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Tikhon

vasili belavin) (1866-1925. Patriarch of Moscow. Born near Pskov, he trained for the priesthood in St. Petersburg and subsequently became bishop of Lublin before going to North America, where he held various posts (1899-1907) and was finally archbishop. He returned to Russia,* and after holding two more posts became in 1917 metropolitan of Moscow, then patriarch (the first holder of that post since 1700). When the Bolsheviks commandeered church land, withdrew church subsidies, decreed civil marriage only, and took over schools, Tikhon pronounced the anathema on the country's new rulers and their supporters. Four days later, church and state were officially separated, giving the signal for priests and congregations to be attacked.