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Ultramontanism

A movement of Catholic revival, especially after the French Revolution, which rediscovered and hoped to reimplement the unity and independence of the Roman Church under the papacy. This reassertion of Catholic Christian faith found inspiration in the pre-Renaissance Christian Commonwealth and the Catholic Reformation of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The motifs of Romanticism, especially the new awareness of the medieval, were contributory. The movement, situated mainly in France but also in S Germany and England, wanted to terminate the power over the church of Enlightenment rationalism, especially as this was realized in the secularist state domination of the church since Louis XIV's time. This implied a renunciation of Gallicanism.*