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TOPARCHY tŏp’ är kĭ (τοπαρχία, a place [topos] of a ruler [archon]). A small district ruled by a toparch.

The word is not found in the NT but occurs in 1 Maccabees 11:28 (fn. ASV), for three small territories that were detached from Samaria and added to Judea in the Maccabean period. Later these were confirmed to Jonathan Maccabaeus by Demetrius II Nicator.

Pliny (v. 14) says that Judea was divided into ten toparchies. Josephus (Jos. War III. iii. 5) says there were eleven. Since the area of Judea as a whole was very limited, it will readily be seen that these administrative districts were definitely small in size.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

to’-par-ki, top’-ar-ki (toparchia): the King James Version renders this Greek word by "government" in 1 Macc 11:28 (the King James Version margin and the Revised Version (British and American) "province"). It denotes a small administrative district corresponding to the modern Turkish Nahieh, administered by a Mudir. Three such districts were detached from the country of Samaria and added to Judea. Elsewhere (1 Macc 10:30; 11:34) the word used to describe them is nomos. Some idea of the size of these districts may be gathered from the fact that Judea was divided into ten (Pliny v.14) or eleven (BJ, III, iii, 5) toparchies.