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Pius XI

Pope from 1922. Born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, he earned three doctorates and before election as pope was archbishop of Milan. He significantly advanced Catholic formulation of the church’s role in the secular post-World War I era. With the Lateran Treaties (1922), the long and complex question of the end of papal temporal power (1859-61, 1870) attained new status and apparently a conclusion: by mutual agreement between the papacy and Mussolini’s Italy, the State of [[Vatican City]] was established, a Vatican-Italian concordat was signed, and Italy paid the Vatican a substantial indemnity. For Mussolini, the pact won initial Catholic support of his emerging totalitarian regime, while it gave the Vatican the independence it had sought.