TIDAL (tī'dăl, Heb. tidh‘āl). An unidentified king, mentioned only in
TIDAL tī’ dəl (תִדְעָ֖ל), mentioned only in
The name Tidal corresponds with Tudhalias I, a Hitt. ruler who prob. was successor to Anittas. The identification is uncertain, but the name could not have been improvised by a Heb. writer.
Tidal was a confederate of Chedorlaomer in an attack on the Trans-jordan area during which Lot, Abraham’s nephew, was captured (
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
(tidh`al; Thalga, Thalgal, Codex E, Thargal):
1. The Name and Its Forms:
Tidal is mentioned in
2. Its Babylonian Equivalent:
The only name in the cuneiform inscriptions resembling Tidal is Tudhula, or, as it was probably later pronounced, Tudhul. This, from its form, might be Sumerian, meaning "evil progeny," or the like. In addition to the improbability of a name with such a signification, however, his title "king of goyim," or "nations," in
3. The Babylonian Tudhula and His Time:
The inscription in which the name Tudhula occurs is one of three of late date (4th to 3rd century BC), all referring, apparently, to the same historical period. The text in question (Sp. iii.2) is of unbaked clay, and is broken and defaced. After referring to a ruler who did not maintain the temples, Durmah-ilani son of Eri-Aku (Arioch) is referred to, appatently as one who ravaged the country, and "waters (came) over Babylon and E-sagila," its great temple. The words which follow suggest that Durmah-ilani was slain by his son, after which a new invader appeared, who would seem to have been Tudhula, son of Gazza(ni?). He likewise ravaged the land, and floods again invaded Babylon and E-sagila. To all appearance he met with the fate which overtook Durmah-ilani--death at the hands of his son, who "smote his head." Then came the Elamite, apparently Chedorlaomer, who was likewise slain. This inscription, therefore, gave historical quotations of the fate which overtook those who were regarded as enemas of the gods.
4. Doubts as to His Identity:
Though we have here the long-sought name of Tidal, it may legitimately be doubted whether this personage was the ruler of that name mentioned in
5. Probably a Hittite:
If he be, as is possible, the same personage as is mentioned in