1838-1933. German Lutheran biblical and patristic scholar. He taught at the universities of Göttingen (1868-77), Kiel (1877-78), Erlangen (1878-88 and 1892-1909), and Leipzig (1888-92). Though he was one of the greatest scholars of his day, he did not have the impact that he might have had, due possibly to his defense of orthodox theology in a day when this was far from popular and also to a tendency toward eccentricity in his exegesis. He was the author of many important monographs and commentaries, including twelve volumes on the canon of the NT (Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons, 2 vols., 1888-92; Forschungen zur Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons, 10 vols., 1881- 1920), seven commentaries (Matthew, 1903; Luke, 1913; John, 1908; Acts, 2 vols., 1919-21; Romans, 1910; Galatians, 1905; Revelation, 2 vols., 1924-26), and a massive introduction to the NT (2 vols., 1897-99; ET 3 vols., 1909). In addition he edited (with Harnack and von Gebhardt) the works of the (ed. major, 1875-78; ed. minor, 1877).