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Scientology

Founded by Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (b.1911 in Nebraska), millionaire explorer and retired U.S. naval officer, the Church of Scientology of California teaches what it calls “an applied religious philosophy” aiming at “spiritual recovery and the increase of individual ability.” The methods of Scientology (originally called “Dianetics”) are claimed to be “technological,” and make extensive use of apparatus, elaborate types of classification, and an involved-frequently cryptic-quasi- scientific language in expounding the stages by which the individual may progress, under close guidance, toward total self- determination. Its basic concept is “survival,” and Scientology teaches the techniques by which the individual may “survive” most effectively.