The designation since the seventeenth century of a largely monastic reaction against Augustine's* developed anti-Pelagianism, better called “Semi- Augustinianism.” In 426/7 monks at Hadrumetum in Byzacena (Susa in Tunisia) were alarmed that Augustine's Ep. 194 on predestination apparently undermined free will and hence monastic and missionary endeavor. After disappointing inquiries, a deputation visited Augustine, who produced Grace and Free Will and, when this seemed to invalidate moral correction, Rebuke and Grace (427). To Vitalis,* a Carthaginian monk who c.427 affirmed that the unaided will performed the initial act of faith, Augustine's Ep. 217 stressed the necessary preparation of the will by prevenient grace.
Widespread anxieties arose in S Gaul in the monasteries of Lérins (founded c.410 by Honoratus) and Marseilles.
After Augustine's death Prosper became his stalwart champion, replying seriatim to questions or objections raised by two Genoese presbyters, anonymous Gallic critics and probably
Semi-Pelagian beliefs remained dominant in Gaul.
At Constantinople in 519, Scythian monks led by John Maxentius inquired through Possessor, an African bishop then in Constantinople, about the orthodoxy of Faustus of Riez. Pope Hormisdas's* reply referred them to the Scriptures, councils, and Fathers, notably the later Augustine. The Scythians consulted refugee African bishops in Sardinia, where a synod condemned Faustus (523); and Fulgentius* of Ruspe wrote a lost refutation, which influenced
L. Loofs in Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche (3rd ed.), 18 (1906), pp.192-203; E. Amann in Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique 14 (1941), cols. 1796-1850; G. de Plinval in Histoire de l'église (ed. A. Fliche and V. Martin), 4 (1948); pp. 397-419; J. Chéné in Recherches de Science Religieuse 35 (1948), pp.566-88, and 43 (1955), pp.321-41, and L'Année Théologique August 13 (1953), pp.56-109; N.K. Chadwick, Poetry and Letters in Early Christian Gaul (1955); on Prosper's Augustinianism, R. Lorenz in Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 73 (1962), pp.217-52, and his authorship of the Pseudo-Augustine's Hypomnesticon Against the Pelagians and Celestians (ed. of J.E. Chisholm, vol. I, 1967).