1831-1904. Anglican primate of Canada. Born in Scotland, he was educated at the universities of Aberdeen and Cambridge, and after Anglican ordination and three years of travel returned to Sidney Sussex, Cambridge, as a dean, to which was added four years later the vicarage of Madingley (1862). In 1865 he was consecrated as the second bishop of Rupert's Land. His revival of St. John's (Anglican) College in Winnipeg (1866) was but a prelude to the establishment of the University of Manitoba (1877), of which he was first chancellor. In 1875 he became metropolitan of Western Canada, and in 1893 primate of All Canada, at which time, despite English reluctance, each of the two Canadian metropolitans received the designation of archbishop. These changes reflect the strong sense in which Machray helped the church in Canada pass from missionary status dependent on England to a self-sustaining independence indicative of the growing needs of the dominion.