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1157-1199. King of England from 1189. Known as Coeur-de-lion (“Lionheart”), he was a leader of the Third Crusade, together with Philip Augustus of France and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The latter died en route, and when Richard and Philip arrived by sea (1191), they found Guy of Lusignan besieging Acre and helped in its capture and the massacre of its inhabitants. Richard and Philip quarreled incessantly. They failed to capture Jerusalem, but Richard had a series of victories and made a treaty (1192) by which the Christians held the coastal cities as far south as Jaffa and were granted access to the Holy Places. Returning home, Richard was captured and held for ransom by Emperor Henry VI. He died in battle in France.