c.1829-1871. First African ordained minister in South Africa. Son of a Christian mother and a polygamous councillor of Chief E Ngqika, he entered Lovedale Seminary in 1844 and was sent to Scotland when war closed the institution in 1846. He returned to South Africa in 1848 as a catechist, but went back to Scotland for theological training (1851-56). As a minister of the he served at Mgwali (1857) and Tutura (1868), proving himself a fine preacher and a faithful pastor. His work on the revision of the Xhosa Bible and a translation of Pilgrim's Progress (1866) revealed great literary ability. Ill-health prevented the full expression of his gifts, and he died at the early age of forty-two.