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Vatican I

Reckoned by Roman Catholics to be the twentieth ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council was convened by the papal bull Aeterni Patris on 29 June 1868. It sat from 8 December 1869 until 18 July 1870. The closure of the third session was precipitated by the withdrawal of French troops from Rome, due to the outbreak of war between France and Prussia, and by the occupation of the city by Italian troops.