One must distinguish between Rosicrucian ideas and Rosicrucian societies. The name derives from Christian Rosenkreuz (Rosycross), who is probably an allegorical figure (c.1378-1484). Between 1614 and 1616 four pamphlets described his travels in the East and his initiation into occult secrets. A Lutheran pastor, J.V. Andreae,* may have been the author of one or more. The pamphlets hinted at a Rosicrucian Fraternity with supernormal powers, but no such society can be traced, until in the eighteenth century several Rosicrucian groups were formed in Germany, Russia, and Poland. They were closely associated with Freemasonry,* and Masonic lodges still have an optional degree, established in 1845, known as the Rose Croix of Heredom, which includes the candidate's symbolic death and resurrection. In Britain this rite is Trinitarian and includes the reading of Isaiah 53. The American rite is given a wholly pagan interpretation.