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SECOND CENTURY. Gnostic. In the catalogs of earliest Gnostics and their systems, found in Justin Martyr and Irenaeus and repeated in Eusebius, Saturninus is the third named in the chain stemming from Simon Magus through Menander, and issuing in the further developments of Basilides, the Ophites, and Valentinus. The movement was already established in the late first century, and Saturninus can be dated no later than the first decades of the second. Like Menander he taught at Antioch, his teaching falling into the kind of pattern outlined in the Apocryphon of John, which originated in Greek but has been recovered from Coptic papyri. The material also shows an affinity to the kind of development stemming from the gospel of John, which found its earliest commentators in those same Gnostic circles (see Gnosticism).

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