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Ruthenian Churches

Name given to Uniate Churches* found mostly in Polish Galicia, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary, with colonies in North America. The name is simply a Latinized form of “Russian.” Sometimes they are known as “Ukrainians,” and occasionally as White Russians and Slovaks. Their ancestors, converts of Vladimir,* were part of the Russian Church under the metropolitan of Kiev until his expulsion after the Union of Florence (1443). Pope Pius II appointed a Roman Catholic metropolitan of Kiev (1485) who was permitted by Casimir IV of Poland to exercise jurisdiction over the eight eparchies of the province under the control of Poland and Lithuania. In the sixteenth century they reverted to Orthodoxy, but in 1595 the metropolitan of Kiev, with the bishops of Vladimir, Lutsk, Pololsk, Pinsk, and Kholn, sought communion with Rome, which was achieved by the Union of Brest-Litovsk (1595-96). They were joined by the bishops of Przemysl (1694) and Lvov (1700). Despite a decree of [[Urban VIII]] (1624),