Titus



A Gentile, he became one of Paul's missionary companions. He is mentioned only in Galatians, 2 Corinthians, and the Pastoral epistles. It is unlikely that he is the same as Titius Justus in Acts 18:7; W.M. Ramsay made the guess that he might not have been named in Acts because he was Luke's brother. On Paul's second visit to Jerusalem he took Titus with him, and the fact that he did not have to be circumcised was an important point of principle in the acceptance of the Gentiles. In 2 Corinthians he is shown as Paul's emissary to deal with strained relationships between the apostle and the church at Corinth. He seems to have had a more robust character than Timothy* (2 Cor. 7:14f.), and he was sent back to Corinth to supervise the taking of the collection. The epistle to Titus shows that he was sent by Paul to Crete to supervise the work there (Titus 1:5f.). He had to rejoin Paul at Nicopolis (Titus 3:12) and it was perhaps from there that he was sent to Dalmatia (2 Tim. 4:10). His role in his latter years seems to have been a roving one as a sort of “apostolic delegate.”


TITUS tī’ təs (Τίτος, G5519). The name Titus appears in the NT only in 2 Corinthians (eight times), Galatians (twice), 2 Timothy (once) and Titus (once). It can be safely assumed that all these references refer to the same individual. The absence of the name from the Acts of the Apostles complicates precise integration into Luke’s account of Paul’s missionary activity. Attempts to read or insert the name Titus into the Acts of the Apostles are not convincing. Likewise, no good explanation has been given to account for the absence of Titus from the Acts of the Apostles. From the references in the Pauline epistles it appears that Titus was an uncircumcised Gr. (Gal 2:3) who was an intimate associate of Paul and an effective pastor (2 Cor 8:23; 12:18). Although disputed and somewhat problematical, the unity of 2 Corinthians is assumed in the following reconstruction.


The Corinthian correspondence indicates that Paul had a number of frustrating experiences with the church at Corinth. These apparently occurred during Paul’s sojourn of over two years in Ephesus during the third missionary journey (Acts 19), although there is not the slightest allusion to these problems in the Acts account. After various attempts to deal with these problems by correspondence and a personal visit, Paul sent Titus to attempt a reconciliation and resolution of the difficulties. Apparently Paul and Titus agreed to meet in Troas. When Paul arrived in Troas, he did not find Titus (2 Cor 2:13). Although there were promising opportunities for mission work in Troas, Paul’s concern about Corinth and Titus led him to proceed to Macedonia (obviously there was a pre-arranged travel route—either by sea or land—to obviate the possibility of by-passing one another). In Macedonia Titus brings to Paul a comforting report about the Corinthians which gives him much joy and peace of mind (2 Cor 7:6-14). Titus seems to have established a good rapport with the Corinthians and Paul exuberantly expresses his gratitude for the happy turn of events.

The offering for the Judaean churches was still pending in Corinth and from Macedonia Paul sent Titus to Corinth to complete this expression of fellowship with the other churches (2 Cor 8:6, 16). Apparently, Titus was successful in this mission (Rom 15:26) and the following spring Paul went to Jerusalem with this offering (Rom 15:25). The subscription to 2 Corinthians in Codex Mosquensis (K—9th or 10th cent.) and Codex Angelicus (L—9th cent.) indicates that the letter was written from Philippi and delivered by (δια) Titus and Luke. This late testimony does fit with the givens of 2 Corinthians.

One of the Pastoral Epistles is addressed to Titus. At this time he was working in Crete. The epistle contains some exhortations to Titus, although none of these reflects negatively on his character or ability. It appears that Titus was dealing with a difficult and somewhat unruly congregation in Crete. Paul suggests (Titus 1:5) that Titus’ pastoral qualifications led to this assignment. He also describes Titus as “my true child in a common faith” (1:4). (Timothy is similarly described in 1 Tim 1:2.) Titus is instructed to come to Nicopolis on the W coast of Greece (Titus 3:12) to spend the winter there with Paul. At the time of the writing of 1 Timothy Titus had departed to Dalmatia, apparently from Rome (2 Tim 4:10). This is the last reference to Titus in the NT.

In many respects Titus appears in the NT as an ideal pastor. Paul reflects very favorably upon Titus’ genuine devotion and pastoral concern (2 Cor 8:16, 17). His earnestness is mentioned as a challenge to the Corinthians. Titus’ joy and devoted concern was an inspiration to Paul in his reconciliation with the Corinthians (7:13-15). Paul substantiates his devotion to the Corinthians by arguing that he was of the same mind and attitude as Titus (12:18). These scattered allusions to the character of Titus indicate his close relationship to Paul and his stellar qualifications as a pastor.

The presence of a letter addressed to Titus in the NT has, among other things, been a great inspiration to ministers of the Gospel throughout the history of the Church. Although the data regarding Titus in the NT is scanty, nevertheless much can be learned from his pastoral activities and the letter addressed to him as a model and manual for a pastor. See nodetitle.

