The Son of Man

<hr />

<h2>OT and purported apocryphal sources.</h2>

In <bibleref ref="Ezek.2.1-Ezek.2.3">Ezekiel 2:1-3</bibleref> “Son of man” clearly designates “a child of Adam by descent” (Girdlestone, p. 46) as elsewhere in this prophecy where it occurs fifty-seven times. The designation in <bibleref ref="Ps.8.4">Psalm 8:4</bibleref>, from which the passage in Hebrews is quoted, appears to be applicable to both mortal man and Christ in His incarnate human identification with man. <bibleref ref="Ps.80.17">Psalm 80:17</bibleref>, an appeal, during the national decline, for a hero to appear and redeem Israel, may well have influenced Jesus’ Messianic consciousness (Stalker, ISBE, V, 2829).<br /><br />

The most important occurrence of the phrase “Son of man” is found in <bibleref ref="Dan.7.13">Daniel 7:13</bibleref>. There it may allude primarily to a personification of the ideal Israel or the saints of the Most High (Herbert G. May, IB, V, 76), but the deeper meaning appears to suggest a Messianic figure (see Kennedy, IB, VI, 461).

While some scholars would trace Jesus’ use of the term Son of man to the Apocryphal or Pseudepigraphical lit., esp. the <span class="auto-link">[[Book of Enoch]]</span>, this is categorically denied by both Strachan and Campbell. The notion of <span class="auto-link">[[Hans Lietzmann]]</span>, adopted by Wellhausen, that the title Son of man derived from the Aram. word <em>barnash</em>, Aram. being the language which they assumed Jesus spoke, and the word meaning vaguely “anyone” or “everyman,” was applied to Jesus in Asia Minor in the first half of the 2nd cent. and later incorporated into the gospels, is categorically denied by Stalker and Dalman, and later admitted by Wellhausen himself to be untenable (Stalker p. 2830).<br /><br />

In <bibleref ref="Dan.10.16">Daniel 10:16</bibleref>, <bibleref ref="Dan.10.18">18</bibleref> KJV we read of “one like the similitude of the sons of men &--;<em>like</em> an <em>Adam</em>, and yet not an <em>Adam</em>, because not yet incarnate” (Girdlestone, p. 47). The Heb. term <em>Enosh</em> is sometimes used as a parallel with <em>Ben-Adam</em>, the son of man (<bibleref ref="Job.25.6">Job 25:6</bibleref>; <bibleref ref="Ps.8.4">Pss 8:4</bibleref>; <bibleref ref="Ps.90.3">90:3</bibleref>; <bibleref ref="Ps.144.3">144:3</bibleref>; ibid. p. 50).<br /><br />

The Heb. word <span class="hebrew">גֶּ֫בֶר</span>, <span class="gknumber">H1505</span>, “man as a mighty being,” is used by Jeremiah in a special sense in what Girdlestone regards as a Messianic allusion. “...the Lord has created a new thing on the earth: a woman protects [‘encompass,’ ASV] a man”; “Literally, ‘a female shall compass (or enclose) a Mighty One’” (<bibleref ref="Jer.31.22">Jer 31:22</bibleref>; cf. <bibleref ref="Isa.7.14">Isa 7:14</bibleref>; ibid. p. 54).<br /><br />

<h2>NT use of the term Son of man.</h2>

<hr />

<hr />


A. Clarke, <em>The <span class="auto-link">[[New Testament]]</span> of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ</em>, I (n.d.), 532, 533; R. B. Girdlestone, <em>Synonyms of the <span class="auto-link">[[Old Testament]]</span></em> (1897), 45-47; K. Lake and F. J. Foakes-Jackson, <em>The Beginnings of Christianity</em>, I (1920), 368-384; C. H. Kraeling, <em>Anthropos and the <span class="auto-link">[[Son of Man]]</span></em> (1927); J. Stalker, ISBE, V (1939), 2829; H. B. Sharman, <em>Son of Man and <span class="auto-link">[[Kingdom of God]]</span></em> (1943); G. S. Duncan, <em>Jesus, Son of Man</em> (1947); S. E. Johnson, IB, VII (1951), 343, 344; W. F. Howard and A. J. Gossip, IB, VIII (1952), 507, 508; C. H Dodd, <em>The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel</em> (1953), 241-249; H. G. May, IB, VI (1956), 76; S. E. Johnson, IBD, IV (1962), 413-420; H. Lindsell, <em>Harper Study Bible</em> (1964), 1450.<br /><br />