The key dates in Waldensian history are 1210-the Albigensian-Waldensian Crusade; 1532-the synod of Chanforans; and 1848-the Albertine Statute of Emancipation. Before 1210 much is legendary prehistory, but under the phrase the “first Reformation,” the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries are currently studied by V. Vinay and the Czech A. Molnar for the mutual interplay of Waldensian, Hussite, Wycliffite, and [[Bohemian Brethren]]* ideas. The “second” (sixteenth-century) Reformation turned the Waldensians from a movement into a church, the Synod of Chanforans being the focal point. For 300 years before 1848 their history illustrates the tragic side of Cuius regio, eius religio, in an unbroken sequence of persecution, guerrilla war, exile, and return. Since 1848, it is a story of the cultural and evangelical penetration of the Italian nation and its overseas dependencies.