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Synods of Quiercy

Several such assemblies were held in the ninth century. The first met in 838, when Florus,* a supporter of Agobard,* archbishop of Lyons, alleged that parts of Amalar of Metz's* book on liturgical ritual were heretical. At Quiercy, Amalar's interpretation of the ceremonies of the Mass was condemned. A second synod of Quiercy met in 849 to condemn the views on double predestination allegedly held by the Augustinian theologian Gottschalk,* a monk of Fulda. The local archbishop, Rabanus Maurus,* attacked Gottschalk's position, and the Council of Mainz (848) condemned Gottschalk. Through the efforts of Hincmar* of Reims the Synod of Quiercy confirmed this condemnation in 849, and Gottschalk was scourged, defrocked, and imprisoned. Hincmar discovered, however, that other noted scholars-Ratramnus* of Corbie, Lupus of Ferriers, and Prudentius* of Troyes-broadly supported Gottschalk's position. The latter's opponents, who themselves held Semi-Augustinian views, argued that he had made God the author of sin, but in fact his position is based on “prescience” and not on “pre-ordaining.”

At Charles the Bald's suggestion, Hincmar held a third synod at Quiercy in an effort to sort out the problem. Four propositions were passed: predestination to glory was accepted, and the reprobate, from not being helped, would go to hell through their own free choice; grace restores man's ability to do good; God desires to save all men; and Christ suffered for all men. These propositions were not universally accepted, and further synods subsequently met, including two at Quiercy (857- 58), in an effort to achieve a solution based on the moderate Augustinianism of the Council of Orange* (829).