TITUS tī’ təs (Titus Flavius Vespasianus). Emperor of Rome (a.d. 79-81).

As a young man Titus served as a tribune of the soldiers in Germany and Britain, and later accompanied his father, Vespasian, to Pal. at the time of the Jewish revolt. When the latter was called to Rome and was elevated to the imperial seat, Titus was left in charge of the war, and brought it to an end by the capture and destruction of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. Upon his return to Rome he celebrated a triumph with his father, and from this time was made a virtual partner in the government, clearly designated for the succession. When Vespasian died in 79 Titus became emperor.

In many ways he was a contrast to his father. He was the darling of the populace, good looking, affable to everyone. After the parsimonious policy of Vespasian he spent lavishly, and was always remembered with affection in later years. By expelling the hated informers, and doing away with trials and executions for treason, he gained the favor of the Senate, and thus that body did not oppose his actions.

The brief reign of Titus was noteworthy mainly for two disasters by which it was visited. In August of 79, Mt. Vesuvius erupted and completely destroyed the two towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, covering the former with a shower of hot ashes and pumice, the latter with a river of lava. An eyewitness account of this event may be found in two letters written by Pliny to his friend Tacitus, the historian (Pliny, Epistulae, VI.16.20). In the year 80 there was a plague and disastrous fire at Rome. Titus generously aided the victims of this disaster, and did a great deal to repair the damage to the city. Among other things he finished the Colosseum (begun by Vespasian), and built the baths which bear his name.

The reign of Titus was looked upon as a time of ideal happiness, and his untimely death in the year 81 caused universal sorrow.

Bibliography

Oxford Classical Dictionary.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

ma’-ni-us, ti’-tus (Tito Manios, Codex Alexandrinus, Codex Venetus, and the Syriac; Manlios, Swete following Codex Alexandrinus; Manilius, Itala and Vulgate, the King James Version, Manlius): Titus Manius and Quintus Memmius were the legates of the Romans who carried a letter unto the Jewish people consenting to the favorable terms which Lysias, the captain of Antiochus, granted to the Jews after his defeat, 163 BC (2 Macc 11:34). That the letter is spurious appears from the facts

(1) that it is dated in the 148th year of the Seleucidian era adopted by the Jews and not, after the Ro fashion, according to consulates;

(2) that it is also dated the same day as that of Eupator--the 15th of the month Xanthicus;

(3) that the Jews had as yet no dealings with the Romans; Judas first heard of the fame of the Romans a year or two years later (1 Macc 8:1 ff), after the death of Nicanor (1 Macc 7:47);

(4) that no such names are found among the Roman legati mentioned by Polybius as sent to the East.

If Manius is not altogether a fabrication, it is difficult to decide exactly who he is. The reading fluctuates between "Manius" and "Manlius." About the same time a T. Manlius Torquatus was sent by the Romans on an embassy to Egypt to settle a quarrel between Philometor and Euergetes II Physc. on (Polyb. xxxi. 18; Livy xliii.11), but not to Syria, and his colleague was Cn. Merula. Perhaps Manius Sergius is intended, who with C. Sulpicius was sent to investigate the state of Greece and to see what Antiochus Epiphanes and Eumanes were doing (165 BC) (Polyb. xxxi.9). But no such name as Titus Manius or Manlius is otherwise found as legate to Asia with a colleague Quintus Memmius.

See also MEMMIUS.



1. One of Paul’s Converts:

A Greek Christian, one of Paul’s intimate friends, his companion in some of his apostolic journeys, and one of his assistants in Christian work. His name does not occur in the Acts; and, elsewhere in the New Testament, it is found only in 2 Corinthians, Galatians, 2 Timothy and Titus. As Paul calls him "my true child after a common faith" (Tit 1:4), it is probable that he was one of the apostle’s converts.

2. Paul Refuses to Have Him Circumcised:

The first notice of Titus is in Ac 15:2, where we read that after the conclusion of Paul’s 1st missionary journey, when he had returned to Antioch, a discussion arose in the church there, in regard to the question whether it was necessary that Gentile Christians should be circumcised and should keep the Jewish Law. It was decided that Paul and Barnabas, "and certain other of them," should go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. The "certain other of them" includes Titus, for in Ga 2:3 it is recorded that Titus was then with Paul. The Judaistic party in the church at Jerusalem desired to have Titus circumcised, but Paul gave no subjection to these persons and to their wishes, "no, not for an hour; that the truth of the gospel might continue with you" (Ga 2:5). The matter in dispute was decided as recorded in Ac 15:13-29. The decision was in favor of the free promulgation of the gospel, as preached by Paul, and unrestricted by Jewish ordinances. Paul’s action therefore in regard to Titus was justified. In fact Titus was a representative or test case.

It is difficult and perhaps impossible to give the true reason why Titus is not mentioned by name in the Acts, but he is certainly referred to in 15:2.

