprecedented. And as it turns out, in the history of prophecy to come, he will be. There'll be not. There won't be another man like Moses in my mind until Paul. And I think Paul views himself as perhaps somewhere in there. Now, John the Baptist is a prophet after the order of Moses. But in the story in the Gospels, John the Baptist is to Jesus what Samuel was to David. It's very clear in the way the narrative is structured. So he is a prophet. After the order of Samuel, who is after the order of Moses. So John the Baptist is clearly in this long train. But I have a feeling that the exclamation mark on the history of prophecy is actually Paul.


[00:27:47] And he herself perceived himself to be to the New Testament gospel, what Moses was to the whole. He talks with the same kind of language, cursed as anyone who has a different message than what I proclaim. And so that is very mosaic. And I think that that's where we go with this. Well, we could talk a lot more about this. The interesting thing is, you know, Joshua takes over. We have. Joshua. Filled with a spirit of wisdom for Moses, had laid his hands on him. Oh. How does this work? Does. Does the spirit work like an electric charge and move from him? Or a germ or whatever? In any case, this is a very physical transferal of authority. And the people listened to Joshua because they saw Moses do this. And of course, this is where we get in ordination ceremonies and whatever else we do with the laying on of hands when we commission missioners so that they go out with our blessing. But as representative of us. They don't go out as individuals, but they represent the community. And here, Joshua is not a brand new character or not a revolutionary character. He carries on the tradition of Moses. In fact, he brings it to the completion. Moses wanted to deliver the land into the people's hands. He wasn't. So Joshua gets that privilege and. It is a fabulous way to end a story, but has so many ups and downs. What a man. Moses. But he was only a man. Let's not forget. Very human. Sometimes fragile. But. In the kind grace of God. He is able to take anybody. From the beginning, he resisted the call. I'm not going send anybody but me. And he he protests and all the way through.


[00:30:31] It's a struggle for him. To fulfill this calling. But I tell you, the honor that is granted him the legacy. He didn't want the legacy. He didn't ask for it. He didn't buy it. Whatever. It just happened. Who am I, Lord? But of course, it all started, didn't it? By him being adopted by the highest potentate on earth. His daughter adopted this man so that when he then protests, I can do this. I don't have the gifts. I don't I. Who am I? The Lord could at every turn have said, You know who you are. Let me tell you, you're a prince of Egypt. You know the Egyptian language. You are one of the people you're supposed to. You have all the external qualities that I am looking for. That's why I'm sending you. But he doesn't do any of that. Moses protests and he says, I'm nobody and said, it doesn't matter. It's who I am. I have no gifts That doesn't. That's not your problem. That's my problem. The people won't believe me. Fine. I can fix that. I don't. They'll ask who sent me. I'll fix that, too. I'll give you my name. Every one of the questions he answers. None of them have to do with Moses qualifications. None of them. Because it's not about Moses. Moses or the Lord doesn't in principle call anybody because they're qualified. He doesn't call according to gifts. He gives the gifts according to the calling. We know lots of people like that. We know lots of people like that. We also know lots of people like that. There are members in my own family. Uncanny. People still gifts and everything. They turn. They walk in the room and the lights go on. They become the center of attention.


[00:32:48] Disaster. Disaster, the problems. You're really good and you come to believe it. It's not helpful. It's not helpful. God is still in the habit of choosing the foolish things of this world to confound the wise. When I, uh, am introduced, or when a student seeks me out with obvious gifts. I always worry. But there's where the problem lurks far more significantly than for those who have to work for everything they get. It doesn't come naturally, but in the process you learn trust. You learn confidence. And you keep saying, I can't do this. And you hear the Lord say, That's not your problem. That's mine. I've opened the door. You've walked through. I'll hold your hand. And that is Mo's story. I mean, his being born in the palace or being raised in the palace of the king. I'm sure in God's mind that does have something to do. There is no more perfect candidate than you. But on the other hand. Moses doesn't recognize, He doesn't claim it. He doesn't ask for. He. He resists it. And God breaks him and he goes out a transformed man. Not perfect. Nobody is. And that I think therein lies hope for us. And his lack of concern for legacy. I mean, what a model. What a model. If only. I keep hearing the voice of Elmer tones in my ears. I think I mentioned at the beginning pray every day for a soft heart. Absolutely. Keep reminding yourself. All that we are or hope to be all LAMB of God we owe to the. Let's pray. We thank your Heavenly Father for your mercy to us in Jesus Christ our Savior. We who deserve your fury and your wrath. We have rebelled against you. You've called mysteriously.


[00:35:23] To yourself. And then you've called us mysteriously to represent you to the world and to the church, to your people. We pray all, Lord. That your name would be magnified and glorified in all that we do. You must increase. We always must decrease. Many people see you in a. The price of your car. We ask it. Amen. They met.