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1861-1929. Roman Catholic scholar. Born at Toulouse, he studied at the Seminaire de St. Sulpice under the Abbé Duchesne.* For two years he worked in Rome, collaborating in the publication of Melanges d'Archaeologie et d'Histoire, dealing with papal history. In 1888 he was appointed to teach at the Collège Ste Barbe in Paris, where he worked for the next decade. Afterward he became recteur of L'Institut Catholique de Toulouse. During the time since his residence in Rome he was constantly doing research and writing on Roman Catholic history. He took a strong stand against modernism, but his book on the Eucharist was placed on the Index,* and although he made required corrections he found it necessary to leave Toulouse for Paris. He later took part with Cardinal Mercier at the conversations at Malines,* and in 1928 represented the pope at the International Historical Congress. He died in Paris.