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Shamgar

SHAMGAR shăm’ gär (שַׁמְגַּ֣ר; LXX Σαλεγάρ). The etymology of the Heb. Shamgar is uncertain but may come from the Hurrian Simiqari which occurs in Nuzi texts (cf. R. H. Pfeiffer and E. A. Speiser, AASOR, XVI [1936], 161, and B. Maisler, PEQ, LXVI [1934], 192-194). His identification as the “son of Anath” may mean that he came from Beth-anoth, possibly a city in Galilee or more likely a city a few m. N of Hebron (cf. Josh 15:59). Shamgar, who is noted for his activity mentioned in Judges 3:31, made a successful raid on the Philistines with an oxgoad, a metaltipped instrument which needed sharpening repeatedly (cf. W. F. Albright, “Excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim,” III, 33). The suggestions by C. Marston that “the oxgoad” was the name of a ship (The Bible is True [1934]), and by J. Garstang (Joshua-Judges [1931], 63 and 284ff.) that Shamgar was a Syrian sea captain allied with Ramses II are dubious. Although Shamgar may have been a Canaanite, he is listed among those who delivered