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1851-1934. Scottish medical missionary. Born in Aberdeen, he qualified in arts, theology, and medicine by part-time study, and joined the Livingstonia Mission (1875) as medical officer and second-in-command. As leader after 1877, he founded stations at Bandawe (1881) and Livingstonia (1894) and helped to develop extensive work west of Lake Nyasa. He regarded evangelism, education, industrial training, and medical work as complementary aspects of the Christian mission and gave practical expression to this belief at Livingstonia, which he superintended from 1894 to 1927. His work here provided trained leaders for the autonomous African Church which he hoped to create. Laws was elected moderator of the in 1908, and was an unofficial member of the Nyasaland Legislative Assembly from 1912 to 1916.