TYRE (tīr, Heb. tsôr, a rock, Gr. Tyros). A Phoenician port south of Sidon and north of Carmel. Phoenicia itself is a coastal strip backed by mountains, and Tyre was further defended by rocky promontories (one of them the famous “[[Ladder of Tyre]]”), which effectively hampered invasion. Herodotus dates the foundation as early as 2740 b.c., Josephus as late as 1217. Isaiah (23:2, 12) implies that Tyre was a colony of Sidon, and Homer’s mention of “Sidonian wares,” without reference to Tyre, seems to confirm the greater antiquity of the former city. The [[Tell El Amarna]] Letters, apparently refuting Josephus’s date, contain an appeal from the ruler of Tyre, dated 1430, imploring help from Amenhotep IV against the invading Habiri. Joshua assigned Tyre to Asher, but in all probability the city was not occupied (Josh.19.29; 2Sam.24.7).