d.418. Pope from 417. Greek by birth, he inherited the controversy over Pelagianism* from Innocent I,* was initially deceived by the smooth-talking Celestius,* and summoned to Rome the African bishops, including Augustine, who had condemned Pelagius and Celestius. The Africans not only refused to comply, but mustered such support, including that of the emperor, for their viewpoint that Zosimus executed a volte-face. He issued a letter requiring Western bishops to endorse the condemnation. Those who refused to comply, among them Julian of Eclanum,* were deposed. Zosimus was thwarted also when he rashly tried to interfere in ecclesiastical affairs in Gaul. Several of his letters are extant.