1847-1932. German Lutheran churchman. Elder brother of Julius Kaftan,* he was born in Loit, Schleswig, and educated at Erlangen, Berlin, and Kiel. He occupied various ecclesiastical posts in Schleswig, including general superintendent for the province (1886-1917). A strongly confessional Lutheran, he clashed with spokesmen for both the orthodox and neo-Protestant positions. He supported Lutheran ecumenism on the national and international levels and was a leading figure in the General Evangelical Lutheran Conference. He opposed Prussian attempts to Germanize North Schleswig, and sought to protect the Danish character in church life there. He disliked the church's growing dependence upon the state, and advocated the formation of an episcopalian territorial church. He was the author of numerous works in the field of practical theology.