3. Sent to Corinth:

There is no further notice of Titus for some years afterward, when he is again mentioned in 2 Corinthians. In this Epistle his name occurs 8 times. From the notices in this Epistle it appears that Titus had been sent by Paul, along with an unnamed "brother," to Corinth as the apostle’s delegate to the church there (2Co 12:18). His chief business was evidently to deal with the cases of immorality which had occurred there. His mission was largely successful, so that he was able to return to Paul with joy, because his spirit was refreshed by the Corinthians (2Co 7:13). His inward affection was largely drawn out to them, and "he remembereth the obedience of you all, how with fear and trembling ye received him" (2Co 7:15). At Corinth Titus seems also to have assisted in organizing the weekly collections for the poor saints in Jerusalem. See 1Co 16:1,2 compared with 2Co 8:6: "We exhorted Titus, that as he had made a beginning before, so he would also complete in you this grace also."

After the departure of Titus from Corinth, difficulty had again arisen in the church there, and Titus seems to have been sent by Paul a second time to that city, as the apostle’s messenger, carrying a letter from him--referred to in 2Co 2:3 ff; 7:8 ff.

4. Paul Goes to Meet Him:

The state of the Corinthian church had been causing much anxiety to Paul, so much so that when he had come to Troas to preach Christ’s gospel, and a door was opened to him of the Lord, he found no rest in his spirit, because he found not Titus, his brother; so he left Troas, and went thence into Macedonia, in order to meet Titus the sooner, so as to ascertain from him how matters stood in Corinth. In Macedonia accordingly the apostle met Titus, who brought good news regarding the Corinthians. In the unrest and fightings and fears which the troubles at Corinth had caused Paul to experience, his spirit was refreshed when Titus reached him. "He that comforteth the lowly, even God, comforted us by the coming of Titus .... while he told us your longing, your mourning, your zeal for me; so that I rejoiced yet more" (2Co 7:6,7).

Paul now wrote to the Corinthians again--our Second Epistle to the Corinthians--and dispatched it to its destination by the hand of Titus, into whose heart `God had put the same earnest care for them’ (2Co 8:16-18). Titus was also again entrusted with the work of overseeing the weekly collection in the Corinthian church (2Co 8:10,24).

5. Travels with Paul to Crete:

There is now a long interval in the history of Titus, for nothing further is recorded of him till we come to the nodetitle. From Paul’s Epistle to him these details are gathered: On Paul’s liberation at the conclusion of his first Roman imprisonment he made a number of missionary journeys, and Titus went with him, as his companion and assistant, on one of these--to the island of Crete. From Crete, Paul proceeded onward but he left Titus to "set in order the things that were wanting, and appoint elders in every city" (Tit 1:5) . Paul reminds him of the character of the people of Crete, and gives him various instructions for his guidance; charges him to maintain sound doctrine, and advises him how to deal with the various classes of persons met with in his pastoral capacity.

6. Paul Sends for Him:

Titus is informed that Artemas or Tychicus will be sent to Crete so that he will be free to leave the island and to rejoin the apostle at Nicopolis, where he has determined to winter. Such were Paul’s plans; whether they were carried out is unknown. But this at least is certain, that Titus did rejoin Paul, if not at Nicopolis, then at some other spot; and he was with him in Rome on the occasion of his 2nd imprisonment there, for he is mentioned once again (2Ti 4:10) as having gone to Dalmatia, evidently on an evangelistic errand, as the apostle was in the habit of sending his trusted friends to do such work, when he himself was no longer able to do this, owing to his imprisonment. "Paul regarded as his own the work done from centers where he labored, by helpers associated with him, considering the churches thus organized as under his jurisdiction. This throws light upon the statement in 2Ti 4:10, that Titus at that time had gone to Dalmatia, and a certain Crescens to Gaul. There is no indication that they, like Demas, had deserted the apostle and sought safety for themselves, or that, like Tychicus, they had been sent by the apostle upon some special errand. In either case it would be a question why they went to these particular countries, with which, so far as we know, Paul, up to this time, had never had anything to do. The probability is that Titus, who had long been associated with Paul (Ga 2:3), who, as his commissioner, had executed difficult offices in Corinth (2Co 7-9), and who, not very long before 2 Timothy was written, had completed some missionary work in Crete that had been begun by others, had gone as a missionary and as Paul’s representative and helper to Dalmatia. .... If by this means, beginnings of church organizations had been made .... in Spain by Paul himself, in Gaul by Crescens, in Dalmatia by Titus, then, in reality, the missionary map had been very much changed since Paul’s first defense" (Zahn, Introduction to the New Testament. II, 11).

7. His Character:

Titus was one of Paul’s very dear and trusted friends; and the fact that he was chosen by the apostle to act as his delegate to Corinth, to transact difficult and delicate work in the church there, and that he did this oftener than once, and did it thoroughly and successfully, shows that Titus was not merely a good but a most capable man, tactful and resourceful and skillful in the handling of men and of affairs. "Whether any inquire about Titus, he is my partner and fellow-worker to you-ward" (2Co 8:23).