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Pius X

1835-1914. Pope from 1903. Born Giuseppi Melchiorre Sarto, he became bishop of Mantua in 1884 and patriarch of Venice in 1893. He devoted his pontificate to the continuing spiritual purification of the Catholic Church. His struggle against Catholic modernism in the writings of Loisy,* Houtin, and others, led to its condemnation in the encyclical Pieni l'animo (1906), in a sixty-five point summary of its errors (1907), and finally in the requirement that clergy takes an oath against modernism (1910). He followed Leo XIII in recommending Thomism as the Catholic philosophy (1910) and founded the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome (1909). He showed some favor to Bernigni's League of St. Pius V, which professed Integralism, but condemned, graciously, Charles Maurras and [[Action Française]]* (1926). To strengthen the faith of ordinary believers, threatened as he saw them by modernism, he promoted renewal in worship and personal devotion: he provided for enhancement of the church's music,