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Thirty Years’ War

1618-48. This highly complex conflict in central Europe was three struggles telescoped into one-Protestants vs. Catholics in Germany, a civil war in the Holy Roman Empire between the emperor and estates, and an international contest between France and the Hapsburgs (Austrian and Spanish) for European hegemony in which other powers were implicated. Historians commonly divide the war into four periods: (1) Bohemian, 1618-23. Hostilities began with the Bohemian revolt against the Hapsburgs (Defenestration of Prague, 1618). The Czechs deposed Emperor Ferdinand II* (1619-37) as king, replacing him with the Calvinist head of the Protestant Union, Frederick V, Elector Palatine. The Catholic League leader, Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, supplied the emperor with an army commanded by Count Tilly which crushed the rebellion in 1620 (Battle of White Mountain). In Bohemia a ruthless policy of reconversion, expulsion, and confiscation of Protestant property ensued. In 1521 Ferdinand gave Frederick's