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Vine, Vineyard

VINE, VINEYARD (גֶּ֫פֶן, H1728; LXX ἄμπελος, G306, vine; כֶּ֫רֶמ֒, H4142, LXX ἀμπελον, vineyard). 1. Viticulture in the Near East. The vine has been cultivated in Pal. from the earliest times. The climate of Pal. is peculiarly adapted to viticulture with the country’s bright sunshine and the heavy dew of the late summer nights. The best location of a vineyard for the direct sunshine is on the gentle slopes of the hillside where most of the vines have grown throughout the centuries in the Holy Land (Jer 31:5; Amos 9:13). Of course, not all the vineyards are on hillsides. Important vineyards are on the plains, such as the Plain of Esdraelon and around Jericho. The watchtower in the vineyard was an ancient institution. It is mentioned frequently in the OT as when Isaiah compares the daughter of Zion” as “a booth in a vineyard” (Isa 1:8). To complete the vineyard the husbandman “hewed out a wine vat in it” (Isa 5:2). This was usually cut out of the solid rock and lined with mortar. Su