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Teachers of philosophy and theology at the medieval European universities (“Schools”). They were the exponents of Scholasticism,* which developed after the Dark Ages, and which was concerned to systematize theology and to justify the claims of theology to reason. They discussed the Aristotelian logic and applied it to the doctrines of the church. Their chief method of teaching was known as “Dialectic”—i.e., investigating the truth of opinions by logical discussion. Prominent earlier Schoolmen include Anselm* and Abelard,* and after the thirteenth century many of the greatest came from the Mendicant Orders*—e.g., Thomas Aquinas* the Dominican, and Duns Scotus* the Franciscan.