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Ramses, Ramesses

RAMSES, RAMESSES (râ-ăm’sēz). The most common royal Egyptian name in the Nineteenth and Twentieth dynasties. Ramses I was the founder of the Nineteenth Dynasty, but the most illustrious of the bearers of this name was his grandson, Ramses II. He was ambitious and imperious. He made a determined effort to recover the Asiatic Empire, but his errors in judgment in the Hittite encounter at Kadesh on the Orontes brought about a stalemate, which later produced an Egyptian-Hittite treaty. Ramses established his capital at Tanis, in the Delta, but his building and rebuilding activities extended throughout the land and even beyond Egypt proper. Among his impressive constructions are the completion of the hypostyle hall at Karnak, his father’s funerary temple at Abydos, his own temple at Abydos, the forecourt and pylon of the Luxor temple, the Ramesseum at the Theban necropolis, and Abu Simbel in Nubia. Extensive building operations were supplemented by his usurpations of monuments of his prede