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Plow, Plowshare

PLOW, PLOWSHARE (חָרַשׁ֒, H3086, to plow, till; אֵת֙, H908, hoe, plowshare; ἄροτρον, G770, a plow). An implement for tilling the soil. See Agriculture.

The noun אֵת֙, H908, as a tool for digging or grubbing may be roughly similar to a hoe or mattock. The expression “beat their swords into plowshares” (Isa 2:4; Mic 4:3; Joel 3:10) conveys the advent of peace with the resumption of agricultural pursuits. The Gr. ἄροτρον, G770, is found only in Luke 9:62 and appears to mean the whole implement.

The verb חָרַשׁ֒, H3086, means “to plow” or “to engrave.” It is applied literally (Deut 22:10; 1 Kings 19:19; and Prov 20:4), and fig. (Job 4:8; Hosea 10:13). Plowing the sea is an example of the absurd (Amos 6:12). In the time of David, iron plows were in wide use.